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Dendritic Cell Amiloride-Sensitive Channels Mediate Sodium-Induced Inflammation and Hypertension.
Barbaro NR, Foss JD, Kryshtal DO, Tsyba N, Kumaresan S, Xiao L, Mernaugh RL, Itani HA, Loperena R, Chen W, Dikalov S, Titze JM, Knollmann BC, Harrison DG, Kirabo A
(2017) Cell Rep 21: 1009-1020
MeSH Terms: Amiloride, Animals, Cells, Cultured, Cytokines, Dendritic Cells, Epithelial Sodium Channel Blockers, Epithelial Sodium Channels, Hypertension, Inflammation, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, NADPH Oxidases, Oxidative Stress, Prostaglandins E, Protein Kinase C, Sodium, Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 1, Superoxides
Show Abstract · Added December 27, 2017
Sodium accumulates in the interstitium and promotes inflammation through poorly defined mechanisms. We describe a pathway by which sodium enters dendritic cells (DCs) through amiloride-sensitive channels including the alpha and gamma subunits of the epithelial sodium channel and the sodium hydrogen exchanger 1. This leads to calcium influx via the sodium calcium exchanger, activation of protein kinase C (PKC), phosphorylation of p47, and association of p47 with gp91. The assembled NADPH oxidase produces superoxide with subsequent formation of immunogenic isolevuglandin (IsoLG)-protein adducts. DCs activated by excess sodium produce increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and promote T cell production of cytokines IL-17A and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). When adoptively transferred into naive mice, these DCs prime hypertension in response to a sub-pressor dose of angiotensin II. These findings provide a mechanistic link between salt, inflammation, and hypertension involving increased oxidative stress and IsoLG production in DCs.
Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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19 MeSH Terms
Suppressed ubiquitination of Nrf2 by p47 contributes to Nrf2 activation.
Ha Kim K, Sadikot RT, Yeon Lee J, Jeong HS, Oh YK, Blackwell TS, Joo M
(2017) Free Radic Biol Med 113: 48-58
MeSH Terms: Animals, Disease Models, Animal, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1, Lipopolysaccharides, Mice, NADPH Oxidases, NF-E2-Related Factor 2, Pneumonia, RAW 264.7 Cells, Reactive Oxygen Species, Signal Transduction, Ubiquitination
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2018
Although critical in phagocytosis in innate immunity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) collaterally inflict damage to host phagocytes because they indiscriminate targets. Since Nrf2 increases the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes that nullifies ROS, ROS activating Nrf2 is a critical negative regulatory step for countering the deleterious effects of ROS. Here, we postulate whether, along with ROS activating Nrf2, NADPH oxidase components also participate in direct activation of Nrf2, contributing to protection from ROS. Our results show that the p47 of the NADPH oxidase, but not p65 or p40, physically binds to Nrf2, activating the Nrf2 function. p47 binding to Nrf2/Keap1 complex suppresses the ubiquitination of Nrf2, while p47 becomes ubiquitinated by Keap1. p47 increases the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes, whereas genetic ablation of p47 decreases the expression of those genes. In a lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation mouse model, selective expression of p47 in mouse lungs induces the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes and is sufficient to suppress neutrophilic lung inflammation. Therefore, our findings suggest that p47 is a novel regulator of Nrf2 function.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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14 MeSH Terms
Pyridine Dinucleotides from Molecules to Man.
Fessel JP, Oldham WM
(2018) Antioxid Redox Signal 28: 180-212
MeSH Terms: ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1, Adenosine Triphosphate, Biosynthetic Pathways, Catalysis, Disease Susceptibility, Energy Metabolism, Homeostasis, Humans, Hydrolysis, Intracellular Space, Male, Mitochondria, NAD, NADP, NADPH Oxidases, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Oxidation-Reduction, Pyridines, Reactive Oxygen Species, Stress, Physiological
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
SIGNIFICANCE - Pyridine dinucleotides, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), were discovered more than 100 years ago as necessary cofactors for fermentation in yeast extracts. Since that time, these molecules have been recognized as fundamental players in a variety of cellular processes, including energy metabolism, redox homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene transcription, among many others. Given their critical role as mediators of cellular responses to metabolic perturbations, it is unsurprising that dysregulation of NAD and NADP metabolism has been associated with the pathobiology of many chronic human diseases. Recent Advances: A biochemistry renaissance in biomedical research, with its increasing focus on the metabolic pathobiology of human disease, has reignited interest in pyridine dinucleotides, which has led to new insights into the cell biology of NAD(P) metabolism, including its cellular pharmacokinetics, biosynthesis, subcellular localization, and regulation. This review highlights these advances to illustrate the importance of NAD(P) metabolism in the molecular pathogenesis of disease.
CRITICAL ISSUES - Perturbations of NAD(H) and NADP(H) are a prominent feature of human disease; however, fundamental questions regarding the regulation of the absolute levels of these cofactors and the key determinants of their redox ratios remain. Moreover, an integrated topological model of NAD(P) biology that combines the metabolic and other roles remains elusive.
FUTURE DIRECTIONS - As the complex regulatory network of NAD(P) metabolism becomes illuminated, sophisticated new approaches to manipulating these pathways in specific organs, cells, or organelles will be developed to target the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of disease, opening doors for the next generation of redox-based, metabolism-targeted therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 180-212.
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20 MeSH Terms
Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height.
Marouli E, Graff M, Medina-Gomez C, Lo KS, Wood AR, Kjaer TR, Fine RS, Lu Y, Schurmann C, Highland HM, Rüeger S, Thorleifsson G, Justice AE, Lamparter D, Stirrups KE, Turcot V, Young KL, Winkler TW, Esko T, Karaderi T, Locke AE, Masca NG, Ng MC, Mudgal P, Rivas MA, Vedantam S, Mahajan A, Guo X, Abecasis G, Aben KK, Adair LS, Alam DS, Albrecht E, Allin KH, Allison M, Amouyel P, Appel EV, Arveiler D, Asselbergs FW, Auer PL, Balkau B, Banas B, Bang LE, Benn M, Bergmann S, Bielak LF, Blüher M, Boeing H, Boerwinkle E, Böger CA, Bonnycastle LL, Bork-Jensen J, Bots ML, Bottinger EP, Bowden DW, Brandslund I, Breen G, Brilliant MH, Broer L, Burt AA, Butterworth AS, Carey DJ, Caulfield MJ, Chambers JC, Chasman DI, Chen YI, Chowdhury R, Christensen C, Chu AY, Cocca M, Collins FS, Cook JP, Corley J, Galbany JC, Cox AJ, Cuellar-Partida G, Danesh J, Davies G, de Bakker PI, de Borst GJ, de Denus S, de Groot MC, de Mutsert R, Deary IJ, Dedoussis G, Demerath EW, den Hollander AI, Dennis JG, Di Angelantonio E, Drenos F, Du M, Dunning AM, Easton DF, Ebeling T, Edwards TL, Ellinor PT, Elliott P, Evangelou E, Farmaki AE, Faul JD, Feitosa MF, Feng S, Ferrannini E, Ferrario MM, Ferrieres J, Florez JC, Ford I, Fornage M, Franks PW, Frikke-Schmidt R, Galesloot TE, Gan W, Gandin I, Gasparini P, Giedraitis V, Giri A, Girotto G, Gordon SD, Gordon-Larsen P, Gorski M, Grarup N, Grove ML, Gudnason V, Gustafsson S, Hansen T, Harris KM, Harris TB, Hattersley AT, Hayward C, He L, Heid IM, Heikkilä K, Helgeland Ø, Hernesniemi J, Hewitt AW, Hocking LJ, Hollensted M, Holmen OL, Hovingh GK, Howson JM, Hoyng CB, Huang PL, Hveem K, Ikram MA, Ingelsson E, Jackson AU, Jansson JH, Jarvik GP, Jensen GB, Jhun MA, Jia Y, Jiang X, Johansson S, Jørgensen ME, Jørgensen T, Jousilahti P, Jukema JW, Kahali B, Kahn RS, Kähönen M, Kamstrup PR, Kanoni S, Kaprio J, Karaleftheri M, Kardia SL, Karpe F, Kee F, Keeman R, Kiemeney LA, Kitajima H, Kluivers KB, Kocher T, Komulainen P, Kontto J, Kooner JS, Kooperberg C, Kovacs P, Kriebel J, Kuivaniemi H, Küry S, Kuusisto J, La Bianca M, Laakso M, Lakka TA, Lange EM, Lange LA, Langefeld CD, Langenberg C, Larson EB, Lee IT, Lehtimäki T, Lewis CE, Li H, Li J, Li-Gao R, Lin H, Lin LA, Lin X, Lind L, Lindström J, Linneberg A, Liu Y, Liu Y, Lophatananon A, Luan J, Lubitz SA, Lyytikäinen LP, Mackey DA, Madden PA, Manning AK, Männistö S, Marenne G, Marten J, Martin NG, Mazul AL, Meidtner K, Metspalu A, Mitchell P, Mohlke KL, Mook-Kanamori DO, Morgan A, Morris AD, Morris AP, Müller-Nurasyid M, Munroe PB, Nalls MA, Nauck M, Nelson CP, Neville M, Nielsen SF, Nikus K, Njølstad PR, Nordestgaard BG, Ntalla I, O'Connel JR, Oksa H, Loohuis LM, Ophoff RA, Owen KR, Packard CJ, Padmanabhan S, Palmer CN, Pasterkamp G, Patel AP, Pattie A, Pedersen O, Peissig PL, Peloso GM, Pennell CE, Perola M, Perry JA, Perry JR, Person TN, Pirie A, Polasek O, Posthuma D, Raitakari OT, Rasheed A, Rauramaa R, Reilly DF, Reiner AP, Renström F, Ridker PM, Rioux JD, Robertson N, Robino A, Rolandsson O, Rudan I, Ruth KS, Saleheen D, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Sandow K, Sapkota Y, Sattar N, Schmidt MK, Schreiner PJ, Schulze MB, Scott RA, Segura-Lepe MP, Shah S, Sim X, Sivapalaratnam S, Small KS, Smith AV, Smith JA, Southam L, Spector TD, Speliotes EK, Starr JM, Steinthorsdottir V, Stringham HM, Stumvoll M, Surendran P, 't Hart LM, Tansey KE, Tardif JC, Taylor KD, Teumer A, Thompson DJ, Thorsteinsdottir U, Thuesen BH, Tönjes A, Tromp G, Trompet S, Tsafantakis E, Tuomilehto J, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Tyrer JP, Uher R, Uitterlinden AG, Ulivi S, van der Laan SW, Van Der Leij AR, van Duijn CM, van Schoor NM, van Setten J, Varbo A, Varga TV, Varma R, Edwards DR, Vermeulen SH, Vestergaard H, Vitart V, Vogt TF, Vozzi D, Walker M, Wang F, Wang CA, Wang S, Wang Y, Wareham NJ, Warren HR, Wessel J, Willems SM, Wilson JG, Witte DR, Woods MO, Wu Y, Yaghootkar H, Yao J, Yao P, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Young R, Zeggini E, Zhan X, Zhang W, Zhao JH, Zhao W, Zhao W, Zheng H, Zhou W, EPIC-InterAct Consortium, CHD Exome+ Consortium, ExomeBP Consortium, T2D-Genes Consortium, GoT2D Genes Consortium, Global Lipids Genetics Consortium, ReproGen Consortium, MAGIC Investigators, Rotter JI, Boehnke M, Kathiresan S, McCarthy MI, Willer CJ, Stefansson K, Borecki IB, Liu DJ, North KE, Heard-Costa NL, Pers TH, Lindgren CM, Oxvig C, Kutalik Z, Rivadeneira F, Loos RJ, Frayling TM, Hirschhorn JN, Deloukas P, Lettre G
(2017) Nature 542: 186-190
MeSH Terms: ADAMTS Proteins, Adult, Alleles, Body Height, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Variation, Genome, Human, Glycoproteins, Glycosaminoglycans, Hedgehog Proteins, Humans, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Interferon Regulatory Factors, Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit, Male, Multifactorial Inheritance, NADPH Oxidase 4, NADPH Oxidases, Phenotype, Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A, Procollagen N-Endopeptidase, Proteoglycans, Proteolysis, Receptors, Androgen, Somatomedins
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height-increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.
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27 MeSH Terms
Polyamine- and NADPH-dependent generation of ROS during Helicobacter pylori infection: A blessing in disguise.
Gobert AP, Wilson KT
(2017) Free Radic Biol Med 105: 16-27
MeSH Terms: Animals, DNA Damage, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, NADP, NADPH Oxidases, Oxidative Stress, Polyamines, Reactive Oxygen Species
Show Abstract · Added October 2, 2016
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that specifically colonizes the gastric ecological niche. During the infectious process, which results in diseases ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric cancer, the host response is characterized by the activation of the innate immunity of gastric epithelial cells and macrophages. These cells thus produce effector molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) to counteract the infection. The generation of ROS in response to H. pylori involves two canonical pathways: 1) the NADPH-dependent reduction of molecular oxygen to generate O, which can dismute to generate ROS; and 2) the back-conversion of the polyamine spermine into spermidine through the enzyme spermine oxidase, leading to HO production. Although these products have the potential to affect the survival of bacteria, H. pylori has acquired numerous strategies to counteract their deleterious effects. Nonetheless, ROS-mediated oxidative DNA damage and mutations may participate in the adaptation of H. pylori to its ecological niche. Lastly, ROS have been shown to play a major role in the development of the inflammation and carcinogenesis. It is the purpose of this review to summarize the literature about the production of ROS during H. pylori infection and their role in this infectious gastric disease.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
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11 MeSH Terms
Erythropoietin either Prevents or Exacerbates Retinal Damage from Eye Trauma Depending on Treatment Timing.
Bricker-Anthony C, D'Surney L, Lunn B, Hines-Beard J, Jo M, Bernardo-Colon A, Rex TS
(2017) Optom Vis Sci 94: 20-32
MeSH Terms: Animals, Blast Injuries, Cell Survival, Dependovirus, Disease Models, Animal, Erythropoietin, Eye Injuries, Ferritins, Genetic Therapy, Genetic Vectors, Green Fluorescent Proteins, In Situ Nick-End Labeling, Injections, Intramuscular, Injections, Intraperitoneal, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred DBA, NADPH Oxidases, Oxidative Stress, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Retina, Retinal Diseases, Time Factors, Vision Disorders, Wounds, Nonpenetrating
Show Abstract · Added April 2, 2019
PURPOSE - Erythropoietin (EPO) is a promising neuroprotective agent and is currently in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. The goal of this study was to determine if EPO is also protective in traumatic eye injury.
METHODS - The left eyes of anesthetized DBA/2J or Balb/c mice were exposed to a single 26 psi overpressure air-wave while the rest of the body was shielded. DBA/2J mice were given intraperitoneal injections of EPO or buffer and analyses were performed at 3 or 7 days post-blast. Balb/c mice were given intramuscular injections of rAAV.EpoR76E or rAAV.eGFP either pre- or post-blast and analyses were performed at 1 month post-blast.
RESULTS - EPO had a bimodal effect on cell death, glial reactivity, and oxidative stress. All measures were increased at 3 days post-blast and decreased at 7-days post-blast. Increased retinal ferritin and NADPH oxygenases were detected in retinas from EPO-treated mice. The gene therapy approach protected against axon degeneration, cell death, and oxidative stress when given after blast, but not before.
CONCLUSIONS - Systemic, exogenous EPO and EPO-R76E protects the retina after trauma even when initiation of treatment is delayed by up to 3 weeks. Systemic treatment with EPO or EPO-R76E beginning before or soon after trauma may exacerbate protective effects of EPO within the retina as a result of increased iron levels from erythropoiesis and, thus, increased oxidative stress within the retina. This is likely overcome with time as a result of an increase in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Either intraocular delivery of EPO or treatment with non-erythropoietic forms of EPO may be more efficacious.
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MeSH Terms
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury drives a progenitor cell-like phenotype.
Suzuki T, Tada Y, Nishimura R, Kawasaki T, Sekine A, Urushibara T, Kato F, Kinoshita T, Ikari J, West J, Tatsumi K
(2016) Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 310: L1185-98
MeSH Terms: Acute Lung Injury, Animals, Apoptosis, Cell Proliferation, Cell Transdifferentiation, Cells, Cultured, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Endothelium, Vascular, Female, Gene Expression, Lipopolysaccharides, Mice, Inbred C57BL, NADPH Oxidases, Phenotype, Reactive Oxygen Species, Transforming Growth Factor beta1, Transforming Growth Factor beta2
Show Abstract · Added April 2, 2019
Pulmonary vascular endothelial function may be impaired by oxidative stress in endotoxemia-derived acute lung injury. Growing evidence suggests that endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) could play a pivotal role in various respiratory diseases; however, it remains unclear whether EndMT participates in the injury/repair process of septic acute lung injury. Here, we analyzed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice whose total number of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) transiently decreased after production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the population of EndMT-PVECs significantly increased. NAD(P)H oxidase inhibition suppressed EndMT of PVECs. Most EndMT-PVECs derived from tissue-resident cells, not from bone marrow, as assessed by mice with chimeric bone marrow. Bromodeoxyuridine-incorporation assays revealed higher proliferation of capillary EndMT-PVECs. In addition, EndMT-PVECs strongly expressed c-kit and CD133. LPS loading to human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls) induced reversible EndMT, as evidenced by phenotypic recovery observed after removal of LPS. LPS-induced EndMT-HMVEC-Ls had increased vasculogenic ability, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and expression of drug resistance genes, which are also fundamental properties of progenitor cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LPS induces EndMT of tissue-resident PVECs during the early phase of acute lung injury, partly mediated by ROS, contributing to increased proliferation of PVECs.
Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
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MeSH Terms
Localising oxidant "stress" in the antiphospholipid syndrome.
Lamb FS
(2015) Thromb Haemost 113: 915
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antiphospholipid Syndrome, Carrier Proteins, Endosomes, Female, Humans, Male, NADPH Oxidases
Added February 22, 2016
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8 MeSH Terms
p47(phox) contributes to albuminuria and kidney fibrosis in mice.
Wang H, Chen X, Su Y, Paueksakon P, Hu W, Zhang MZ, Harris RC, Blackwell TS, Zent R, Pozzi A
(2015) Kidney Int 87: 948-62
MeSH Terms: Albuminuria, Animals, Collagen Type IV, Doxorubicin, ErbB Receptors, Integrin alpha1, Kidney, Male, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C57BL, NADPH Oxidases, Nephrosclerosis, Oxidative Stress, Reactive Oxygen Species, rac GTP-Binding Proteins
Show Abstract · Added January 20, 2015
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an important pathogenic role in the development of many diseases, including kidney disease. Major ROS generators in the glomerulus of the kidney are the p47(phox)-containing NAPDH oxidases NOX1 and NOX2. The cytosolic p47(phox) subunit is a key regulator of the assembly and function of NOX1 and NOX2 and its expression and phosphorylation are upregulated in the course of renal injury, and have been shown to exacerbate diabetic nephropathy. However, its role in nondiabetic-mediated glomerular injury is unclear. To address this, we subjected p47(phox)-null mice to either adriamycin-mediated or partial renal ablation-mediated glomerular injury. Deletion of p47(phox) protected the mice from albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis in both injury models. Integrin α1-null mice develop more severe glomerulosclerosis compared with wild-type mice in response to glomerular injury mainly due to increased production of ROS. Interestingly, the protective effects of p47(phox) knockout were more profound in p47(phox)/integrin α1 double knockout mice. In vitro analysis of primary mesangial cells showed that deletion of p47(phox) led to reduced basal levels of superoxide and collagen IV production. Thus, p47(phox)-dependent NADPH oxidases are a major glomerular source of ROS, contribute to kidney injury, and are potential targets for antioxidant therapy in fibrotic disease.
1 Communities
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15 MeSH Terms
Tumor suppressor ataxia telangiectasia mutated functions downstream of TGF-β1 in orchestrating profibrotic responses.
Overstreet JM, Samarakoon R, Cardona-Grau D, Goldschmeding R, Higgins PJ
(2015) FASEB J 29: 1258-68
MeSH Terms: Animals, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins, Cell Line, Epithelial Cells, Fibrosis, Gene Expression Regulation, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Humans, Kidney, Mice, Models, Biological, NADPH Oxidases, Phosphorylation, Rats, Signal Transduction, Smad3 Protein, Transforming Growth Factor beta1, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Show Abstract · Added April 19, 2016
Effective therapy to prevent organ fibrosis, which is associated with more than half of all mortalities, remains elusive. Involvement of tumor suppressor ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) in the TGF-β1 pathway related to renal fibrosis is largely unknown. ATM activation (pATM(Ser1981)) increased 4-fold in the tubulointerstitial region of the unilateral ureteral obstruction-injured kidney in mice correlating with SMAD3 and p53(Ser15) phosphorylation and elevated levels of p22(phox) subunit of the NADPH oxidases (NOXs), and fibrotic markers, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and fibronectin, when compared to contralateral (contra) or sham controls. In fact, ATM is rapidly phosphorylated at Ser(1981) by TGF-β1 stimulation. Stable silencing and pharmacologic inhibition of ATM ablated TGF-β1-induced p53 activation (>95%) and subsequent PAI-1, fibronectin, connective tissue growth factor, and p21 expression in human kidney 2 (HK-2) tubular epithelial cells and normal rat kidney-49 fibroblasts (NRK-49F). ATM or p53 depletion in HK-2 cells, moreover, bypassed TGF-β1-mediated cytostasis evident in control short hairpin RNA-expressing HK-2 cells. Interestingly, stable silencing of NOX subunits, p22(phox) and p47(phox), in HK-2 cells blocked TGF-β1-induced pATM(Ser1981) (>90%) and target gene induction via p53-dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, NRK-49F fibroblast proliferation triggered by conditioned media from TGF-β1-stimulated, control vector-transfected HK-2 cells decreased (∼ 50%) when exposed to conditioned media from ATM-deficient, TGF-β1-treated HK-2 cells. Thus, TGF-β1 promotes NOX-dependent ATM activation leading to p53-mediated fibrotic gene reprogramming and growth arrest in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, TGF-β1/ATM-initiated paracrine factor secretion by dysfunctional renal epithelium promotes interstitial fibroblast growth, suggesting a role of tubular ATM in mediating epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk highlighting the translational benefit of targeting the NOX/ATM/p53 axis in renal fibrosis.
© FASEB.
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18 MeSH Terms