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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the strongest known risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. In the center of tumorigenic events caused by GERD is repeated damage of esophageal tissues by the refluxate. In this study, we focused on a genotoxic aspect of exposure of esophageal cells to acidic bile reflux (BA/A). Analyzing cells generated from patients with Barrett's esophagus and human esophageal specimens, we found that BA/A cause significant DNA damage that is mediated by reactive-oxygen species. ROS originate from mitochondria and NADPH oxidases. We specifically identified NOX1 and NOX2 enzymes to be responsible for ROS generation. Inhibition of NOX2 and NOX1 with siRNA or chemical inhibitors significantly suppresses ROS production and DNA damage induced by BA/A. Mechanistically, our data showed that exposure of esophageal cells to acidic bile salts induces phosphorylation of the p47 subunit of NOX2 and its translocation to the cellular membrane. This process is mediated by protein kinase C, which is activated by BA/A. Taken together, our studies suggest that inhibition of ROS induced by reflux can be a useful strategy for preventing DNA damage and decreasing the risk of tumorigenic transformation caused by GERD.
Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 8A (LRRC8A) is a required component of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs). In vascular smooth muscle cells, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) activates VRAC via type 1 TNFα receptors (TNFR1), and this requires superoxide (O) production by NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1). VRAC inhibitors suppress the inflammatory response to TNFα by an unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that LRRC8A directly supports Nox1 activity, providing a link between VRAC current and inflammatory signaling. VRAC inhibition by 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxobutyric acid (DCPIB) impaired NF-κB activation by TNFα. LRRC8A siRNA reduced the magnitude of VRAC and inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, iNOS and VCAM expression, and proliferation of VSMCs. Signaling steps disrupted by both siLRRC8A and DCPIB included; extracellular O production by Nox1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and endocytosis of TNFR1. Extracellular superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, selectively inhibited TNFR1 endocytosis and JNK phosphorylation. Thus, O is the critical extracellular oxidant for TNFR signal transduction. Reducing JNK expression (siJNK) increased extracellular O suggesting that JNK provides important negative feedback regulation to Nox1 at the plasma membrane. LRRC8A co-localized by immunostaining, and co-immunoprecipitated with, both Nox1 and its p22phox subunit. LRRC8A is a component of the Nox1 signaling complex. It is required for extracellular O production, which is in turn essential for TNFR1 endocytosis. These data are the first to provide a molecular mechanism for the potent anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of VRAC inhibition.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a proinflammatory cytokine, causes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration and promotes inflammatory vascular lesions. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation by TNFα requires endosomal superoxide production by Nox1. In endothelial cells, TNFα stimulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which inhibits NF-κB signaling. The mechanism by which JNK negatively regulates TNFα-induced NF-κB activation has not been defined. We hypothesized that JNK modulates NF-κB activation in VSMC, and does so via a Nox1-dependent mechanism. TNFα-induced NF-κB activation was TNFR1- and endocytosis-dependent. Inhibition of endocytosis with dominant-negative dynamin (DynK44A) potentiated TNFα-induced JNK activation, but decreased ERK activation, while p38 kinase phosphorylation was not altered. DynK44A attenuated intracellular, endosomal superoxide production in wild-type (WT) VSMC, but not in NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) knockout (KO) cells. siRNA targeting JNK1 or JNK2 potentiated, while a JNK activator (anisomycin) inhibited, TNFα-induced NF-κB activation in WT, but not in Nox1 KO cells. TNFα-stimulated superoxide generation was enhanced by JNK1 inhibition in WT, but not in Nox1 KO VSMC. These data suggest that JNK suppresses the inflammatory response to TNFα by reducing Nox1-dependent endosomal ROS production. JNK and endosomal superoxide may represent novel targets for pharmacologic modulation of TNFα signaling and vascular inflammation.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - We have shown that the chloride-proton antiporter chloride channel-3 (ClC-3) is required for endosome-dependent signaling by the Nox1 NADPH oxidase in SMCs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ClC-3 is necessary for proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and contributes to neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Studies were performed in SMCs isolated from the aorta of ClC-3-null and littermate control (wild-type [WT]) mice. Thrombin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) each caused activation of both mitogen activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and the matrix-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cell proliferation of WT SMCs. Whereas responses to thrombin were preserved in ClC-3-null SMCs, the responses to TNF-α were markedly impaired. These defects normalized following gene transfer of ClC-3. Carotid injury increased vascular ClC-3 expression, and compared with WT mice, ClC-3-null mice exhibited a reduction in neointimal area of the carotid artery 28 days after injury.
CONCLUSIONS - ClC-3 is necessary for the activation of SMCs by TNF-α but not thrombin. Deficiency of ClC-3 markedly reduces neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury. In view of our previous findings, this observation is consistent with a role for ClC-3 in endosomal Nox1-dependent signaling. These findings identify ClC-3 as a novel target for the prevention of inflammatory and proliferative vascular diseases.
Recent work has made it clear that oxidant systems interact. To investigate potential cross talk between NADPH oxidase (Nox) 1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial function, transgenic mice overexpressing Nox1 in smooth muscle cells (Tg(SMCnox1)) were subjected to angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. As expected, NADPH-dependent superoxide generation was increased in aortas from Nox1-overexpressing mice. Infusion of ANG II (0.7 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) for 2 wk potentiated NADPH-dependent superoxide generation and hydrogen peroxide production compared with similarly treated negative littermate controls. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was impaired in transgenic mice, and bioavailable nitric oxide was markedly decreased. To test the hypothesis that eNOS uncoupling might contribute to endothelial dysfunction, the diet was supplemented with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)). BH(4) decreased aortic superoxide production, partially restored bioavailable nitric oxide in aortas of ANG II-treated Tg(SMCnox1) mice, and significantly improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in these mice. Western blot analysis revealed less dimeric eNOS in Tg(SMCnox1) mice compared with the wild-type mice; however, total eNOS was equivalent. Pretreatment of mouse aortas with the eNOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester decreased ANG II-induced superoxide production in Tg(SMCnox1) mice compared with wild-type mice, indicating that uncoupled eNOS is also a significant source of increased superoxide in transgenic mice. Thus overexpression of Nox1 in vascular smooth muscle leading to enhanced production of reactive oxygen species in response to ANG II causes eNOS uncoupling and a decrease in nitric oxide bioavailability, resulting in impaired vasorelaxation.
Recently, we reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase (NOX) contribute to aberrant responses in pulmonary resistance arteries (PRAs) of piglets exposed to 3 days of hypoxia (Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295: L881-L888, 2008). An objective of the present study was to determine whether NOX-derived ROS also contribute to altered PRA responses at a more advanced stage of pulmonary hypertension, after 10 days of hypoxia. We further wished to advance knowledge about the specific NOX and antioxidant enzymes that are altered at early and later stages of pulmonary hypertension. Piglets were raised in room air (control) or hypoxia for 3 or 10 days. Using a cannulated artery technique, we found that treatments with agents that inhibit NOX (apocynin) or remove ROS [an SOD mimetic (M40403) + polyethylene glycol-catalase] diminished responses to ACh in PRAs from piglets exposed to 10 days of hypoxia. Western blot analysis showed an increase in expression of NOX1 and the membrane fraction of p67phox. Expression of NOX4, SOD2, and catalase were unchanged, whereas expression of SOD1 was reduced, in arteries from piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 or 10 days. Markers of oxidant stress, F(2)-isoprostanes, measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were increased in PRAs from piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, but not 10 days. We conclude that ROS derived from some, but not all, NOX family members, as well as alterations in the antioxidant enzyme SOD1, contribute to aberrant PRA responses at an early and a more progressive stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets.
NADPH oxidases are major sources of superoxide (O2*-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in vascular cells. Production of these reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for cell proliferation and differentiation, while ROS overproduction has been implicated in hypertension and atherosclerosis. It is known that the heme-containing catalytic subunits Nox1 and Nox4 are responsible for oxygen reduction in vascular smooth muscle cells from large arteries. However, the exact mechanism of ROS production by NADPH oxidases is not completely understood. We hypothesized that Nox1 and Nox4 play distinct roles in basal and angiotensin II (AngII)-stimulated production of O2*- and H2O2. Nox1 and Nox4 expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) was selectively reduced by treatment with siNox4 or antisense Nox1 adenovirus. Production of O2*- and H2O2 in intact RASMCs was analyzed by dihydroethidium and Amplex Red assay. Activity of NADPH oxidases was measured by NADPH-dependent O2*- and H2O2 production using electron spin resonance (ESR) and 1-hydroxy-3-carboxypyrrolidine (CPH) in the membrane fraction in the absence of cytosolic superoxide dismutase. It was found that production of O2*- by quiescent RASMC NADPH oxidases was five times less than H2O2 production. Stimulation of cells with AngII led to a 2-fold increase of O2*- production by NADPH oxidases, with a small 15 to 30% increase in H2O2 formation. Depletion of Nox4 in RASMCs led to diminished basal H2O2 production, but did not affect O2*- or H2O2 production stimulated by AngII. In contrast, depletion of Nox1 in RASMCs inhibited production of O2*- and AngII-stimulated H2O2 in the membrane fraction and intact cells. Our data suggest that Nox4 produces mainly H2O2, while Nox1 generates mostly O2*- that is later converted to H2O2. Therefore, Nox4 is responsible for basal H2O2 production, while O2*- production in nonstimulated and AngII-stimulated cells depends on Nox1. The difference in the products generated by Nox1 and Nox4 may help to explain the distinct roles of these NADPH oxidases in cell signaling. These findings also provide important insight into the origin of H2O2 in vascular cells, and may partially account for the limited pharmacological effect of antioxidant treatments with O2*- scavengers that do not affect H2O2.
We previously found that angiotensin II-induced hypertension increases vascular extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD), and proposed that this is a compensatory mechanism that blunts the hypertensive response and preserves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. To test this hypothesis, we studied ecSOD-deficient mice. ecSOD(-/-) and C57Blk/6 mice had similar blood pressure at baseline; however, the hypertension caused by angiotensin II was greater in ecSOD(-/-) compared with wild-type mice (168 versus 147 mm Hg, respectively; P<0.01). In keeping with this, angiotensin II increased superoxide and reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in small mesenteric arterioles to a greater extent in ecSOD(-/-) than in wild-type mice. In contrast to these findings in resistance vessels, angiotensin II paradoxically improved endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, reduced intracellular and extracellular superoxide, and increased NO production in aortas of ecSOD(-/-) mice. Whereas aortic expression of endothelial NO synthase, Cu/ZnSOD, and MnSOD were not altered in ecSOD(-/-) mice, the activity of Cu/ZnSOD was increased by 80% after angiotensin II infusion. This was associated with a concomitant increase in expression of the copper chaperone for Cu/ZnSOD in the aorta but not in the mesenteric arteries. Moreover, the angiotensin II-induced increase in aortic reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity was diminished in ecSOD(-/-) mice as compared with controls. Thus, during angiotensin II infusion, ecSOD reduces hypertension, minimizes vascular superoxide production, and preserves endothelial function in resistance arterioles. We also identified novel compensatory mechanisms involving upregulation of copper chaperone for Cu/ZnSOD, increased Cu/ZnSOD activity, and decreased reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity in larger vessels. These compensatory mechanisms preserve large vessel function when ecSOD is absent in hypertension.
BACKGROUND - Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular pathologies. NAD(P)H oxidases (Noxes) are major sources of reactive oxygen species in the vessel wall, but the importance of individual Nox homologues in specific layers of the vascular wall is unclear. Nox1 upregulation has been implicated in cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension and restenosis.
METHODS AND RESULTS - To investigate the pathological role of Nox1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle, transgenic mice overexpressing Nox1 in smooth muscle cells (TgSMCnox1) were created, and the impact of Nox1 upregulation on the medial hypertrophic response during angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension was studied. These mice have increased expression of Nox1 protein in the vasculature, which is accompanied by increased superoxide production. Infusion of Ang II (0.7 mg/kg per day) into these mice for 2 weeks led to a potentiation of superoxide production compared with similarly treated negative littermate controls. Systolic blood pressure and aortic hypertrophy were also markedly greater in TgSMCnox1 mice than in their littermate controls. To confirm that this potentiation of vascular hypertrophy and hypertension was due to increased ROS formation, additional groups of mice were coinfused with the antioxidant Tempol. Tempol decreased the level of Ang II-induced aortic superoxide production and partially reversed the hypertrophic and hypertensive responses in these animals.
CONCLUSIONS - These data indicate that smooth muscle-specific Nox1 overexpression augments the oxidative, pressor, and hypertrophic responses to Ang II, supporting the concept that medial Nox1 participates in the development of cardiovascular pathologies.