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Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is closely linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. TNFα activates NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide (O), production extracellularly is required for subsequent signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that is activated by oxidation of associated thioredoxin. The role of ASK1 in Nox1-mediated signaling by TNFα is poorly defined. We hypothesized that ASK1 is required for TNFα receptor endocytosis and subsequent inflammatory TNFα signaling. We employed a knockdown strategy to explore the role of ASK1 in TNFα signaling in VSMCs. siRNA targeting ASK1 had no effect on TNFα-induced extracellular O production. However, siASK1 inhibited receptor endocytosis as well as phosphorylation of two endocytosis-related proteins, dynamin1 and caveolin1. Intracellular O production was subsequently reduced, as were other inflammatory signaling steps including NF-κB activation, IL-6 production, inducible nitric oxide synthase and VCAM expression, and VSMC proliferation. Prolonged exposure to TNFα (24 h) increased tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) subtype 1 and 2 expression, and these effects were also attenuated by siASK1. ASK1 coimmunoprecipitated with both Nox1 and the leucine rich repeat containing 8A anion channel, two essential components of the TNFR1 signaling complex. Activation of ASK1 by autophosphorylation at Thr845 occurs following thioredoxin dissociation, and this requires the presence of Nox1. Thus, Nox1 is part of the multiprotein ASK1 signaling complex. In response to TNFα, ASK1 is activated by Nox1-derived oxidants, and this plays a critical role in translating these ROS into a physiologic response in VSMCs. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) drives dynamin1 and caveolin1 phosphorylation and TNFα receptor endocytosis. ASK1 modulates TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, survival, and proliferation. ASK1 and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) physically associate in a multiprotein signaling complex. Nox1 is required for TNFα-induced ASK1 activation.
Sodium accumulates in the interstitium and promotes inflammation through poorly defined mechanisms. We describe a pathway by which sodium enters dendritic cells (DCs) through amiloride-sensitive channels including the alpha and gamma subunits of the epithelial sodium channel and the sodium hydrogen exchanger 1. This leads to calcium influx via the sodium calcium exchanger, activation of protein kinase C (PKC), phosphorylation of p47, and association of p47 with gp91. The assembled NADPH oxidase produces superoxide with subsequent formation of immunogenic isolevuglandin (IsoLG)-protein adducts. DCs activated by excess sodium produce increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and promote T cell production of cytokines IL-17A and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). When adoptively transferred into naive mice, these DCs prime hypertension in response to a sub-pressor dose of angiotensin II. These findings provide a mechanistic link between salt, inflammation, and hypertension involving increased oxidative stress and IsoLG production in DCs.
Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Although critical in phagocytosis in innate immunity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) collaterally inflict damage to host phagocytes because they indiscriminate targets. Since Nrf2 increases the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes that nullifies ROS, ROS activating Nrf2 is a critical negative regulatory step for countering the deleterious effects of ROS. Here, we postulate whether, along with ROS activating Nrf2, NADPH oxidase components also participate in direct activation of Nrf2, contributing to protection from ROS. Our results show that the p47 of the NADPH oxidase, but not p65 or p40, physically binds to Nrf2, activating the Nrf2 function. p47 binding to Nrf2/Keap1 complex suppresses the ubiquitination of Nrf2, while p47 becomes ubiquitinated by Keap1. p47 increases the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes, whereas genetic ablation of p47 decreases the expression of those genes. In a lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation mouse model, selective expression of p47 in mouse lungs induces the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes and is sufficient to suppress neutrophilic lung inflammation. Therefore, our findings suggest that p47 is a novel regulator of Nrf2 function.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the strongest known risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. In the center of tumorigenic events caused by GERD is repeated damage of esophageal tissues by the refluxate. In this study, we focused on a genotoxic aspect of exposure of esophageal cells to acidic bile reflux (BA/A). Analyzing cells generated from patients with Barrett's esophagus and human esophageal specimens, we found that BA/A cause significant DNA damage that is mediated by reactive-oxygen species. ROS originate from mitochondria and NADPH oxidases. We specifically identified NOX1 and NOX2 enzymes to be responsible for ROS generation. Inhibition of NOX2 and NOX1 with siRNA or chemical inhibitors significantly suppresses ROS production and DNA damage induced by BA/A. Mechanistically, our data showed that exposure of esophageal cells to acidic bile salts induces phosphorylation of the p47 subunit of NOX2 and its translocation to the cellular membrane. This process is mediated by protein kinase C, which is activated by BA/A. Taken together, our studies suggest that inhibition of ROS induced by reflux can be a useful strategy for preventing DNA damage and decreasing the risk of tumorigenic transformation caused by GERD.
Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 17A1 plays a critical role in steroid metabolism, catalyzing both the 17α-hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone and the subsequent 17α,20-lyase reactions to form dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (Andro), respectively, critical for generating glucocorticoids and androgens. Human P450 17A1 reaction rates examined are enhanced by the accessory protein cytochrome (), but the exact role of in P450 17A1-catalyzed reactions is unclear as are several details of these reactions. Here, we examined in detail the processivity of the 17α-hydroxylation and lyase steps. did not enhance reaction rates by decreasing the rates of any of the steroids. Steroid binding to P450 17A1 was more complex than a simple two-state system. Pre-steady-state experiments indicated lag phases for Andro production from progesterone and for DHEA from pregnenolone, indicating a distributive character of the enzyme. However, we observed processivity in pregnenolone/DHEA pulse-chase experiments. ()-Orteronel was three times more inhibitory toward the conversion of 17α-hydroxypregnenolone to DHEA than toward the 17α-hydroxylation of pregnenolone. IC values for ()-orteronel were identical for blocking DHEA formation from pregnenolone and for 17α-hydroxylation, suggestive of processivity. Global kinetic modeling helped assign sets of rate constants for individual or groups of reactions, indicating that human P450 17A1 is an inherently distributive enzyme but that some processivity is present, some of the 17α-OH pregnenolone formed from pregnenolone did not dissociate from P450 17A1 before conversion to DHEA. Our results also suggest multiple conformations of P450 17A1, as previously proposed on the basis of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
SIGNIFICANCE - Pyridine dinucleotides, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), were discovered more than 100 years ago as necessary cofactors for fermentation in yeast extracts. Since that time, these molecules have been recognized as fundamental players in a variety of cellular processes, including energy metabolism, redox homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene transcription, among many others. Given their critical role as mediators of cellular responses to metabolic perturbations, it is unsurprising that dysregulation of NAD and NADP metabolism has been associated with the pathobiology of many chronic human diseases. Recent Advances: A biochemistry renaissance in biomedical research, with its increasing focus on the metabolic pathobiology of human disease, has reignited interest in pyridine dinucleotides, which has led to new insights into the cell biology of NAD(P) metabolism, including its cellular pharmacokinetics, biosynthesis, subcellular localization, and regulation. This review highlights these advances to illustrate the importance of NAD(P) metabolism in the molecular pathogenesis of disease.
CRITICAL ISSUES - Perturbations of NAD(H) and NADP(H) are a prominent feature of human disease; however, fundamental questions regarding the regulation of the absolute levels of these cofactors and the key determinants of their redox ratios remain. Moreover, an integrated topological model of NAD(P) biology that combines the metabolic and other roles remains elusive.
FUTURE DIRECTIONS - As the complex regulatory network of NAD(P) metabolism becomes illuminated, sophisticated new approaches to manipulating these pathways in specific organs, cells, or organelles will be developed to target the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of disease, opening doors for the next generation of redox-based, metabolism-targeted therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 180-212.
Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height-increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.
NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is highly expressed in kidney proximal tubular cells. NOX4 constitutively produces hydrogen peroxide, which may regulate important pro-survival pathways. Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a classical model mimicking human ischemic acute tubular necrosis. We hypothesized that NOX4 plays a protective role in kidney IRI. In wild type (WT) animals subjected to IRI, NOX4 protein expression increased after 24 hours. NOX4 KO (knock-out) and WT littermates mice were subjected to IRI. NOX4 KO mice displayed decreased renal function and more severe tubular apoptosis, decreased Bcl-2 expression and higher histologic damage scores compared to WT. Activation of NRF2 was decreased in NOX4 KO mice in response to IRI. This was related to decreased KEAP1 oxidation leading to decreased NRF2 stabilization. This resulted in decreased glutathione levels. In vitro silencing of NOX4 in cells showed an enhanced propensity to apoptosis, with reduced expression of NRF2, glutathione content and Bcl-2 expression, similar to cells derived from NOX4 KO mice. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of NRF2 (caNRF2) in NOX4 depleted cells rescued most of this phenotype in cultured cells, implying that NRF2 regulation by ROS issued from NOX4 may play an important role in its anti-apoptotic property.
Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 8A (LRRC8A) is a required component of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs). In vascular smooth muscle cells, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) activates VRAC via type 1 TNFα receptors (TNFR1), and this requires superoxide (O) production by NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1). VRAC inhibitors suppress the inflammatory response to TNFα by an unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that LRRC8A directly supports Nox1 activity, providing a link between VRAC current and inflammatory signaling. VRAC inhibition by 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxobutyric acid (DCPIB) impaired NF-κB activation by TNFα. LRRC8A siRNA reduced the magnitude of VRAC and inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, iNOS and VCAM expression, and proliferation of VSMCs. Signaling steps disrupted by both siLRRC8A and DCPIB included; extracellular O production by Nox1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and endocytosis of TNFR1. Extracellular superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, selectively inhibited TNFR1 endocytosis and JNK phosphorylation. Thus, O is the critical extracellular oxidant for TNFR signal transduction. Reducing JNK expression (siJNK) increased extracellular O suggesting that JNK provides important negative feedback regulation to Nox1 at the plasma membrane. LRRC8A co-localized by immunostaining, and co-immunoprecipitated with, both Nox1 and its p22phox subunit. LRRC8A is a component of the Nox1 signaling complex. It is required for extracellular O production, which is in turn essential for TNFR1 endocytosis. These data are the first to provide a molecular mechanism for the potent anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of VRAC inhibition.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The goal of this investigation was to clarify the question of whether targeting Enox1 in tumor stroma would synergistically enhance the survival of tumor-bearing mice treated with fractionated radiotherapy. Enox1, a NADH oxidase, is expressed in tumor vasculature and stroma. However, it is not expressed in many tumor types, including HT-29 colorectal carcinoma cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Enox1 in endothelial cells inhibited repair of DNA double strand breaks, as measured by γH2AX and 53BP1 foci formation, as well as neutral comet assays. For 4 consecutive days athymic mice bearing HT-29 hindlimb xenografts were injected with a small molecule inhibitor of Enox1 or solvent control. Tumors were then administered 2 Gy of x-rays. On day 5 tumors were administered a single 'top-up' fraction of 30 Gy, the purpose of which was to amplify intrinsic differences in the radiation fractionation regimen produced by Enox1 targeting. Pharmacological targeting of Enox1 resulted in 80% of the tumor-bearing mice surviving at 90 days compared to only 40% of tumor-bearing mice treated with solvent control. The increase in survival was not a consequence of reoxygenation, as measured by pimonidazole immunostaining. These results are interpreted to indicate that targeting of Enox1 in tumor stroma significantly enhances the effectiveness of 2 Gy fractionated radiotherapy and identifies Enox1 as a potential therapeutic target.