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The molecular identification of species of interest is an important part of an imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) experiment. The high resolution accurate mass capabilities of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) have recently been shown to facilitate the identification of proteins in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS. However, these experiments are typically limited to proteins giving rise to ions of relatively low m/ z due to difficulties transmitting and measuring large molecular weight ions of low charge states. Herein we have modified the source gas manifold of a commercial MALDI FT-ICR MS to regulate the gas flow and pressure to maximize the transmission of large m/ z protein ions through the ion funnel region of the instrument. By minimizing the contribution of off-axis gas disruption to ion focusing and maximizing the effective potential wall confining the ions through pressure optimization, the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of most protein species were improved by roughly 1 order of magnitude compared to normal source conditions. These modifications enabled the detection of protein standards up to m/ z 24 000 and the detection of proteins from tissue up to m/ z 22 000 with good S/N, roughly doubling the mass range for which high quality protein ion images from rat brain and kidney tissue could be produced. Due to the long time-domain transients (>4 s) required to isotopically resolve high m/ z proteins, we have used these data as part of an FT-ICR IMS-microscopy data-driven image fusion workflow to produce estimated protein images with both high mass and high spatial resolutions.
Delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients is a known complication associated with increased risk of acute rejection and reduced transplant survival after 1 year. There are multiple risk factors, including prolonged cold ischemia time, donor age, and cause of donor's death. Major causes of delayed graft function are acute kidney injury in the donor, often from prolonged terminal ischemia, reflected by acute tubular injury in the recipient. However, the differential diagnosis of delayed graft function includes acute rejection, recurrence of the primary glomerular diseases, and other less commonly encountered conditions. A transplant kidney biopsy usually is required to elucidate the correct cause and initiate the right treatment, which is crucial for transplant survival. We report a case of a transplant recipient who developed delayed graft function due to an uncommon cause. After correct diagnosis, the patient's transplant function improved.
Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bovine liver catalase (BLC), catalase-related allene oxide synthase (cAOS) from Plexaura homomalla, and a recently isolated protein from the cattle pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP-2744c (MAP)) are all tyrosinate-ligated heme enzymes whose crystal structures have been reported. cAOS and MAP have low (<20%) sequence similarity to, and significantly different catalytic functions from, BLC. cAOS transforms 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid to an allene epoxide, whereas the MAP protein is a putative organic peroxide-dependent peroxidase. To elucidate factors influencing the functions of these and related heme proteins, we have investigated the heme iron coordination properties of these tyrosinate-ligated heme enzymes in their ferric and ferrous states using magnetic circular dichroism and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The MAP protein shows remarkable spectral similarities to cAOS and BLC in its native Fe(III) state, but clear differences from ferric proximal heme ligand His93Tyr Mb (myoglobin) mutant, which may be attributed to the presence of an Arg(+)-N(ω)-H···¯O-Tyr (proximal heme axial ligand) hydrogen bond in the first three heme proteins. Furthermore, the spectra of Fe(III)-CN¯, Fe(III)-NO, Fe(II)-NO (except for five-coordinate MAP), Fe(II)-CO, and Fe(II)-O(2) states of cAOS and MAP, but not H93Y Mb, are also similar to the corresponding six-coordinate complexes of BLC, suggesting that a tyrosinate (Tyr-O¯) is the heme axial ligand trans to the bound ligands in these complexes. The Arg(+)-N(ω)-H to ¯O-Tyr hydrogen bond would be expected to modulate the donor properties of the proximal tyrosinate oxyanion and, combined with the subtle differences in the catalytic site structures, affect the activities of cAOS, MAP and BLC.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently afflicts patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and independently predicts death. Both hemoglobinemia and myoglobinemia are independent predictors of postoperative AKI. Release of free hemeproteins into the circulation is known to cause oxidative injury to the kidneys. This study tested the hypothesis that postoperative AKI is associated with both enhanced intraoperative hemeprotein release and increased lipid peroxidation assessed by measuring F₂-isoprostanes and isofurans. In a case-control study nested within an ongoing randomized trial of perioperative statin treatment and AKI, we compared levels of F₂-isoprostanes and isofurans with plasma levels of free hemoglobin and myoglobin in 10 cardiac surgery AKI patients to those of 10 risk-matched controls. Peak plasma free hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher in AKI subjects (289.0 ± 37.8 versus 104.4 ± 36.5mg/dl, P = 0.01), whereas plasma myoglobin concentrations were similar between groups. The change in plasma F₂-isoprostane and isofuran levels (repeated-measures ANOVA, P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively) as well as the change in urine isofuran levels (P = 0.04) was significantly greater in AKI subjects. In addition, change in peak plasma isofuran levels correlated not only with peak free plasma hemoglobin concentrations (r² = 0.39, P = 0.001) but also with peak change in serum creatinine (r² = 0.20, P = 0.01). Postoperative AKI is associated with both enhanced intraoperative hemeprotein release and enhanced lipid peroxidation. The correlations among hemoglobinemia, lipid peroxidation, and AKI indicate a potential role for hemeprotein-induced oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of postoperative AKI.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure represents up to 15% of all cases of acute renal failure. Many studies over the past 4 decades have demonstrated that accumulation of myoglobin in the kidney is central in the mechanism leading to kidney injury. However, some discussion exists regarding the mechanism mediating this oxidant injury. Although the free-iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction has been proposed to explain the tissue injury, more recent evidence strongly suggests that the main cause of oxidant injury is myoglobin redox cycling and generation of oxidized lipids. These molecules can propagate tissue injury and cause renal vasoconstriction, two of the three main conditions associated with acute renal failure. This review presents the evidence supporting the two mechanisms of oxidative injury, describes the central role of myoglobin redox cycling in the pathology of renal failure associated with rhabdomyolysis, and discusses the value of therapeutic interventions aiming at inhibiting myoglobin redox cycling for the treatment of rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The exposure of electrospray droplets to acid vapors can significantly affect protein charge state distributions (CSDs) derived from unbuffered solutions. Such experiments have been conducted by leaking acidic vapors into the counter-current nitrogen drying gas of an electrospray interface. On the basis of changes in protein CSDs, protein folding and unfolding phenomena are implicated in these studies. Additionally, noncovalently bound complexes are preserved, and transient intermediates are observed, such as high charge state ions of holomyoglobin. CSDs of proteins containing disulfide bonds shift slightly, if at all, with acid vapor leak-in, but when these disulfide bonds are reduced in solution, charge states higher than the number of basic sites (Lys, Arg, His, and N-terminus) are observed. Since there is no observed change in the CSD of buffered proteins exposed to acidic vapors, this novel multiple charging phenomenon is attributed to a pH effect. Thus, this acid vapor leak-in approach can be used to reverse "wrong-way-round" nanoelectrospray conditions by altering solution pH in the charged droplets relative to the pH in bulk solution. In general, the exposure of electrospray droplets to acidic vapors provides means for altering protein CSDs independent of bulk unbuffered solution pH.
Hemoproteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, once released from cells can cause severe oxidative damage as a consequence of heme redox cycling between ferric and ferryl states that generates radical species that induce lipid peroxidation. We demonstrate in vitro that acetaminophen inhibits hemoprotein-induced lipid peroxidation by reducing ferryl heme to its ferric state and quenching globin radicals. Severe muscle injury (rhabdomyolysis) is accompanied by the release of myoglobin that becomes deposited in the kidney, causing renal injury. We previously showed in a rat model of rhabdomyolysis that redox cycling between ferric and ferryl myoglobin yields radical species that cause severe oxidative damage to the kidney. In this model, acetaminophen at therapeutic plasma concentrations significantly decreased oxidant injury in the kidney, improved renal function, and reduced renal damage. These findings also provide a hypothesis for potential therapeutic applications for acetaminophen in diseases involving hemoprotein-mediated oxidative injury.
Top down proteomics in a TOF-TOF instrument was further explored by examining the fragmentation of multiply charged precursors ions generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization. Evaluation of sample preparation conditions allowed selection of solvent/matrix conditions and sample deposition methods to produce sufficiently abundant doubly and triply charged precursor ions for subsequent CID experiments. As previously reported, preferential cleavage was observed at sites C-terminal to acidic residues and N-terminal to proline residues for all ions examined. An increase in nonpreferential fragmentation as well as additional low mass product ions was observed in the spectra from multiply charged precursor ions providing increased sequence coverage. This enhanced fragmentation from multiply charged precursor ions became increasingly important with increasing protein molecular weight and facilitates protein identification using database searching algorithms. The useable mass range for MALDI TOF-TOF analysis of intact proteins has been expanded to 18.2 kDa using this approach.
Myoglobin (Mb) redox state affects meat color and is destabilized by lipid oxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Our objective was to investigate lipid oxidation-induced oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) oxidation in Mb from two major meat-producing livestock species utilizing MS and proteomics tools. Porcine OxyMb was incubated with HNE and analyzed for metmyoglobin (MetMb) formation. MetMb formation was greater in the presence of HNE than controls at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C (p <0.05). MALDI-TOF MS was used to identify adduct formation; only mono-adducts of HNE (via Michael addition) with porcine Mb were detected. LC-ESI-MS/MS identified three histidine (HIS) residues in porcine Mb that were readily adducted by HNE (HIS 24, 36 and 119), whereas in bovine Mb seven histidine residues (HIS 24, 36, 81, 88, 93, 119 and 152) were adducted. Quantitation of HNE-adducted peptides using isotope-labeled phenyl isocyanate indicated that, initially, HIS 36 was preferentially adducted in porcine Mb whereas HIS 81, 88 and 93 were the predominant sites of early HNE adduction in bovine Mb. Preferential HNE adduction at the proximal histidine (HIS 93) was observed exclusively in bovine OxyMb and may explain why lipid oxidation-induced OxyMb oxidation appears more extensive in beef, than in pork.