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Nitrite undergoes reconversion to nitric oxide under conditions characteristic of the tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia and low pH. This selective conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide in tumor tissue has led to the possibility of using nitrite to enhance drug delivery and the radiation response. In this work, we propose to serially characterize the vascular response of brain tumor-bearing rats to nitrite using contrast-enhanced R2 * mapping. Imaging is performed using a multi-echo gradient echo sequence at baseline, post iron oxide nanoparticle injection and post-nitrite injection, whilst the animal is breathing air. The results indicate that nitrite sufficiently increases the vascular permeability in C6 gliomas, such that the iron oxide nanoparticles accumulate within the tumor tissue. When animals breathed 100% oxygen, the contrast agent remained within the vasculature, indicating that the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide occurs in the presence of hypoxia within the tumor. The hypoxia-dependent, nitrite-induced extravasation of iron oxide nanoparticles observed herein has implications for the enhancement of conventional and nanotherapeutic drug delivery.
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nitrate and nitrite are precursors of endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds (NOC), known animal carcinogens. Nitrosation reactions forming NOCs can be inhibited by vitamin C and other antioxidants. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a cohort of 73,118 women ages 40-70 residing in Shanghai. We evaluated effect modification by factors that affect endogenous formation of NOCs: vitamin C (at or above/below median) and red meat intake (at or above/below median). Nitrate, nitrite and other dietary intakes were estimated from a 77-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Over a mean of 11 years of follow-up, we identified 619 colorectal cancer cases (n = 383, colon; n = 236, rectum). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Overall, nitrate intake was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.73-1.59). However, among women with vitamin C intake below the median (83.9 mg day(-1) ) and hence higher potential exposure to NOCs, risk of colorectal cancer increased with increasing quintiles of nitrate intake (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.15-5.18; p trend = 0.02). There was no association among women with higher vitamin C intake. We found no association between nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer overall or by intake level of vitamin C. Our findings suggest that high dietary nitrate intake among subgroups expected to have higher exposure to endogenously formed NOCs increases risk of colorectal cancer.
© 2013 UICC.
Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds and nitrate can disrupt thyroid homeostasis by inhibiting iodide uptake. We evaluated nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of thyroid cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study that included 73,317 women, aged 40-70 years enrolled in 1996-2000. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. During approximately 11 years of follow-up, 164 incident thyroid cancer cases with complete dietary information were identified. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RRs). We determined the nitrate and nitrite contents of foods using values from the published literature and focusing on regional values for Chinese foods. Nitrate intake was not associated with thyroid cancer risk [RR(Q4) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-2.07; p for trend = 0.40]. Compared to the lowest quartile, women with the highest dietary nitrite intake had about a twofold risk of thyroid cancer (RR(Q4) = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.20-3.51), but there was not a monotonic trend with increasing intake (p for trend = 0.36). The trend with increasing nitrite intake from animal sources was significant (p for trend = 0.02) and was stronger for nitrite from processed meats (RR(Q4) = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.28-2.99; p for trend < 0.01). Although we did not observe an association for nitrate as hypothesized, our results suggest that women consuming higher levels of nitrite from animal sources, particularly from processed meat, may have an increased risk of thyroid cancer.
Copyright © 2012 UICC.
The female sex has been associated with increased resistance to acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. While enhanced antioxidant capacity has been implicated in female cardioprotection, there is little evidence to support this assumption. Previous studies have shown an important role of cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) in protection of the myocardium from I/R injury. Whether GPx1 is mechanistic in the protection of female myocardium, post-I/R, has not been examined. We utilized a murine model with homozygous deletion of GPx1 and examined its impact on postischemic myocardial recovery in male and female mice. Following I/R, male GPx1(-/-) hearts were more susceptible to contractile and diastolic dysfunction, and this was associated with increased protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. In contrast, GPx1 deficiency in female hearts did not exacerbate dysfunction or oxidative stress post-I/R. Both wild-type and GPx1(-/-) female hearts exhibited reduced creatine kinase leakage and a more favorable ascorbate redox status compared with males. Following I/R, female GPx1(-/-) hearts showed a comparable decrease in glutathione redox status as their male counterparts; however, they exhibited a greater decrease in nitrate-to-nitrite ratio, suggesting a higher consumption of nitrate in female GPx1(-/-) hearts. Our findings demonstrate that GPx1 is critical for cardioprotection during I/R in male, but not female, mice. The maintenance of cardioprotection in female mice lacking GPx1 post-I/R may be due to an improved ascorbate redox homeostasis and enhanced nitrate-to-nitrite conversion, which would predictably be accompanied by enhanced production of cardioprotective nitric oxide.
Quercetin is a flavonoid compound that has been demonstrated to be a potent antioxidant in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate if quercetin ingestion would increase plasma antioxidant measures and attenuate increases in exercise-induced oxidative damage. Forty athletes were recruited and randomized to quercetin or placebo. Subjects consumed 1000 mg quercetin or placebo each day for 6 weeks before and during 3 d of cycling at 57% work maximum for 3 h. Blood was collected before and immediately after exercise each day, and analyzed for F2-isoprostanes, nitrite, ferric-reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and C-reactive protein. Statistical analyses involved a 2 (treatment) x 6 (times) repeated measures analysis of variance to test main effects. F2-isoprostanes, nitrite, ferric-reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and C-reactive protein were significantly elevated as a result of exercise, but no group effects were found. Despite previous data demonstrating potent antioxidant actions of quercetin in vitro, this study indicates that this effect is absent in vivo and that chronic quercetin ingestion does not exert protection from exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.
Heart failure remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although depressed pump function is common, development of effective therapies to stimulate contraction has proven difficult. This is thought to be attributable to their frequent reliance on cAMP stimulation to increase activator Ca(2+). A potential alternative is nitroxyl (HNO), the 1-electron reduction product of nitric oxide (NO) that improves contraction and relaxation in normal and failing hearts in vivo. The mechanism for myocyte effects remains unknown. Here, we show that this activity results from a direct interaction of HNO with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump and the ryanodine receptor 2, leading to increased Ca(2+) uptake and release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. HNO increases the open probability of isolated ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+)-release channels and accelerates Ca(2+) reuptake into isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum by stimulating ATP-dependent Ca(2+) transport. Contraction improves with no net rise in diastolic calcium. These changes are not induced by NO, are fully reversible by addition of reducing agents (redox sensitive), and independent of both cAMP/protein kinase A and cGMP/protein kinase G signaling. Rather, the data support HNO/thiolate interactions that enhance the activity of intracellular Ca(2+) cycling proteins. These findings suggest HNO donors are attractive candidates for the pharmacological treatment of heart failure.
Microsomal prostaglandin (PG) E synthase (mPGES)-1 is an inducible enzyme that acts downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) and specifically catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin (PG)H2 to PGE2, most prominently in inflammatory conditions. Specific inhibitors of mPGES-1 are not yet available, however, mice with genetic deletion of mPGES-1 have been generated that have given insight into the specific role of mPGES-1 in eicosanoid biosynthesis in vivo and in peritoneal macrophages. We created mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cell lines that would facilitate investigation of the effect of mPGES-1 genetic deletion on prostanoid biosynthesis in fibroblast lineage cells and its subsequent effect on the expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) and nitrite biosynthesis using cells derived from mPGES-1 wild-type (WT), heterozygous (Het), and null mice. The results show that genetic deletion of mPGES-1 results in a dramatic decrease in PGE2 production in Het and null MEFs under basal conditions and after stimulation with interleukin (IL)-1beta, suggesting that mPGES-1 is critically important for PGE2 production. Furthermore, we show that mPGES-1 gene deletion results in diversion of prostanoid production from PGE2 to 6-keto PGF1alpha (the stable metabolic product of PGI2; prostacyclin) in a gene dose-dependent manner in Het and null MEFs compared with their WT counterparts, suggesting a shunting phenomenon within the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway. In addition, we show that mPGES-1 gene deletion and subsequent decrease in PGE2 levels results in a differential induction profile of iNOS and nitrite levels (the stable breakdown product of nitric oxide (NO) in mPGES-1 WT MEFs compared with null MEFs. These results provide important information regarding the therapeutic potential for pharmacologic inhibition of mPGES-1 in inflammatory conditions.
We report on developmental changes of pulmonary and systemic nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in a baboon model of chronic lung disease with or without exposure to inhaled NO. The plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate, staining for S-nitrosothiols and 3-nitrotyrosine in the large airways, increased between 125 d and 140 d of gestation (term 185 d) in animals developing in utero. The developmental increase in NO-mediated protein modifications was not interrupted by delivery at 125 d of gestation and mechanical ventilation for 14 d, whereas plasma nitrite and nitrate levels increased in this model. Exposure to inhaled NO resulted in a further increase in plasma nitrite and nitrate and an increase in plasma S-nitrosothiol without altering lung NO synthase expression. These data demonstrate a developmental progression in levels of pulmonary NO metabolites that parallel known maturational increases in total NO synthase activity in the lung. Despite known suppression of total pulmonary NO synthase activity in the chronic lung disease model, pulmonary and systemic NO metabolite levels are higher than in the developmental control animals. Thus, a deficiency in NO production and biological function in the premature baboon was not apparent by the detection and quantification of these surrogate markers of NO production.
Although both inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of many disease states, the interaction between the two is poorly understood. Cyclopentenone isoprostanes (IsoPs), highly reactive structural isomers of the bioactive cyclopentenone prostaglandins PGA2 and PGJ2, are formed non-enzymatically as products of oxidative stress in vivo. We have, for the first time, examined the effects of synthetic 15-A2- and 15-J2-IsoPs, two groups of endogenous cyclopentenone IsoPs, on the inflammatory response in RAW264.7 and primary murine macrophages. Cyclopentenone IsoPs potently inhibited lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IkappaB alpha degradation and subsequent NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. Expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were also inhibited by cyclopentenone IsoPs as was nitrite and prostaglandin production (IC50 approximately 360 and 210 nM, respectively). 15-J2-IsoPs potently activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) nuclear receptors, whereas 15-A2-IsoP did not, although the anti-inflammatory effects of both molecules were PPARgamma-independent. Interestingly 15-A2-IsoPs induced oxidative stress in RAW cells that was blocked by the antioxidant 4-hydroxy-TEMPO (TEMPOL) or the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone. TEMPOL also abrogated the inhibitory effect of 15-A2-IsoPs on lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB activation, inducible nitricoxide synthase expression, and nitrite production, suggesting that 15-A2-IsoPs inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway at least partially via a redox-dependent mechanism. 15-J2-IsoP, but not 15-A2-IsoP, also potently induced RAW cell apoptosis again via a PPAR gamma-independent mechanism. These findings suggest that cyclopentenone IsoPs may serve as negative feedback regulators of inflammation and have important implications for defining the role of oxidative stress in the inflammatory response.
One of the phenotypes of mice with targeted disruption of the uncoupling protein-2 gene (Ucp2-/-) is greater macrophage phagocytic activity and free radical production, resulting in a striking resistance to infectious microorganisms. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of this enhanced immune response were investigated. We found that levels of nitric oxide measured in either plasma or isolated macrophages from Ucp2-/- mice are significantly elevated in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide challenge compared with similarly treated Ucp2+/+ mice. Likewise, expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase and inflammatory cytokines is higher in Ucp2-/- mice in vivo and in vitro. Key steps in the activation cascade of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B, including I kappa B kinase and nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B subunits, are all remarkably enhanced in Ucp2-/- mice, most notably even under basal conditions. The elevated basal activity of I kappa B kinase in macrophages from Ucp2-/- mice can be blocked by cell-permeable inhibitors of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation, but not by a specific inhibitor for inducible nitric-oxide synthase. Isolated mitochondria from Ucp2-/- cells produced more superoxide/hydrogen peroxide. We conclude that mitochrondrially derived reactive oxygen from Ucp2-/- cells constitutively activates NF-kappa B, resulting in a "primed" state to both potentiate and amplify the inflammatory response upon subsequent stimulation.