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Next-generation sequencing identifies pathogenic and modifier mutations in a consanguineous Chinese family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Zhang X, Xie J, Zhu S, Chen Y, Wang L, Xu B
(2017) Medicine (Baltimore) 96: e7010
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Calcium Channels, L-Type, Cardiac Myosins, Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial, Carrier Proteins, Child, China, Consanguinity, Echocardiography, Female, Genetic Association Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genotyping Techniques, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Mutation, Myosin Heavy Chains, Sequence Analysis, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added September 11, 2017
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a highly heterogeneous disease displaying considerable interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variation, including disease severity, age of onset, and disease progression. This poorly understood variance raises the possibility of genetic modifier effects, particularly in MYBPC3-associated HCM.In a large consanguineous Chinese HCM family, we identified 8 members harboring the MYBPC3 c.3624delC (p.Lys1209Serfs) disease-causing mutation, but with very disparate phenotypes. Genotyping ruled out the modifying effect of previously described variants in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Afterwards, we screened for modifying variants in all known causing genes and closely related genes for cardiomyopathy and channelopathy by performing targeted next-generation sequencing. For first time, we showed that a c.1598C>T (p.Ser533Leu) mutation in voltage-dependent l-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 (CACNB2) was present in all severely affected HCM patients, but not in those moderately affected or genotype-positive phenotype-negative patients. This CACNB2 p.Ser533Leu mutation is extremely conserved in evolution, and was not found in 550 healthy controls.Our results suggest that CACNB2 is a possible candidate genetic modifier of MYBPC3-associated familial HCM, but more genetic evidence and functional experiments are needed to confirm.
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23 MeSH Terms
Structure of Myo7b/USH1C complex suggests a general PDZ domain binding mode by MyTH4-FERM myosins.
Li J, He Y, Weck ML, Lu Q, Tyska MJ, Zhang M
(2017) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114: E3776-E3785
MeSH Terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, Caco-2 Cells, Humans, Multiprotein Complexes, Myosins, PDZ Domains, Protein Structure, Quaternary
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2018
Unconventional myosin 7a (Myo7a), myosin 7b (Myo7b), and myosin 15a (Myo15a) all contain MyTH4-FERM domains (myosin tail homology 4-band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin; MF) in their cargo binding tails and are essential for the growth and function of microvilli and stereocilia. Numerous mutations have been identified in the MyTH4-FERM tandems of these myosins in patients suffering visual and hearing impairment. Although a number of MF domain binding partners have been identified, the molecular basis of interactions with the C-terminal MF domain (CMF) of these myosins remains poorly understood. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of Myo7b CMF in complex with the extended PDZ3 domain of USH1C (a.k.a., Harmonin), revealing a previously uncharacterized interaction mode both for MyTH4-FERM tandems and for PDZ domains. We predicted, based on the structure of the Myo7b CMF/USH1C PDZ3 complex, and verified that Myo7a CMF also binds to USH1C PDZ3 using a similar mode. The structure of the Myo7b CMF/USH1C PDZ complex provides mechanistic explanations for >20 deafness-causing mutations in Myo7a CMF. Taken together, these findings suggest that binding to PDZ domains, such as those from USH1C, PDZD7, and Whirlin, is a common property of CMFs of Myo7a, Myo7b, and Myo15a.
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7 MeSH Terms
MyTH4-FERM myosins in the assembly and maintenance of actin-based protrusions.
Weck ML, Grega-Larson NE, Tyska MJ
(2017) Curr Opin Cell Biol 44: 68-78
MeSH Terms: Actins, Animals, Cell Surface Extensions, Humans, Myosins, Pseudopodia
Show Abstract · Added April 7, 2017
Unconventional myosins are actin-based molecular motors that serve a multitude of roles within the cell. One group of myosin motors, the MyTH4-FERM myosins, play an integral part in building and maintaining finger-like protrusions, which allow cells to interact with their external environment. Suggested to act primarily as transporters, these motor proteins enrich adhesion molecules, actin-regulatory proteins and other factors at the tips of filopodia, microvilli, and stereocilia. Below we review data from biophysical, biochemical, and cell biological studies, which implicate these myosins as central players in the assembly, maintenance and function of actin-based protrusions.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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6 MeSH Terms
Differential responses of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to anisotropic strain depends on disease status.
Chun YW, Voyles DE, Rath R, Hofmeister LH, Boire TC, Wilcox H, Lee JH, Bellan LM, Hong CC, Sung HJ
(2015) J Biomech 48: 3890-6
MeSH Terms: Biomarkers, Cardiac Myosins, Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, Cell Culture Techniques, Cell Differentiation, Extracellular Matrix, Humans, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Myocytes, Cardiac, Myosin Light Chains, Sarcomeres, Stress, Mechanical, Troponin T
Show Abstract · Added October 21, 2015
Primary dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a non-ischemic heart disease with impaired pumping function of the heart. In this study, we used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from a healthy volunteer and a primary DCM patient to investigate the impact of DCM on iPSC-CMs׳ responses to different types of anisotropic strain. A bioreactor system was established that generates cardiac-mimetic forces of 150 kPa at 5% anisotropic cyclic strain and 1 Hz frequency. After confirming cardiac induction of the iPSCs, it was determined that fibronectin was favorable to other extracellular matrix protein coatings (gelatin, laminin, vitronectin) in terms of viable cell area and density, and was therefore selected as the coating for further study. When iPSC-CMs were exposed to three strain conditions (no strain, 5% static strain, and 5% cyclic strain), the static strain elicited significant induction of sarcomere components in comparison to other strain conditions. However, this induction occurred only in iPSC-CMs from a healthy volunteer ("control iPSC-CMs"), not in iPSC-CMs from the DCM patient ("DCM iPSC-CMs"). The donor type also significantly influenced gene expressions of cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction markers in response to the strain conditions. Gene expression of connexin-43 (cell-cell interaction) had a higher fold change in healthy versus diseased iPSC-CMs under static and cyclic strain, as opposed to integrins α-5 and α-10 (cell-matrix interaction). In summary, our iPSC-CM-based study to model the effects of different strain conditions suggests that intrinsic, genetic-based differences in the cardiomyocyte responses to strain may influence disease manifestation in vivo.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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13 MeSH Terms
Regulation of contractile ring formation and septation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Willet AH, McDonald NA, Gould KL
(2015) Curr Opin Microbiol 28: 46-52
MeSH Terms: Actins, Cell Division, Cell Wall, Cytokinesis, Cytoskeletal Proteins, Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal, Myosins, Profilins, Schizosaccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins
Show Abstract · Added February 4, 2016
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has become a powerful model organism for cytokinesis studies, propelled by pioneering genetic screens in the 1980s and 1990s. S. pombe cells are rod-shaped and divide similarly to mammalian cells, utilizing a medially-placed actin-and myosin-based contractile ring. A cell wall division septum is deposited behind the constricting ring, forming the new ends of each daughter cell. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of contractile ring formation through formin proteins and the role of the division septum in S. pombe cell division.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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10 MeSH Terms
Detection of rare antigen-presenting cells through T cell-intrinsic meandering motility, mediated by Myo1g.
Gérard A, Patino-Lopez G, Beemiller P, Nambiar R, Ben-Aissa K, Liu Y, Totah FJ, Tyska MJ, Shaw S, Krummel MF
(2014) Cell 158: 492-505
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antigen-Presenting Cells, Cell Membrane, Cell Movement, Immunologic Surveillance, Lymph Nodes, Mice, Minor Histocompatibility Antigens, Myosins, Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, T-Lymphocytes
Show Abstract · Added January 21, 2015
To mount an immune response, T lymphocytes must successfully search for foreign material bound to the surface of antigen-presenting cells. How T cells optimize their chances of encountering and responding to these antigens is unknown. T cell motility in tissues resembles a random or Levy walk and is regulated in part by external factors including chemokines and lymph-node topology, but motility parameters such as speed and propensity to turn may also be cell intrinsic. Here we found that the unconventional myosin 1g (Myo1g) motor generates membrane tension, enforces cell-intrinsic meandering search, and enhances T-DC interactions during lymph-node surveillance. Increased turning and meandering motility, as opposed to ballistic motility, is enhanced by Myo1g. Myo1g acts as a "turning motor" and generates a form of cellular "flânerie." Modeling and antigen challenges show that these intrinsically programmed elements of motility search are critical for the detection of rare cognate antigen-presenting cells.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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11 MeSH Terms
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index.
Wen W, Zheng W, Okada Y, Takeuchi F, Tabara Y, Hwang JY, Dorajoo R, Li H, Tsai FJ, Yang X, He J, Wu Y, He M, Zhang Y, Liang J, Guo X, Sheu WH, Delahanty R, Guo X, Kubo M, Yamamoto K, Ohkubo T, Go MJ, Liu JJ, Gan W, Chen CC, Gao Y, Li S, Lee NR, Wu C, Zhou X, Song H, Yao J, Lee IT, Long J, Tsunoda T, Akiyama K, Takashima N, Cho YS, Ong RT, Lu L, Chen CH, Tan A, Rice TK, Adair LS, Gui L, Allison M, Lee WJ, Cai Q, Isomura M, Umemura S, Kim YJ, Seielstad M, Hixson J, Xiang YB, Isono M, Kim BJ, Sim X, Lu W, Nabika T, Lee J, Lim WY, Gao YT, Takayanagi R, Kang DH, Wong TY, Hsiung CA, Wu IC, Juang JM, Shi J, Choi BY, Aung T, Hu F, Kim MK, Lim WY, Wang TD, Shin MH, Lee J, Ji BT, Lee YH, Young TL, Shin DH, Chun BY, Cho MC, Han BG, Hwu CM, Assimes TL, Absher D, Yan X, Kim E, Kuo JZ, Kwon S, Taylor KD, Chen YD, Rotter JI, Qi L, Zhu D, Wu T, Mohlke KL, Gu D, Mo Z, Wu JY, Lin X, Miki T, Tai ES, Lee JY, Kato N, Shu XO, Tanaka T
(2014) Hum Mol Genet 23: 5492-504
MeSH Terms: 5'-Nucleotidase, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Blood Proteins, Body Mass Index, Cardiac Myosins, Far East, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, Glycoproteins, Humans, KCNQ1 Potassium Channel, Male, Myosin Light Chains, Obesity, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory
Show Abstract · Added June 26, 2014
Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ∼2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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19 MeSH Terms
Intestinal brush border assembly driven by protocadherin-based intermicrovillar adhesion.
Crawley SW, Shifrin DA, Grega-Larson NE, McConnell RE, Benesh AE, Mao S, Zheng Y, Zheng QY, Nam KT, Millis BA, Kachar B, Tyska MJ
(2014) Cell 157: 433-446
MeSH Terms: Animals, COS Cells, Caco-2 Cells, Cadherins, Calcium, Carrier Proteins, Cercopithecus aethiops, Disease Models, Animal, Enterocytes, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Microvilli, Myosins, Usher Syndromes
Show Abstract · Added May 19, 2014
Transporting epithelial cells build apical microvilli to increase membrane surface area and enhance absorptive capacity. The intestinal brush border provides an elaborate example with tightly packed microvilli that function in nutrient absorption and host defense. Although the brush border is essential for physiological homeostasis, its assembly is poorly understood. We found that brush border assembly is driven by the formation of Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion links between adjacent microvilli. Intermicrovillar links are composed of protocadherin-24 and mucin-like protocadherin, which target to microvillar tips and interact to form a trans-heterophilic complex. The cytoplasmic domains of microvillar protocadherins interact with the scaffolding protein, harmonin, and myosin-7b, which promote localization to microvillar tips. Finally, a mouse model of Usher syndrome lacking harmonin exhibits microvillar protocadherin mislocalization and severe defects in brush border morphology. These data reveal an adhesion-based mechanism for brush border assembly and illuminate the basis of intestinal pathology in patients with Usher syndrome. PAPERFLICK:
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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16 MeSH Terms
Nkx genes are essential for maintenance of ventricular identity.
Targoff KL, Colombo S, George V, Schell T, Kim SH, Solnica-Krezel L, Yelon D
(2013) Development 140: 4203-13
MeSH Terms: Animals, Atrial Myosins, Cell Differentiation, Cell Proliferation, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Genotype, Heart Atria, Heart Ventricles, Homeobox Protein Nkx-2.5, Homeodomain Proteins, Mutation, Myocytes, Cardiac, Transcription Factors, Transcription, Genetic, Ventricular Myosins, Zebrafish, Zebrafish Proteins
Show Abstract · Added September 24, 2013
Establishment of specific characteristics of each embryonic cardiac chamber is crucial for development of a fully functional adult heart. Despite the importance of defining and maintaining unique features in ventricular and atrial cardiomyocytes, the regulatory mechanisms guiding these processes are poorly understood. Here, we show that the homeodomain transcription factors Nkx2.5 and Nkx2.7 are necessary to sustain ventricular chamber attributes through repression of atrial chamber identity. Mutation of nkx2.5 in zebrafish yields embryos with diminutive ventricular and bulbous atrial chambers. These chamber deformities emerge gradually during development, with a severe collapse in the number of ventricular cardiomyocytes and an accumulation of excess atrial cardiomyocytes as the heart matures. Removal of nkx2.7 function from nkx2.5 mutants exacerbates the loss of ventricular cells and the gain of atrial cells. Moreover, in these Nkx-deficient embryos, expression of vmhc, a ventricular gene, fades, whereas expression of amhc, an atrial gene, expands. Cell-labeling experiments suggest that ventricular cardiomyocytes can transform into atrial cardiomyocytes in the absence of Nkx gene function. Through suggestion of transdifferentiation from ventricular to atrial fate, our data reveal a pivotal role for Nkx genes in maintaining ventricular identity and highlight remarkable plasticity in differentiated myocardium. Thus, our results are relevant to the etiologies of fetal and neonatal cardiac pathology and could direct future innovations in cardiac regenerative medicine.
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17 MeSH Terms
Myosin X and its motorless isoform differentially modulate dendritic spine development by regulating trafficking and retention of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein.
Lin WH, Hurley JT, Raines AN, Cheney RE, Webb DJ
(2013) J Cell Sci 126: 4756-68
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Cell Differentiation, Dendritic Spines, HEK293 Cells, Hippocampus, Humans, Microfilament Proteins, Myosins, Phosphoproteins, Protein Isoforms, Protein Transport, Pseudopodia, Rats, Synapses, Transfection
Show Abstract · Added May 20, 2014
Myosin X (Myo10) is an unconventional myosin with two known isoforms: full-length (FL)-Myo10 that has motor activity, and a recently identified brain-expressed isoform, headless (Hdl)-Myo10, which lacks most of the motor domain. FL-Myo10 is involved in the regulation of filopodia formation in non-neuronal cells; however, the biological function of Hdl-Myo10 remains largely unknown. Here, we show that FL- and Hdl-Myo10 have important, but distinct, roles in the development of dendritic spines and synapses in hippocampal neurons. FL-Myo10 induces formation of dendritic filopodia and modulates filopodia dynamics by trafficking the actin-binding protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) to the tips of filopodia. By contrast, Hdl-Myo10 acts on dendritic spines to enhance spine and synaptic density as well as spine head expansion by increasing the retention of VASP in spines. Thus, this study demonstrates a novel biological function for Hdl-Myo10 and an important new role for both Myo10 isoforms in the development of dendritic spines and synapses.
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16 MeSH Terms