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Impaired nitric oxide (NO) vasodilation (endothelial dysfunction) is associated with obesity and thought to be a factor in the development of hypertension. We previously found that NO synthesis inhibition had similar pressor effects in obese hypertensives compared with healthy control during autonomic blockade, suggesting that impaired NO vasodilation is secondary to sympathetic activation. We tested this hypothesis by determining the effect of autonomic blockade (trimethaphan 4 mg/min IV) on NO-mediated vasodilation (increase in forearm blood flow to intrabrachial acetylcholine) compared with endothelial-independent vasodilation (intrabrachial sodium nitroprusside) in obese hypertensive subjects (30© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Vein graft intimal hyperplasia remains the leading cause of graft failure, despite many pharmacological approaches that have failed to translate to human therapy. We investigated whether local suppression of inflammation and fibrosis with MMI-0100, a novel peptide inhibitor of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activated Protein Kinase II (MK2), would be an alternative strategy to reduce cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. The cell permeant peptide MMI-0100 was synthesized using standard Fmoc chemistry. Pharmacological doses of MMI-0100 induced minimal human endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation (30% and 12% respectively). MMI-0100 suppressed IL-6 expression to control levels, without effect on IL-8 expression. MMI-0100 caused sodium nitroprusside induced smooth muscle cell relaxation and inhibited intimal thickening in human saphenous vein rings in a dose-dependent fashion. In a murine aortic bypass model, MMI-0100 reduced intimal thickness in vein grafts by 72%, and there were fewer F4/80-reactive cells in vein grafts treated with MMI-0100. MMI-0100 prevents vein graft intimal thickening ex vivo and in vivo. These results suggest that inhibition of MK2 with the cell-permeant peptide MMI-0100 may be a novel strategy to suppress fibrotic processes such as vein graft disease.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids are potent vasodilators in preclinical models and are hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2). Associations between the EPHX2 Lys55Arg and Arg287Gln polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease risk have been reported; however, their impact on vascular function in humans has not been investigated. In 265 volunteers (198 white, 67 black American), forearm blood flow was measured by strain-gauge venous occlusion plethysmography at baseline and in response to bradykinin, methacholine, and sodium nitroprusside. Forearm vascular resistance was calculated as mean arterial pressure/forearm blood flow. In white Americans, Lys55Arg genotype was associated with vasodilator response to bradykinin, such that forearm blood flow was significantly lower (P = 0.043) and forearm vascular resistance was significantly higher (P = 0.013) in Arg55 variant allele carriers compared to wild-type individuals. Significant associations were also observed with methacholine and sodium nitroprusside. In contrast, no relationship was observed in black Americans. In black Americans, Arg287Gln genotype was associated with vasodilator response to bradykinin. Although the difference in forearm blood flow did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.058), forearm vascular resistance was significantly lower (P = 0.037) in Gln287 variant allele carriers compared to wild-type individuals. Significant associations were also observed with methacholine and sodium nitroprusside. In white Americans, Gln287 variant allele carriers did not exhibit significantly higher forearm blood flow (P = 0.128) or lower forearm vascular resistance (P = 0.080). Genetic variation in EPHX2 is associated with forearm vasodilator responses in a bradykinin receptor- and endothelium-independent manner, suggesting an important role for soluble epoxide hydrolase in the regulation of vascular function in humans.
Bradykinin, a potent vasodilator, stimulates the formation of reactive oxygen species and F(2)-isoprostanes in vitro. The effect of bradykinin on oxidative stress in humans is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that bradykinin induces oxidative stress through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism in the human vasculature. We measured forearm blood flow (FBF) and net F(2)-isoprostane release in response to intraarterial bradykinin (50-200 ng/min), nitroprusside (1.6-6.4 microg/min), or diltiazem (3.6-14.4 microg/min) in the absence and presence of the NO synthase inhibitor N(omega)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) in normotensive and hypertensive subjects pretreated with aspirin. L-NMMA significantly decreased basal FBF and basal net F(2)-isoprostane release (from 28.7+/-5.2 to 13.4+/-3.5 pg/min/100ml, P=0.01) in all subjects. Bradykinin caused a significant increase in FBF and net F(2)-isoprostane release in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. During NO synthase inhibition, bradykinin significantly increased net F(2)-isoprostane release in both groups (P=0.001) and there was no effect of L-NMMA on bradykinin-stimulated F(2)-isoprostane release (P=0.46). Nitroprusside also significantly increased net F(2)-isoprostane release in hypertensive subjects (P=0.01) and this response was not affected by L-NMMA (P=0.50). Diltiazem increased FBF as well as net F(2)-isoprostane release (from 44.5+/-12.5 to 61.2+/-14.7 pg/min/100ml at the highest dose, P=0.05). Increasing blood flow induces oxidative stress through a NO- and endothelium-independent mechanism.
Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a higher incidence of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease than uninfected individuals. Recent reports have demonstrated that viral proteins upregulate reactive oxygen species, which may contribute to elevated cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 patients. In this study we employed an HIV-1 transgenic rat model to investigate the physiological effects of viral protein expression on the vasculature. Markers of oxidative stress in wild-type and HIV-1 transgenic rats were measured using electron spin resonance, fluorescence microscopy, and various molecular techniques. Relaxation studies were completed on isolated aortic rings, and mRNA and protein were collected to measure changes in expression of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide sources. HIV-1 transgenic rats displayed significantly less NO-hemoglobin, serum nitrite, serum S-nitrosothiols, aortic tissue NO, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation than wild-type rats. NO reduction was not attributed to differences in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein expression, eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation, or tetrahydrobiopterin availability. Aortas from HIV-1 transgenic rats had higher levels of superoxide and 3-nitrotyrosine but did not differ in expression of superoxide-generating sources NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. However, transgenic aortas displayed decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Administering the glutathione precursor procysteine decreased superoxide, restored aortic NO levels and NO-hemoglobin, and improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in HIV-1 transgenic rats. These results show that HIV-1 protein expression decreases NO and causes endothelial dysfunction. Diminished antioxidant capacity increases vascular superoxide levels, which reduce NO bioavailability and promote peroxynitrite generation. Restoring glutathione levels reverses HIV-1 protein-mediated effects on superoxide, NO, and vasorelaxation.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition potentiates basal and bradykinin-stimulated tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release to a greater extent in women than in men. This study tested the hypothesis that 17beta-estradiol enhances the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on t-PA release in young postmenopausal women. We conducted a double-blind, prospective, crossover study in 14 young postmenopausal women (mean age 48.2+/-2.3 years) who were randomized to receive 17beta-estradiol (1 mg/d) or matching placebo for 4 weeks. At the end of each treatment period, we measured the effect of intraarterial infusion of bradykinin, methacholine, and nitroprusside on forearm blood flow and net t-PA release, before and during intraarterial enalaprilat (0.33 microg/min/100 mL forearm volume). 17Beta-estradiol significantly reduced baseline venous plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen (4.4+/-1.4 versus 10.4+/-2.5 ng/mL, P=0.001) and t-PA antigen (5.5+/-0.6 versus 7.5+/-1.3 ng/mL, P=0.022) compared with placebo. 17Beta-estradiol increased basal forearm vascular release of active t-PA compared with placebo (1.2+/-0.3 IU/mL/min versus 0.4+/-0.1 IU/mL/min respectively, P=0.032), without increasing t-PA antigen release (P=0.761). Enalaprilat significantly increased basal net t-PA antigen release (from -0.8+/-1.0 to 3.2+/-1.2 ng/min/100 mL, P=0.012), but not the release of active t-PA, during either placebo or 17beta-estradiol. Enalaprilat potentiated bradykinin-stimulated vasodilation and t-PA antigen and activity release similarly during placebo and 17beta-estradiol treatment. 17Beta-estradiol treatment does not alter the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on basal t-PA antigen or on bradykinin-stimulated t-PA antigen or activity release. 17Beta-estradiol increases basal release of active t-PA in young postmenopausal women, consistent with enhanced vascular fibrinolytic function.
To test the hypothesis that the bradykinin receptor 2 (BDKRB2) BE1+9/-9 polymorphism affects vascular responses to bradykinin, we measured the effect of intra-arterial bradykinin on forearm blood flow and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release in 89 normotensive, nonsmoking, white American subjects in whom degradation of bradykinin was blocked by enalaprilat. BE1 genotype frequencies were +9/+9:+9/-9:-9/-9=19:42:28. BE1 genotype was associated with systolic blood pressure (121.4+/-2.8, 113.8+/-1.8, and 110.6+/-1.8 mm Hg in +9/+9, +9/-9, and -9/-9 groups, respectively; P=0.007). In the absence of enalaprilat, bradykinin-stimulated forearm blood flow, forearm vascular resistance, and net t-PA release were similar among genotype groups. Enalaprilat increased basal forearm blood flow (P=0.002) and decreased basal forearm vascular resistance (P=0.01) without affecting blood pressure. Enalaprilat enhanced the effect of bradykinin on forearm blood flow, forearm vascular resistance, and t-PA release (all P<0.001). During enalaprilat, forearm blood flow was significantly lower and forearm vascular resistance was higher in response to bradykinin in the +9/+9 compared with +9/-9 and -9/-9 genotype groups (P=0.04 for both). t-PA release tended to be decreased in response to bradykinin in the +9/+9 group (P=0.08). When analyzed separately by gender, BE1 genotype was associated with bradykinin-stimulated t-PA release in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-treated men but not women (P=0.02 and P=0.77, respectively), after controlling for body mass index. There was no effect of BE1 genotype on responses to the bradykinin type 2 receptor-independent vasodilator methacholine during enalaprilat. In conclusion, the BDKRB2 BE1 polymorphism influences bradykinin type 2 receptor-mediated vasodilation during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.
We examined the effect of -58 C/T and BE1 +9/-9 polymorphisms in the bradykinin B2 receptor gene on forearm vascular resistance (FVR) before and during intrabrachial artery infusion of the B2 receptor-, endothelium-dependent agonist bradykinin and the endothelium-independent agonist sodium nitroprusside in 228 normotensive subjects. In 166 white Americans, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure were highest in the BE1 +9/+9 group (118+/-2 and 51+/-2 mm Hg, respectively; P<0.05 versus -9/-9 for either), intermediate in the +9/-9 group (114+/-1 and 49+/-1 mm Hg, P<0.05 versus -9/-9 for pulse pressure), and lowest in the -9/-9 group (110+/-2 and 44+/-2 mm Hg). In 62 black Americans, FVR was 25% higher in the BE1 +9/+9 group compared with the BE1 +9/-9 and -9/-9 groups at baseline (P=0.038) or during bradykinin (P=0.03). Increased SBP or vascular resistance may contribute to increased left ventricular mass reported previously in individuals with the BE1+9/+9 genotype.
OBJECTIVE - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) increases vascular tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release through endogenous bradykinin (BK). We tested the hypothesis that gender influences the effect of ACEI on t-PA release.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We measured the effect of intra-arterial enalaprilat (0.33 microg/min per 100 mL forearm volume) on forearm blood flow (FBF) and net t-PA release before and during BK (25 to 400 ng/min) and methacholine (3.2 to 12.8 microg/min) in premenopausal women, postmenopausal women not using hormone replacement, young men, and older men. Baseline net t-PA release was similar among groups. Enalaprilat increased basal t-PA release in premenopausal (from 0.9+/-1.0 to 5.1+/-1.7 ng/min per 100 mL, P=0.023) and postmenopausal women (from -3.9+/-2.2 to 3.9+/-1.1 ng/min per 100 mL, P=0.010) but not in young or older men (P=0.028 men versus women). Enalaprilat potentiated the effect of exogenous BK on FBF similarly in all groups. However, during enalaprilat, BK-stimulated t-PA release was greatest in premenopausal women (339.9+/-86.4 ng/min per 100 mL at the 100 ng/min dose, P<0.05 versus any other group), intermediate in postmenopausal women (243.8+/-51.1 ng/min per 100 mL, P<0.05 versus either male group), and least in young (111.9+/-19.2 ng/min/100 mL) and older men (103.4+/-27.6 ng/min/100 mL).
CONCLUSIONS - ACEI enhances basal t-PA release in women, independent of menopausal status, but not in men. During ACEI, both gender and menopausal status affect BK stimulated t-PA release.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - The combination of dipyridamole and aspirin has been shown to be more effective than aspirin alone in the secondary prevention of stroke. Dipyridamole may act by inhibiting adenosine uptake, thus potentiating its actions. Dipyridamole also inhibits cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE) and, through this mechanism, could potentiate cGMP-mediated actions of nitric oxide.
METHODS - To define the mechanism of action of dipyridamole, we studied the local vascular effects of adenosine, acetylcholine (NO-mediated dilation), and nitroprusside (cGMP-mediated dilation) in a double-blind study after treatment with dipyridamole/aspirin (200 mg dipyridamole/25 mg aspirin twice a day) or aspirin control for 7 days in 6 normal volunteers. Vasodilators were administered into the brachial artery in the nondominant arm in random order and forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography.
RESULTS - Adenosine at a dosage of 125 mug/min increased FBF from 4.6+/-0.9 to 29.4+/-5.3 (539% increase) with dipyridamole/aspirin and from 3.9+/-0.8 to 12+/-2.5 mL/100 mL forearm/min (208% increase) with aspirin alone (P=0.007). In contrast, dipyridamole/aspirin did not alter the response to acetylcholine or to nitroprusside. The magnitude of adenosine-induced vasodilation correlated with plasma dipyridamole concentrations (r2=0.6); no correlation was observed with acetylcholine- or nitroprusside-induced vasodilation. Similar potentiation of adenosine, but not acetylcholine or nitroprusside, was observed in 7 additional subjects when adenosine, acetylcholine, and nitroprusside were given in random order before and 2 hours after a single dose of dipyridamole/aspirin.
CONCLUSIONS - The effects of dipyridamole on resistance vessels are preferentially explained by potentiation of adenosine mechanisms rather than potentiation of nitric oxide or other cGMP-mediated actions.