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BACKGROUND - Early life acute respiratory infection (ARI) with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been strongly associated with the development of childhood wheezing illnesses, but the pathways underlying this association are poorly understood.
OBJECTIVE - To examine the role of the nasopharyngeal microbiome in the development of childhood wheezing illnesses following RSV ARI in infancy.
METHODS - We conducted a nested cohort study of 118 previously healthy, term infants with confirmed RSV ARI by RT-PCR. We used next-generation sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome during RSV ARI. Our main outcome of interest was 2-year subsequent wheeze.
RESULTS - Of the 118 infants, 113 (95.8%) had 2-year outcome data. Of these, 46 (40.7%) had parental report of subsequent wheeze. There was no association between the overall taxonomic composition, diversity, and richness of the nasopharyngeal microbiome during RSV ARI with the development of subsequent wheeze. However, the nasopharyngeal detection and abundance of Lactobacillus was consistently higher in infants who did not develop this outcome. Lactobacillus also ranked first among the different genera in a model distinguishing infants with and without subsequent wheeze.
CONCLUSIONS - The nasopharyngeal detection and increased abundance of Lactobacillus during RSV ARI in infancy are associated with a reduced risk of childhood wheezing illnesses at age 2 years.
Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Respiratory viruses alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome and may be associated with a distinct microbial signature. To test this hypothesis, we compared the nasopharyngeal microbiome of 135 previously healthy infants with acute respiratory infection due to human rhinovirus (HRV; n = 52) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; n = 83). The nasopharyngeal microbiome was assessed by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA. Respiratory viruses were identified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We found significant differences in the overall taxonomic composition and abundance of certain bacterial genera between infants infected with HRV and those infected with RSV. Our results suggest that respiratory tract viral infections are associated with different nasopharyngeal microbial profiles.
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
We examined nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization density patterns surrounding acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in young children in Peru. Pneumococcal densities were dynamic, gradually increasing leading up to an ARI, peaking during the ARI, and decreasing after the ARI. Rhinovirus co-infection was associated with higher pneumococcal densities.
BACKGROUND - Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have decreased nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine types but little data exist from rural areas. We investigated bacterial density, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of pneumococcal strains within the nasopharynx of young children in the Peruvian Andes, 2 years after PCV7 was introduced.
METHODS - Pneumococcal strains were isolated from a subset of 125 children from our Peruvian cohort, who entered the study in 2009 and had pneumococcus detected in the nasopharynx in both 2009 and during follow-up in 2011. Strains were Quellung serotyped and tested for susceptibility to antibiotics. Bacterial density was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS - The prevalence of PCV7 strains decreased from 48% in 2009 to 28.8% in 2011, whereas non-PCV7 types increased from 52% to 71.2% (P = 0.002). There was a 3.5-fold increase in carriage of serotype 6C in 2011 (P = 0.026). Vaccination with PCV7 did not affect pneumococcal density in children colonized by a PCV7 type but did increase density in those colonized with a non-PCV7 type. Antibiotic resistance did not change after vaccine introduction; strains were nonsusceptible to tetracycline (97.2%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (56.4%), penicillin (34%), erythromycin (22.4%), chloramphenicol (18.8%) and clindamycin (12.4%).
CONCLUSIONS - Serotype replacement was observed post-PCV7 vaccination with a concomitant, not previously recognized, increased nasopharyngeal density.
BACKGROUND - Epidemiologic studies of respiratory infections frequently rely on separate sample collections for the detection of bacteria and viruses. The requirement for two specimens presents cost, logistical, and acceptability challenges.
OBJECTIVES - To determine the agreement in detection of respiratory viruses using RT-PCR between two different types of samples collected on the same day: nasal swabs preserved in viral transport medium (NS) and nasopharyngeal swabs preserved in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerol [STGG] medium (NP), the current standard for pneumococcal colonization studies.
STUDY DESIGN - Paired NS and NP samples were collected between May 2009 and September 2011 as part of the RESPIRA-PERU study, a large prospective cohort of Andean children <3 years of age. NS samples used polyester swabs and viral transport medium whereas NP samples used rayon wire-handled swabs and STGG medium. Samples were tested for influenza, human metapneumovirus (MPV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) and adenovirus (ADV) using real-time RT-PCR. We calculated the agreement, and compared cycle thresholds (CT) between NP and NS samples.
RESULTS - Among 226 paired NP-NS samples, we observed very high agreement with a Kappa statistic ranging from 0.71 for ADV to 0.97 for MPV. CT values were similar for both strategies.
CONCLUSIONS - NP samples preserved in STGG provide a simple and reliable strategy for identification of both pneumococcus and respiratory viruses. This single specimen collection strategy could be used for epidemiologic studies, especially in resource-limited settings. Furthermore, archived NP-STGG specimens from previous studies could be reliably tested by RT-PCR for viruses.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Animal models suggest that influenza infection favors nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococci. We assessed this relationship with influenza and other respiratory viruses in young children.
METHODS - A case-control study was nested within a prospective cohort study of acute respiratory illness (ARI) in Andean children <3 years of age (RESPIRA-PERU study). Weekly household visits were made to identify ARI and obtain nasal swabs for viral detection using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Monthly nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were obtained to assess pneumococcal colonization. We determined whether specific respiratory viral ARI episodes occurring within the interval between NP samples increased the risk of NP acquisition of new pneumococcal serotypes.
RESULTS - A total of 729 children contributed 2128 episodes of observation, including 681 pneumococcal acquisition episodes (new serotype, not detected in prior sample), 1029 nonacquisition episodes (no colonization or persistent colonization with the same serotype as the prior sample), and 418 indeterminate episodes. The risk of pneumococcal acquisition increased following influenza-ARI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-4.69) and parainfluenza-ARI (AOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.15-3.01), when compared with episodes without ARI. Other viral infections (respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human rhinovirus, and adenovirus) were not associated with acquisition.
CONCLUSIONS - Influenza and parainfluenza ARIs appeared to facilitate pneumococcal acquisition among young children. As acquisition increases the risk of pneumococcal diseases, these observations are pivotal in our attempts to prevent pneumococcal disease.
Colonization and persistence in the human nasopharynx are prerequisites for Streptococcus pneumoniae disease and carriage acquisition, which normally occurs during early childhood. Animal models and in vitro studies (i.e. cell adhesion and cell cytotoxicity assays) have revealed a number of colonization and virulence factors, as well as regulators, implicated in nasopharyngeal colonization and pathogenesis. Expression of genes encoding these factors has never been studied in the human nasopharynx. Therefore, this study analyzed expression of S. pneumoniae virulence-related genes in human nasopharyngeal samples. Our experiments first demonstrate that a density of ≥10(4) CFU/ml of S. pneumoniae cells in the nasopharynx provides enough DNA and RNA to amplify the lytA gene by conventional PCR and to detect the lytA message, respectively. A panel of 21 primers that amplified S. pneumoniae sequences was designed, and their specificity for S. pneumoniae sequences was analyzed in silico and validated against 20 related strains inhabitants of the human upper respiratory tract. These primers were utilized in molecular reactions to find out that all samples contained the genes ply, pavA, lytC, lytA, comD, codY, and mgrA, whereas nanA, nanB, pspA, and rrgB were present in ∼91-98% of the samples. Gene expression studies of these 11 targets revealed that lytC, lytA, pavA and comD were the most highly expressed pneumococcal genes in the nasopharynx whereas the rest showed a moderate to low level of expression. This is the first study to evaluate expression of virulence- and, colonization-related genes in the nasopharynx of healthy children and establishes the foundation for future gene expression studies during human pneumococcal disease.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly carried in the nasopharynx of young children, and have been speculated to interact with each other. Although earlier studies used cultures alone to assess these interactions, the addition of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) provides further insight into these interactions. We compared results of culture and qPCR for the detection of these 3 bacteria in 446 nasopharynx samples collected from 360 healthy young children in a prospective cohort study in the Peruvian Andes. Patterns of concurrent bacterial colonization were studied using repeated measures logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess correlations among bacterial densities. At a bacterial density <10 colony forming units/mL measured by qPCR, culture detected significantly less carriers (P < 0.0001) for all 3 pathogens, than at a bacterial density >10 colony forming units/mL. In addition, there was a positive association between S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae colonization measured by both culture (odds ratio [OR] 3.11-3.17, P < 0.001) and qPCR (OR 1.95-1.97, P < 0.01). The densities of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, measured by qPCR, were positively correlated (correlation coefficient 0.32, P < 0.001). A negative association was found between the presence of S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in carriage with both culture (OR 0.45, P = 0.024) and qPCR (OR 0.61, P < 0.05). The impact of density on detection by culture and the observed density-related interactions support use of qPCR in additional studies to examine vaccine effects on diverse bacterial species.
We describe a 2009 H1N1 virus infection with a high viral load in a previously healthy infant who presented with complex febrile seizures and improved on oseltamivir without neurologic sequelae. Febrile seizures may be a complication in young children experiencing infection with high viral loads of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus.
PURPOSE - To evaluate the consequences of prolonged prophylactic penicillin use on the rates of nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae and the prevalence of resistant pneumococcal strains in children with sickle cell anemia.
METHODS - Nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained from children with sickle cell anemia (Hb SS or Hb S beta degrees thalassemia) at 10 teaching hospitals throughout the United States. These patients were participating in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in which they were prescribed prophylactic penicillin before their fifth birthday and were randomized to prophylactic penicillin or placebo after their fifth birthday (PROPS II). The specimens were cultured for S. pneumoniae, and isolates were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility to nine commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents.
RESULTS - Of the 226 patients observed, an average of 8.4 specimens were collected per patient. From 1,896 individual culture specimens, 5.5% of the specimens were positive for S. pneumoniae; 27% of patients had at least one positive culture. Nine percent of the study patients had at least one isolate of penicillin intermediate or resistant pneumococci. There was no significant difference in the percent of positive cultures for S. pneumoniae in those patients given penicillin prophylaxis after 5 years of age (4.1%) compared with those patients given placebo after 5 years of age (6.4%). Likewise, there was no significant difference (p = 0.298) in the percent of patients with at least one positive culture for S. pneumoniae in the group given prophylactic penicillin after 5 years of age (21.8%) compared with the group given placebo after 5 years of age (28.3%). There was no difference between the penicillin and placebo groups in the proportion of patients with penicillin intermediate or resistant pneumococci, but there was a trend toward increased carriage of multiply drug-resistant pneumococci in children > 5 years of age receiving prophylactic penicillin compared to children > 5 years of age receiving placebo. The increased colonization rate with multiply drug-resistant organisms of children > 5 years of age receiving penicillin prophylaxis is not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS - The potential for continued penicillin prophylaxis to contribute to the development of multiply resistant pneumococci should be considered before continuing penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell anemia who are older than 5 years of age. Added to the published data from PROPS II, which demonstrated no apparent advantage to continue prophylaxis, the data support the conclusion that, for children with no history of invasive pneumococcal disease, consideration should be given to discontinue prophylactic penicillin after their fifth birthday.