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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are critically important in the context of solid tumor progression. Counterintuitively, these host immune cells can often support tumor cells along the path from primary tumor to metastatic colonization and growth. Thus, the ability to transform protumor TAMs into antitumor, immune-reactive macrophages would have significant therapeutic potential. However, in order to achieve these effects, two major hurdles would need to be overcome: development of a methodology to specifically target macrophages and increased knowledge of the optimal targets for cell-signaling modulation. This study addresses both of these obstacles and furthers the development of a therapeutic agent based on this strategy. Using ex vivo macrophages in culture, the efficacy of mannosylated nanoparticles to deliver small interfering RNA specifically to TAMs and modify signaling pathways is characterized. Then, selective small interfering RNA delivery is tested for the ability to inhibit gene targets within the canonical or alternative nuclear factor-kappaB pathways and result in antitumor phenotypes. Results confirm that the mannosylated nanoparticle approach can be used to modulate signaling within macrophages. We also identify appropriate gene targets in critical regulatory pathways. These findings represent an important advance toward the development of a novel cancer therapy that would minimize side effects because of the targeted nature of the intervention and that has rapid translational potential.
In many patients with prostate cancer, the cancer will be recurrent and eventually progress to lethal metastatic disease after primary treatment, such as surgery or radiation therapy. Therefore, it would be beneficial to better predict which patients with early-stage prostate cancer would progress or recur after primary definitive treatment. In addition, many studies indicate that activation of NF-κB signaling correlates with prostate cancer progression; however, the precise underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Our studies show that activation of NF-κB signaling via deletion of one allele of its inhibitor, IκBα, did not induce prostatic tumorigenesis in our mouse model. However, activation of NF-κB signaling did increase the rate of tumor progression in the Hi-Myc mouse prostate cancer model when compared with Hi-Myc alone. Using the nonmalignant NF-κB-activated androgen-depleted mouse prostate, a NF-κB-activated recurrence predictor 21 (NARP21) gene signature was generated. The NARP21 signature successfully predicted disease-specific survival and distant metastases-free survival in patients with prostate cancer. This transgenic mouse model-derived gene signature provides a useful and unique molecular profile for human prostate cancer prognosis, which could be used on a prostatic biopsy to predict indolent versus aggressive behavior of the cancer after surgery.
©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
OBJECTIVES - Genetic variations of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling pathway were found to be associated with inflammatory diseases and several malignancies. However, little is known about NF-κB pathway gene polymorphisms and susceptibility of liver cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants of NFKB1 and NFKBIA were associated with risk of liver cancer in a Chinese population.
DESIGN - The study was designed as a nested case-control study within two prospective cohorts (the Shanghai Women's Health Study, SWHS, 1996-2000 and the Shanghai Men's Health Study, SMHS, 2002-2006).
SETTINGS - This population-based study was conducted in urban Shanghai, China.
PARTICIPANTS - A total of 217 incident liver cancer cases diagnosed through 31 December 2009 and 427 healthy controls matched by sex, age at baseline (±2 years) and date (±30 days) of sample collection were included in the study.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES - Genetic polymorphisms of NFKB1 and NFKBIA were determined blindly by TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. OR and its 95% CIs were estimated by an unconditional logistic regression model to measure the association between selected SNPs and the risk of liver cancer.
RESULTS - After adjusted for potential confounding factors, rs28362491 ins/del or del/del genotypes were associated with higher risk of liver cancer with an adjusted OR 1.54 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.28). rs230496 AG and GG genotypes were also noted with higher risk of liver cancer with an adjusted OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.26). Haplotype analysis indicated that carriers of the NFKB1 GA and AA (rs230525-rs230530) haplotypes had higher risk of liver cancer under an additive model. No association was observed between NFKBIA variants and risk of live cancer.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results suggest that genetic variants of NFKB1 influence liver cancer susceptibility in Chinese population, although replication in other studies is needed.
Silent information regulator T1 (SirT1) is linked to longevity and negatively controls NF-κB signaling, a crucial mediator of survival and regulator of both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Here we show that NF-κB repression by SirT1 in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts is necessary for proper bone remodeling and may contribute to the mechanisms linking aging and bone loss. Osteoclast- or osteoblast-specific SirT1 deletion using the Sirt(flox/flox) mice crossed to lysozyme M-cre and the 2.3 kb col1a1-cre transgenic mice, respectively, resulted in decreased bone mass caused by increased resorption and reduced bone formation. In osteoclasts, lack of SirT1 promoted osteoclastogenesis in vitro and activated NF-κB by increasing acetylation of Lysine 310. Importantly, this increase in osteoclastogenesis was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB. In osteoblasts, decreased SirT1 reduced osteoblast differentiation, which could also be rescued by inhibition of NF-κB. In further support of the critical role of NF-κB signaling in bone remodeling, elevated NF-κB activity in IκBα(+/-) mice uncoupled bone resorption and formation, leading to reduced bone mass. These findings support the notion that SirT1 is a genetic determinant of bone mass, acting in a cell-autonomous manner in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, through control of NF-κB and bone cell differentiation.
Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a peptide belonging to the trefoil factor family of protease-resistant peptides. Although TFF1 expression is frequently lost in gastric carcinomas, the tumorigenic pathways this affects have not been determined. Here we show that Tff1-knockout mice exhibit age-dependent carcinogenic histological changes in the pyloric antrum of the gastric mucosa, progressing from gastritis to hyperplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and ultimately malignant adenocarcinoma. The histology and molecular signatures of gastric lesions in the Tff1-knockout mice were consistent with an inflammatory phenotype. In vivo, ex-vivo, and in vitro studies showed that TFF1 expression suppressed TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation through the TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1)/IκB kinase (IKK) pathway. Consistent with these mouse data, human gastric tissue samples displayed a progressive decrease in TFF1 expression and an increase in NF-κB activation along the multi-step carcinogenesis cascade. Collectively, these results provide evidence that loss of TFF1 leads to activation of IKK complex-regulated NF-κB transcription factors and is an important event in shaping the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response during the progression to gastric tumorigenesis.
BACKGROUND - Amplification and activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) oncogene are molecular hallmarks of glioblastomas. We hypothesized that deletion of NFKBIA (encoding nuclear factor of κ-light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-α), an inhibitor of the EGFR-signaling pathway, promotes tumorigenesis in glioblastomas that do not have alterations of EGFR.
METHODS - We analyzed 790 human glioblastomas for deletions, mutations, or expression of NFKBIA and EGFR. We studied the tumor-suppressor activity of NFKBIA in tumor-cell culture. We compared the molecular results with the outcome of glioblastoma in 570 affected persons.
RESULTS - NFKBIA is often deleted but not mutated in glioblastomas; most deletions occur in nonclassical subtypes of the disease. Deletion of NFKBIA and amplification of EGFR show a pattern of mutual exclusivity. Restoration of the expression of NFKBIA attenuated the malignant phenotype and increased the vulnerability to chemotherapy of cells cultured from tumors with NFKBIA deletion; it also reduced the viability of cells with EGFR amplification but not of cells with normal gene dosages of both NFKBIA and EGFR. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA were associated with unfavorable outcomes. Patients who had tumors with NFKBIA deletion had outcomes that were similar to those in patients with tumors harboring EGFR amplification. These outcomes were poor as compared with the outcomes in patients with tumors that had normal gene dosages of NFKBIA and EGFR. A two-gene model that was based on expression of NFKBIA and O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase was strongly associated with the clinical course of the disease.
CONCLUSIONS - Deletion of NFKBIA has an effect that is similar to the effect of EGFR amplification in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma and is associated with comparatively short survival.
Although acute lung inflammation in response to local or systemic infection involves myeloid and nonmyeloid cells, the interplay between different cell types remains poorly defined. Since NF-kappaB is a key transcription factor for innate immunity, we investigated whether dysregulated NF-kappaB activation in myeloid cells impacts inflammatory signaling in nonmyeloid cells and generation of neutrophilic lung inflammation in response to systemic endotoxemia. We generated bone marrow chimeras by fetal liver transplantation of cells deficient in IkappaBalpha or p50 into lethally irradiated NF-kappaB reporter transgenic mice. No differences were apparent between bone marrow chimeras in the absence of an inflammatory stimulus; however, following intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IkappaBalpha- or p50-deficient bone marrow chimeras showed increased NF-kappaB activation in nonhematopoietic cells, exaggerated neutrophilic inflammation, and higher mortality compared with untransplanted reporter mice and wild-type bone marrow chimeras. Primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from IkappaBalpha(-/-) or p50(-/-) exhibited increased NF-kappaB activation and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 production after LPS treatment compared with wild-type cells, and coculture of BMDM with lung epithelial (A549) cells resulted in increased NF-kappaB activation in A549 cells and excess IL-8 production by these epithelial cells. These studies indicate an important role for inhibitory members of the NF-kappaB family acting specifically within myeloid cells to limit inflammatory responses in the lungs.
Radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for glioblastoma and locally advanced lung cancer, but radioresistance of these two types of cancer remains a significant therapeutic hindrance. To identify molecular target(s) for radiosensitization, we screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting all protein kinases and E3 ubiquitin ligases in the human genome and identified tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). Silencing of TRAF2 using siRNA caused a significant growth suppression of glioblastoma U251 cells and moderately sensitized these radioresistant cells to radiation. Overexpression of a really interesting new gene (RING)-deleted dominant-negative TRAF2 mutant also conferred radiosensitivity, whereas overexpression of wild-type (WT) TRAF2 significantly protected cells from radiation-induced killing. Likewise, siRNA silencing of TRAF2 in radioresistant lung cancer H1299 cells caused growth suppression and radiosensitization, whereas overexpression of WT TRAF2 enhanced radioresistance in a RING ligase-dependent manner. Moreover, siRNA silencing of TRAF2 in UM-SCC-1 head and neck cancer cells also conferred radiosensitization. Further support for the role of TRAF2 in cancer comes from the observations that TRAF2 is overexpressed in both lung adenocarcinoma tissues and multiple lung cancer cell lines. Importantly, TRAF2 expression was very low in normal bronchial epithelial NL20 cells, and TRAF2 silencing had a minimal effect on NL20 growth and radiation sensitivity. Mechanistically, TRAF2 silencing blocks the activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway and down-regulates several G(2)-M cell cycle control proteins, resulting in enhanced G(2)-M arrest, growth suppression, and radiosensitization. Our studies suggest that TRAF2 is an attractive drug target for anticancer therapy and radiosensitization.
The NF-kappaB pathways have been implicated in tumorigenesis in several lymphoid malignancies, including non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphomas. However, the antiapoptotic functions and the mechanism responsible for signaling through each NF-kappaB pathway remain to be elucidated. In the current study, lymphoma cell lines with constitutively active NF-kappaB were found to be resistant to inducers of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Resistance to cell death resulted from blocks early and late in the apoptosis cascade. Several NF-kappaB target genes were overexpressed in these cell lines, including Bcl-xL, Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitor protein, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis, and X inhibitor of apoptosis. Inhibition of the canonical or noncanonical NF-kappaB pathways with small interfering RNAs or adenovirus expressing a stable form of inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaB) enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis inducers and resulted in lower levels of Bcl-xL or Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitor protein, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis, and X inhibitor of apoptosis. These findings demonstrate an important role of both NF-kappaB pathways in mediating resistance to apoptosis and distinctive antiapoptotic downstream target gene profiles responsible for this effect.
Reovirus infection activates NF-kappaB, which leads to programmed cell death in cultured cells and in the murine central nervous system. However, little is known about how NF-kappaB elicits this cellular response. To identify host genes activated by NF-kappaB following reovirus infection, we used HeLa cells engineered to express a degradation-resistant mutant of IkappaBalpha (mIkappaBalpha) under the control of an inducible promoter. Induction of mIkappaBalpha inhibited the activation of NF-kappaB and blocked the expression of NF-kappaB-responsive genes. RNA extracted from infected and uninfected cells was used in high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to examine the expression of constitutively activated genes and reovirus-stimulated genes in the presence and absence of an intact NF-kappaB signaling axis. Comparison of the microarray profiles revealed that the expression of 176 genes was significantly altered in the presence of mIkappaBalpha. Of these genes, 64 were constitutive and not regulated by reovirus, and 112 were induced in response to reovirus infection. NF-kappaB-regulated genes could be grouped into four distinct gene clusters that were temporally regulated. Gene ontology analysis identified biological processes that were significantly overrepresented in the reovirus-induced genes under NF-kappaB control. These processes include the antiviral innate immune response, cell proliferation, response to DNA damage, and taxis. Comparison with previously identified NF-kappaB-dependent gene networks induced by other stimuli, including respiratory syncytial virus, Epstein-Barr virus, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and heart disease, revealed a number of common components, including CCL5/RANTES, CXCL1/GRO-alpha, TNFAIP3/A20, and interleukin-6. Together, these results suggest a genetic program for reovirus-induced apoptosis involving NF-kappaB-directed expression of cellular genes that activate death signaling pathways in infected cells.