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IRE1α-XBP1 signaling in leukocytes controls prostaglandin biosynthesis and pain.
Chopra S, Giovanelli P, Alvarado-Vazquez PA, Alonso S, Song M, Sandoval TA, Chae CS, Tan C, Fonseca MM, Gutierrez S, Jimenez L, Subbaramaiah K, Iwawaki T, Kingsley PJ, Marnett LJ, Kossenkov AV, Crespo MS, Dannenberg AJ, Glimcher LH, Romero-Sandoval EA, Cubillos-Ruiz JR
(2019) Science 365:
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cells, Cultured, Cyclooxygenase 2, Dinoprostone, Endoribonucleases, Humans, Leukocytes, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Myeloid Cells, Pain, Postoperative, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Prostaglandin-E Synthases, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Signal Transduction, Unfolded Protein Response, Visceral Pain, X-Box Binding Protein 1
Show Abstract · Added March 12, 2020
Inositol-requiring enzyme 1[α] (IRE1[α])-X-box binding protein spliced (XBP1) signaling maintains endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis while controlling immunometabolic processes. Yet, the physiological consequences of IRE1α-XBP1 activation in leukocytes remain unexplored. We found that induction of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (/Cox-2) and prostaglandin E synthase (/mPGES-1) was compromised in IRE1α-deficient myeloid cells undergoing ER stress or stimulated through pattern recognition receptors. Inducible biosynthesis of prostaglandins, including the pro-algesic mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE), was decreased in myeloid cells that lack IRE1α or XBP1 but not other ER stress sensors. Functional XBP1 transactivated the human and genes to enable optimal PGE production. Mice that lack IRE1α-XBP1 in leukocytes, or that were treated with IRE1α inhibitors, demonstrated reduced pain behaviors in PGE-dependent models of pain. Thus, IRE1α-XBP1 is a mediator of prostaglandin biosynthesis and a potential target to control pain.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
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18 MeSH Terms
High dietary salt-induced dendritic cell activation underlies microbial dysbiosis-associated hypertension.
Ferguson JF, Aden LA, Barbaro NR, Van Beusecum JP, Xiao L, Simmons AJ, Warden C, Pasic L, Himmel LE, Washington MK, Revetta FL, Zhao S, Kumaresan S, Scholz MB, Tang Z, Chen G, Reilly MP, Kirabo A
(2019) JCI Insight 5:
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adoptive Transfer, Adult, Angiotensin II, Animals, Aorta, Bacteria, Blood Pressure, CD11c Antigen, Colon, Cytokines, Dendritic Cells, Disease Models, Animal, Dysbiosis, Female, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Humans, Hypertension, Inflammation, Lipids, Lymph Nodes, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Middle Aged, Myeloid Cells, Peyer's Patches, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Chloride, Dietary, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Excess dietary salt contributes to inflammation and hypertension via poorly understood mechanisms. Antigen presenting cells including dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in regulating intestinal immune homeostasis in part by surveying the gut epithelial surface for pathogens. Previously, we found that highly reactive γ-ketoaldehydes or isolevuglandins (IsoLGs) accumulate in DCs and act as neoantigens, promoting an autoimmune-like state and hypertension. We hypothesized that excess dietary salt alters the gut microbiome leading to hypertension and this is associated with increased immunogenic IsoLG-adduct formation in myeloid antigen presenting cells. To test this hypothesis, we performed fecal microbiome analysis and measured blood pressure of healthy human volunteers with salt intake above or below the American Heart Association recommendations. We also performed 16S rRNA analysis on cecal samples of mice fed normal or high salt diets. In humans and mice, high salt intake was associated with changes in the gut microbiome reflecting an increase in Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and genus Prevotella bacteria. These alterations were associated with higher blood pressure in humans and predisposed mice to vascular inflammation and hypertension in response to a sub-pressor dose of angiotensin II. Mice fed a high salt diet exhibited increased intestinal inflammation including the mesenteric arterial arcade and aorta, with a marked increase in the B7 ligand CD86 and formation of IsoLG-protein adducts in CD11c+ myeloid cells. Adoptive transfer of fecal material from conventionally housed high salt-fed mice to germ-free mice predisposed them to increased intestinal inflammation and hypertension. These findings provide novel insight into the mechanisms underlying inflammation and hypertension associated with excess dietary salt and may lead to interventions targeting the microbiome to prevent and treat this important disease.
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31 MeSH Terms
Myeloid Cell-Derived HB-EGF Drives Tissue Recovery After Pancreatitis.
Wen HJ, Gao S, Wang Y, Ray M, Magnuson MA, Wright CVE, Di Magliano MP, Frankel TL, Crawford HC
(2019) Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 8: 173-192
MeSH Terms: Animals, DNA, DNA Repair, Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Myeloid Cells, Pancreas, Pancreatitis, Regeneration
Show Abstract · Added June 4, 2019
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Pancreatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for pancreatic tumorigenesis. Upon tissue damage, an inflammatory response, made up largely of macrophages, provides multiple growth factors that promote repair. Here, we examine the molecular pathways initiated by macrophages to promote pancreas recovery from pancreatitis.
METHODS - To induce organ damage, mice were subjected to cerulein-induced experimental pancreatitis and analyzed at various times of recovery. CD11b-DTR mice were used to deplete myeloid cells. Hbegf;LysM-Cre mice were used to ablate myeloid cell-derived heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF). To ablate EGFR specifically during recovery, pancreatitis was induced in Egfr;Ptf1a;FSF-Rosa26 mice followed by tamoxifen treatment.
RESULTS - Macrophages infiltrating the pancreas in experimental pancreatitis make high levels of HB-EGF. Both depletion of myeloid cells and ablation of myeloid cell HB-EGF delayed recovery from experimental pancreatitis, resulting from a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. Mechanistically, ablation of myeloid cell HB-EGF impaired epithelial cell DNA repair, ultimately leading to cell death. Soluble HB-EGF induced EGFR nuclear translocation and methylation of histone H4, facilitating resolution of DNA damage in pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. Consistent with its role as the primary receptor of HB-EGF, in vivo ablation of EGFR from pancreatic epithelium during recovery from pancreatitis resulted in accumulation of DNA damage.
CONCLUSIONS - By using novel conditional knockout mouse models, we determined that HB-EGF derived exclusively from myeloid cells induces epithelial cell proliferation and EGFR-dependent DNA repair, facilitating pancreas healing after injury.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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10 MeSH Terms
VacA Targets Myeloid Cells in the Gastric Lamina Propria To Promote Peripherally Induced Regulatory T-Cell Differentiation and Persistent Infection.
Altobelli A, Bauer M, Velez K, Cover TL, Müller A
(2019) mBio 10:
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bacterial Proteins, Cell Differentiation, Dendritic Cells, Disease Models, Animal, Gastric Mucosa, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Immune Evasion, Interleukin-10, Interleukin-23, Lung, Macrophages, Mice, Mucous Membrane, Myeloid Cells, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, Transforming Growth Factor beta
Show Abstract · Added April 11, 2019
The gastric bacterium causes a persistent infection that is directly responsible for gastric ulcers and gastric cancer in some patients and protective against allergic and other immunological disorders in others. The two outcomes of the -host interaction can be modeled in mice that are infected as immunocompetent adults and as neonates, respectively. Here, we have investigated the contribution of the immunomodulator VacA to -specific local and systemic immune responses in both models. We found that neonatally infected mice are colonized at higher levels than mice infected as adults and fail to generate effector T-cell responses to the bacteria; rather, T-cell responses in neonatally infected mice are skewed toward Foxp3-positive (Foxp3) regulatory T cells that are neuropilin negative and express RORγt. We found these peripherally induced regulatory T cells (pTregs) to be enriched, in a VacA-dependent manner, not only in the gastric mucosa but also in the lungs of infected mice. Pulmonary pTreg accumulation was observed in mice that have been infected neonatally with wild-type but not in mice that have been infected as adults or mice infected with a VacA null mutant. Finally, we traced VacA to gastric lamina propria myeloid cells and show that it suppressed interleukin-23 (IL-23) expression by dendritic cells and induced IL-10 and TGF-β expression in macrophages. Taken together, the results are consistent with the idea that creates a tolerogenic environment through its immunomodulator VacA, which skews T-cell responses toward Tregs, favors persistence, and affects immunity at distant sites. has coexisted with humans for at least 60.000 years and has evolved persistence strategies that allow it to evade host immunity and colonize its host for life. The VacA protein is expressed by all strains and is required for high-level persistent infection in experimental mouse models. Here, we show that VacA targets myeloid cells in the gastric mucosa to create a tolerogenic environment that facilitates regulatory T-cell differentiation, while suppressing effector T-cell priming and functionality. Tregs that are induced in the periphery during infection can be found not only in the stomach but also in the lungs of infected mice, where they are likely to affect immune responses to allergens.
Copyright © 2019 Altobelli et al.
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18 MeSH Terms
Myeloid-Specific Deletion of Epsins 1 and 2 Reduces Atherosclerosis by Preventing LRP-1 Downregulation.
Brophy ML, Dong Y, Tao H, Yancey PG, Song K, Zhang K, Wen A, Wu H, Lee Y, Malovichko MV, Sithu SD, Wong S, Yu L, Kocher O, Bischoff J, Srivastava S, Linton MF, Ley K, Chen H
(2019) Circ Res 124: e6-e19
MeSH Terms: Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport, Animals, Apolipoproteins E, Atherosclerosis, Cells, Cultured, Down-Regulation, Gene Deletion, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Macrophages, Mice, Myeloid Cells, RAW 264.7 Cells, Receptors, LDL, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, Ubiquitination
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
RATIONALE - Atherosclerosis is, in part, caused by immune and inflammatory cell infiltration into the vascular wall, leading to enhanced inflammation and lipid accumulation in the aortic endothelium. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease is critical for the development of new therapies. Our recent studies demonstrate that epsins, a family of ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptors, are critical regulators of atherogenicity. Given the fundamental contribution lesion macrophages make to fuel atherosclerosis, whether and how myeloid-specific epsins promote atherogenesis is an open and significant question.
OBJECTIVE - We will determine the role of myeloid-specific epsins in regulating lesion macrophage function during atherosclerosis.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We engineered myeloid cell-specific epsins double knockout mice (LysM-DKO) on an ApoE background. On Western diet, these mice exhibited marked decrease in atherosclerotic lesion formation, diminished immune and inflammatory cell content in aortas, and reduced necrotic core content but increased smooth muscle cell content in aortic root sections. Epsins deficiency hindered foam cell formation and suppressed proinflammatory macrophage phenotype but increased efferocytosis and anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype in primary macrophages. Mechanistically, we show that epsin loss specifically increased total and surface levels of LRP-1 (LDLR [low-density lipoprotein receptor]-related protein 1), an efferocytosis receptor with antiatherosclerotic properties. We further show that epsin and LRP-1 interact via epsin's ubiquitin-interacting motif domain. ox-LDL (oxidized LDL) treatment increased LRP-1 ubiquitination, subsequent binding to epsin, and its internalization from the cell surface, suggesting that epsins promote the ubiquitin-dependent internalization and downregulation of LRP-1. Crossing ApoE/LysM-DKO mice onto an LRP-1 heterozygous background restored, in part, atherosclerosis, suggesting that epsin-mediated LRP-1 downregulation in macrophages plays a pivotal role in propelling atherogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS - Myeloid epsins promote atherogenesis by facilitating proinflammatory macrophage recruitment and inhibiting efferocytosis in part by downregulating LRP-1, implicating that targeting epsins in macrophages may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to treat atherosclerosis.
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16 MeSH Terms
Helicobacter: Inflammation, immunology, and vaccines.
Blosse A, Lehours P, Wilson KT, Gobert AP
(2018) Helicobacter 23 Suppl 1: e12517
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bacterial Vaccines, Epithelial Cells, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Humans, Inflammation, Myeloid Cells
Show Abstract · Added December 16, 2018
Helicobacter pylori infection induces a chronic gastric inflammation which can lead to gastric ulcers and cancer. The mucosal immune response to H. pylori is first initiated by the activation of gastric epithelial cells that respond to numerous bacterial factors, such as the cytotoxin-associated gene A or the lipopolysaccharide intermediate heptose-1,7-bisphosphate. The response of these cells is orchestrated by different receptors including the intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 or the extracellular epidermal growth factor receptor. This nonspecific response leads to recruitment and activation of various myeloid (macrophages and dendritic cells) and T cells (T helper-17 and mucosal-associated invariant T cells), which magnify and maintain inflammation. In this review, we summarize the major advances made in the past year regarding the induction, the regulation, and the role of the innate and adaptive immune responses to H. pylori infection. We also recapitulate efforts that have been made to develop efficient vaccine strategies.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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8 MeSH Terms
Myeloid-derived interleukin-1β drives oncogenic KRAS-NF-κΒ addiction in malignant pleural effusion.
Marazioti A, Lilis I, Vreka M, Apostolopoulou H, Kalogeropoulou A, Giopanou I, Giotopoulou GA, Krontira AC, Iliopoulou M, Kanellakis NI, Agalioti T, Giannou AD, Jones-Paris C, Iwakura Y, Kardamakis D, Blackwell TS, Taraviras S, Spella M, Stathopoulos GT
(2018) Nat Commun 9: 672
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, Chemokine CXCL1, Female, Genes, ras, Humans, I-kappa B Kinase, Interleukin-1beta, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mutation, Myeloid Cells, NF-kappa B, Pleural Effusion, Malignant, Receptors, Interleukin-1
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2018
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a frequent metastatic manifestation of human cancers. While we previously identified KRAS mutations as molecular culprits of MPE formation, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here, we determine that non-canonical IKKα-RelB pathway activation of KRAS-mutant tumor cells mediates MPE development and this is fueled by host-provided interleukin IL-1β. Indeed, IKKα is required for the MPE-competence of KRAS-mutant tumor cells by activating non-canonical NF-κB signaling. IL-1β fuels addiction of mutant KRAS to IKKα resulting in increased CXCL1 secretion that fosters MPE-associated inflammation. Importantly, IL-1β-mediated NF-κB induction in KRAS-mutant tumor cells, as well as their resulting MPE-competence, can only be blocked by co-inhibition of both KRAS and IKKα, a strategy that overcomes drug resistance to individual treatments. Hence we show that mutant KRAS facilitates IKKα-mediated responsiveness of tumor cells to host IL-1β, thereby establishing a host-to-tumor signaling circuit that culminates in inflammatory MPE development and drug resistance.
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16 MeSH Terms
Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Coordinates a Pro-carcinogenic Inflammatory Cascade via Targeting of Colonic Epithelial Cells.
Chung L, Thiele Orberg E, Geis AL, Chan JL, Fu K, DeStefano Shields CE, Dejea CM, Fathi P, Chen J, Finard BB, Tam AJ, McAllister F, Fan H, Wu X, Ganguly S, Lebid A, Metz P, Van Meerbeke SW, Huso DL, Wick EC, Pardoll DM, Wan F, Wu S, Sears CL, Housseau F
(2018) Cell Host Microbe 23: 203-214.e5
MeSH Terms: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein, Animals, Bacterial Toxins, Bacteroides fragilis, Carcinogenesis, Cell Line, Tumor, Colon, Colorectal Neoplasms, Enzyme Activation, Epithelial Cells, Female, Gene Deletion, HT29 Cells, Humans, Inflammation, Interleukin-17, Male, Metalloendopeptidases, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Myeloid Cells, Receptors, Interleukin-17, Receptors, Interleukin-8B, STAT3 Transcription Factor, Transcription Factor RelA
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2018
Pro-carcinogenic bacteria have the potential to initiate and/or promote colon cancer, in part via immune mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Using Apc mice colonized with the human pathobiont enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) as a model of microbe-induced colon tumorigenesis, we show that the Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) triggers a pro-carcinogenic, multi-step inflammatory cascade requiring IL-17R, NF-κB, and Stat3 signaling in colonic epithelial cells (CECs). Although necessary, Stat3 activation in CECs is not sufficient to trigger ETBF colon tumorigenesis. Notably, IL-17-dependent NF-κB activation in CECs induces a proximal to distal mucosal gradient of C-X-C chemokines, including CXCL1, that mediates the recruitment of CXCR2-expressing polymorphonuclear immature myeloid cells with parallel onset of ETBF-mediated distal colon tumorigenesis. Thus, BFT induces a pro-carcinogenic signaling relay from the CEC to a mucosal Th17 response that results in selective NF-κB activation in distal colon CECs, which collectively triggers myeloid-cell-dependent distal colon tumorigenesis.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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26 MeSH Terms
Neutrophil-Derived IL-1β Impairs the Efficacy of NF-κB Inhibitors against Lung Cancer.
McLoed AG, Sherrill TP, Cheng DS, Han W, Saxon JA, Gleaves LA, Wu P, Polosukhin VV, Karin M, Yull FE, Stathopoulos GT, Georgoulias V, Zaynagetdinov R, Blackwell TS
(2016) Cell Rep 16: 120-132
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bortezomib, Carcinogenesis, Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung, Cell Proliferation, Epithelial Cells, Humans, I-kappa B Kinase, Interleukin-1beta, Lung Neoplasms, Mice, Myeloid Cells, NF-kappa B, Neutrophils, Signal Transduction, Survival Analysis
Show Abstract · Added March 29, 2017
Although epithelial NF-κB signaling is important for lung carcinogenesis, NF-κB inhibitors are ineffective for cancer treatment. To explain this paradox, we studied mice with genetic deletion of IKKβ in myeloid cells and found enhanced tumorigenesis in Kras(G12D) and urethane models of lung cancer. Myeloid-specific inhibition of NF-κB augmented pro-IL-1β processing by cathepsin G in neutrophils, leading to increased IL-1β and enhanced epithelial cell proliferation. Combined treatment with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor that blocks NF-κB activation, and IL-1 receptor antagonist reduced tumor formation and growth in vivo. In lung cancer patients, plasma IL-1β levels correlated with poor prognosis, and IL-1β increased following bortezomib treatment. Together, our studies elucidate an important role for neutrophils and IL-1β in lung carcinogenesis and resistance to NF-κB inhibitors.
Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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16 MeSH Terms
Sepsis Induces Hematopoietic Stem Cell Exhaustion and Myelosuppression through Distinct Contributions of TRIF and MYD88.
Zhang H, Rodriguez S, Wang L, Wang S, Serezani H, Kapur R, Cardoso AA, Carlesso N
(2016) Stem Cell Reports 6: 940-956
MeSH Terms: Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport, Animals, CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins, Cell Cycle, Disease Models, Animal, Gene Expression Regulation, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, Lipopolysaccharides, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Myeloid Cells, Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88, Proto-Oncogene Proteins, Sepsis, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptor 4, Trans-Activators, Transcription, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added June 12, 2017
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a central role in host responses to bacterial infection, but the precise mechanism(s) by which its downstream signaling components coordinate the bone marrow response to sepsis is poorly understood. Using mice deficient in TLR4 downstream adapters MYD88 or TRIF, we demonstrate that both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous MYD88 activation are major causes of myelosuppression during sepsis, while having a modest impact on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions. In contrast, cell-intrinsic TRIF activation severely compromises HSC self-renewal without directly affecting myeloid cells. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of MYD88 or TRIF contributes to cell-cycle activation of HSC and induces rapid and permanent changes in transcriptional programs, as indicated by persistent downregulation of Spi1 and CebpA expression after transplantation. Thus, distinct mechanisms downstream of TLR4 signaling mediate myelosuppression and HSC exhaustion during sepsis through unique effects of MyD88 and TRIF.
Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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18 MeSH Terms