The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
BACKGROUND - Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described.
METHODS - We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA = 931, nAA = 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14,210, nAA = 2,480) and had systolic BP/diastolic BP < 140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5,266, nAA = 1,817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg), while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL.
RESULTS - The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P = 1.1 × 10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P = 1.5 × 10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278, odds ratio = 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.6-0.8)). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls.
CONCLUSION - This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.
© American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2019. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) orchestrates host antiviral innate immune response to RNA virus infection. However, how MAVS signaling is controlled to eradicate virus while preventing self-destructive inflammation remains obscure. Here, we show that protein geranylgeranylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, limits MAVS-mediated immune signaling by targeting Rho family small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1 into the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) at the mitochondria-ER junction. Protein geranylgeranylation and subsequent palmitoylation promote Rac1 translocation into MAMs upon viral infection. MAM-localized Rac1 limits MAVS' interaction with E3 ligase Trim31 and hence inhibits MAVS ubiquitination, aggregation, and activation. Rac1 also facilitates the recruitment of caspase-8 and cFLIP to the MAVS signalosome and the subsequent cleavage of Ripk1 that terminates MAVS signaling. Consistently, mice with myeloid deficiency of protein geranylgeranylation showed improved survival upon influenza A virus infection. Our work revealed a critical role of protein geranylgeranylation in regulating antiviral innate immune response.
The brain of the crocodile is known to gain in mass allometrically throughout life, and the addition of neurons (as well as non-neurons) appears to play a significant role in this increasing brain mass. We used immunohistochemistry in the brains of 12 Nile crocodiles ranging between 350 g and 86 kg in body mass and 1.99 g to 7.9 g in brain mass to identify the regions of the brain in which neurons immunopositive for doublecortin (DCX), a marker for potential adult neurogenesis, are found. Similar to other reptiles, potential newly born neurons, those immunopositive for DCX, were found throughout the telencephalon, the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and the olfactory tract, and in the cerebellar cortex; however, no DCX immunopositive neurons were observed in the diencephalon or brainstem. An apparent moderate decrease in the density of DCX labeled neurons in the olfactory bulbs and tract as well as the cerebellar cortex was observed with increasing brain mass, but the observed qualitative density of labeled neurons within the telencephalon was maintained irrespective of brain mass. Three potential neurogenic zones, within the sulci of the lateral ventricle, were identified, and these are similar to those seen in other reptiles. This study indicates that at least part of the gain in brain mass with age in the Nile crocodile may be accounted for by the potential addition and integration of new neurons into the existing circuitry, especially so for the olfactory system, telencephalon and cerebellar cortex. Anat Rec, 301:659-672, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Arrestins recruit a variety of signaling proteins to active phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors in the plasma membrane and to the cytoskeleton. Loss of arrestins leads to decreased cell migration, altered cell shape, and an increase in focal adhesions. Small GTPases of the Rho family are molecular switches that regulate actin cytoskeleton and affect a variety of dynamic cellular functions including cell migration and cell morphology. Here we show that non-visual arrestins differentially regulate RhoA and Rac1 activity to promote cell spreading via actin reorganization, and focal adhesion formation via two distinct mechanisms. Arrestins regulate these small GTPases independently of G-protein-coupled receptor activation.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Apicobasal polarity is known to affect epithelial morphogenesis and cell differentiation, but it remains unknown how these processes are mechanistically orchestrated. We find that ligand-specific EGFR signalling via PI(3)K and Rac1 autonomously modulates apicobasal polarity to enforce the sequential control of morphogenesis and cell differentiation. Initially, EGF controls pancreatic tubulogenesis by negatively regulating apical polarity induction. Subsequently, betacellulin, working via inhibition of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), causes apical domain constriction within neurogenin3 endocrine progenitors, which results in reduced Notch signalling, increased neurogenin3 expression, and β-cell differentiation. Notably, the ligand-specific EGFR output is not driven at the ligand level, but seems to have evolved in response to stage-specific epithelial influences. The EGFR-mediated control of β-cell differentiation via apical polarity is also conserved in human neurogenin3 cells. We provide insight into how ligand-specific EGFR signalling coordinates epithelial morphogenesis and cell differentiation via apical polarity dynamics.
Neuromodulators shape neural circuit dynamics. Combining electron microscopy, genetics, transcriptome profiling, calcium imaging, and optogenetics, we discovered a peptidergic neuron that modulates motor circuit dynamics. The Six/SO-family homeobox transcription factor UNC-39 governs lineage-specific neurogenesis to give rise to a neuron RID. RID bears the anatomic hallmarks of a specialized endocrine neuron: it harbors near-exclusive dense core vesicles that cluster periodically along the axon, and expresses multiple neuropeptides, including the FMRF-amide-related FLP-14. RID activity increases during forward movement. Ablating RID reduces the sustainability of forward movement, a phenotype partially recapitulated by removing FLP-14. Optogenetic depolarization of RID prolongs forward movement, an effect reduced in the absence of FLP-14. Together, these results establish the role of a neuroendocrine cell RID in sustaining a specific behavioral state in .
The regulator of G protein signaling 10 (RGS10) protein is a GTPase activating protein that accelerates the hydrolysis of GTP and therefore canonically inactivates G proteins, ultimately terminating signaling. Rheb is a small GTPase protein that shuttles between its GDP- and GTP-bound forms to activate mTOR. Since RGS10 suppression augments ovarian cancer cell viability, we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism. Following RGS10 suppression in serum-free conditions, phosphorylation of mTOR, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), p70S6K and S6 Ribosomal Protein appear. Furthermore, suppressing RGS10 increases activated Rheb, suggesting RGS10 antagonizes mTOR signaling via the small G-protein. The effects of RGS10 suppression are enhanced after stimulating cells with the growth factor, lysophosphatidic acid, and reduced with mTOR inhibitors, temsirolimus and INK-128. Suppression of RGS10 leads to an increase in cell proliferation, even in the presence of etoposide. In summary, the RGS10 suppression increases Rheb-GTP and mTOR signaling in ovarian cancer cells. Our results suggest that RGS10 could serve in a novel, and previously unknown, role by accelerating the hydrolysis of GTP from Rheb in ovarian cancer cells.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akt phosphorylation is a major driver of cell survival, motility, and proliferation in development and disease, causing increased interest in upstream regulators of Akt like mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). We used genetic disruption of Rictor to impair mTORC2 activity in mouse mammary epithelia, which decreased Akt phosphorylation, ductal length, secondary branching, cell motility, and cell survival. These effects were recapitulated with a pharmacological dual inhibitor of mTORC1/mTORC2, but not upon genetic disruption of mTORC1 function via Raptor deletion. Surprisingly, Akt re-activation was not sufficient to rescue cell survival or invasion, and modestly increased branching of mTORC2-impaired mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in culture and in vivo. However, another mTORC2 substrate, protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, fully rescued mTORC2-impaired MEC branching, invasion, and survival, as well as branching morphogenesis in vivo. PKC-alpha-mediated signaling through the small GTPase Rac1 was necessary for mTORC2-dependent mammary epithelial development during puberty, revealing a novel role for Rictor/mTORC2 in MEC survival and motility during branching morphogenesis through a PKC-alpha/Rac1-dependent mechanism.
Adult female mosquitoes rely on carbohydrate-rich plant nectars as their main source of energy. In the present study we tested whether the deprivation of a carbohydrate dietary source or the deprivation of both carbohydrate and water affects mosquito heart physiology. Intravital video imaging of Anopheles gambiae showed that, relative to sucrose fed mosquitoes, the deprivation of both sucrose and water for 24h, but not the deprivation of sucrose alone, reduces the heart contraction rate. Measurement of the protein, carbohydrate and lipid content of mosquitoes in the three treatment groups did not explain this cardiac phenotype. However, while the deprivation of sucrose reduced mosquito weight and abdominal width, the deprivation of both sucrose and water reduced mosquito weight even further without augmenting the change in abdominal width, indirectly suggesting that starvation and dehydration reduces hemolymph pressure. Analysis of the mRNA levels of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), FMRFamide, corazonin, neuropeptide F and short neuropeptide F then suggested that these neuropeptides do not regulate the cardiac phenotype observed. However, relative to sucrose fed and sucrose deprived mosquitoes, the mRNA level of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was significantly elevated in mosquitoes that had been deprived of both sucrose and water. Given that nitric oxide suppresses the heart rate of vertebrates and invertebrates, these data suggest a role for this free radical in modulating mosquito heart physiology.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
During embryogenesis, the epicardium undergoes proliferation, migration, and differentiation into several cardiac cell types which contribute to the coronary vessels. This process requires epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and directed cellular invasion. The Type III Transforming Growth Factor-beta Receptor (TGFβR3) is required for epicardial cell invasion and coronary vessel development. Using primary epicardial cells derived from Tgfbr3(+/+) and Tgfbr3(-/-) mouse embryos, high-molecular weight hyaluronan (HMWHA) stimulated cellular invasion and filamentous (f-actin) polymerization are detected in Tgfbr3(+/+) cells, but not in Tgfbr3(-/-) cells. Furthermore, HMWHA-stimulated cellular invasion and f-actin polymerization in Tgfbr3(+/+) epicardial cells are dependent on Src kinase. Src activation in HMWHA-stimulated Tgfbr3(-/-) epicardial cells is not detected in response to HMWHA. RhoA and Rac1 also fail to activate in response to HMWHA in Tgfbr3(-/-) cells. These events coincide with defective f-actin formation and deficient cellular invasion. Finally, a T841A activating substitution in TGFβR3 drives ligand-independent Src activation. Collectively, these data define a TGFβR3-Src-RhoA/Rac1 pathway that is essential for hyaluronan-directed cell invasion in epicardial cells.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.