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Hematopoiesis is a dynamic system that requires balanced cell division, differentiation, and death. The 2 major modes of programmed cell death, apoptosis and necroptosis, share molecular machinery but diverge in outcome with important implications for the microenvironment; apoptotic cells are removed in an immune silent process, whereas necroptotic cells leak cellular contents that incite inflammation. Given the importance of cytokine-directed cues for hematopoietic cell survival and differentiation, the impact on hematopoietic homeostasis of biasing cell death fate to necroptosis is substantial and poorly understood. Here, we present a mouse model with increased bone marrow necroptosis. Deletion of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak inhibits bone marrow apoptosis. Further deletion of the BH3-only member Bid (to generate triple-knockout [TKO] mice) leads to unrestrained bone marrow necroptosis driven by increased Rip1 kinase (Ripk1). TKO mice display loss of progenitor cells, leading to increased cytokine production and increased stem cell proliferation and exhaustion and culminating in bone marrow failure. Genetically restoring Ripk1 to wild-type levels restores peripheral red cell counts as well as normal cytokine production. TKO bone marrow is hypercellular with abnormal differentiation, resembling the human disorder myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and we demonstrate increased necroptosis in MDS bone marrow. Finally, we show that Bid impacts necroptotic signaling through modulation of caspase-8-mediated Ripk1 degradation. Thus, we demonstrate that dysregulated necroptosis in hematopoiesis promotes bone marrow progenitor cell death that incites inflammation, impairs hematopoietic stem cells, and recapitulates the salient features of the bone marrow failure disorder MDS.
© 2019 by The American Society of Hematology.
Antibodies aimed at blocking the interaction between programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands have shown impressive efficacy in a variety of malignancies and are generally well tolerated. Research has focused intensely on T cells and their interaction with cells within melanoma tumors, while relatively little is understood about the systems immunology of the cells in the blood during checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Longitudinal cytomic analysis using mass cytometry can characterize all the cells in a small sample of blood and has the potential to reveal key shifts in the cellular milieu occurring during treatment. We report a case of advanced melanoma in which mass cytometry detected abnormal myeloid cells resulting from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in the blood following treatment with an anti-PD-1 agent. Myeloid blasts comprised <1% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) 1 month after the start of treatment. Six months after starting therapy, myeloid blasts comprised 5% of PBMCs, and a bone marrow biopsy confirmed refractory anemia with excess blasts-2 (RAEB-2). Longitudinal mass cytometry immunophenotyping comprehensively characterized blast phenotype evolution and revealed elevated PD-1 expression on the surface of nonblast myeloid cells. These findings highlight the clinical significance of cytomic monitoring, indicate that the myeloid compartment should be monitored during checkpoint inhibitor therapy, and emphasize the value of systems immunology in medicine. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 474-80. ©2016 AACR.
©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Much-needed attention has been given of late to diseases specifically associated with an expanding elderly population. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a hematopoietic stem cell-based blood disease, is one of these. The lack of clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this disease has hampered the development of efficacious therapies, especially in the presence of comorbidities. Mouse models could potentially provide new insights into this disease, although primary human MDS cells grow poorly in xenografted mice. This makes genetically engineered murine models a more attractive proposition, although this approach is not without complications. In particular, it is unclear if or how myelodysplasia (abnormal blood cell morphology), a key MDS feature in humans, presents in murine cells. Here, we evaluate the histopathologic features of wild-type mice and 23 mouse models with verified myelodysplasia. We find that certain features indicative of myelodysplasia in humans, such as Howell-Jolly bodies and low neutrophilic granularity, are commonplace in healthy mice, whereas other features are similarly abnormal in humans and mice. Quantitative hematopoietic parameters, such as blood cell counts, are required to distinguish between MDS and related diseases. We provide data that mouse models of MDS can be genetically engineered and faithfully recapitulate human disease.
© 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) plays an essential role in T cell homeostasis by restraining immune responses. AG and GG genotypes of donor CTLA-4 SNP rs4553808 in patients after unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) have been shown to be an independent predictor of inferior relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with those with the AA genotype, in single-center studies. We tested the hypothesis that SNP rs4553808 is associated with RFS, OS, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and the cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD in adults with acute myeloid leukemia and advanced myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing a first 8/8 or 7/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor HSCT. Multivariable analysis adjusting for relevant donor and recipient characteristics showed no significant association between SNP rs4553808 and OS, RFS, NRM, and incidence of acute and chronic GVHD. An exploratory analysis of other CTLA-4 SNPs, as well as studying the interaction with antithymocyte globulin, also demonstrated no significant associations. Our results indicate that CTLA-4 SNPs are not associated with HSCT outcomes.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Alternative splicing is a major cellular mechanism in metazoans for generating proteomic diversity. A large proportion of protein-coding genes in multicellular organisms undergo alternative splicing, and in humans, it has been estimated that nearly 90 % of protein-coding genes-much larger than expected-are subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analyses of alternative splicing have illuminated its universal role in shaping the evolution of genomes, in the control of developmental processes, and in the dynamic regulation of the transcriptome to influence phenotype. Disruption of the splicing machinery has been found to drive pathophysiology, and indeed reprogramming of aberrant splicing can provide novel approaches to the development of molecular therapy. This review focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of alternative splicing brought about by the unprecedented explosive growth of genomic data and highlights the relevance of human splicing variation on disease and therapy.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematopoietic malignancies characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis. Recently, we identified MDS-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) that are down-regulated in MDS. This study examines possible explanations for that observed down-regulation of miRNA expression in MDS. Since genomic losses are insufficient to explain the down-regulation of all our MDS-associated miRNAs, we explored other avenues. We demonstrate that these miRNAs are predominantly intragenic, and that, in many cases, they and their host genes are expressed in a similar pattern during myeloid maturation, suggesting their co-regulation. This co-regulation is further supported by the down-regulation of several of the host genes in MDS and increased methylation of the shared promoters of several miRNAs and their respective host genes. These studies identify a role of hypermethylation of miRNA promoters in the down-regulation of MDS-associated miRNAs, unifying research on miRNAs in MDS and epigenetic regulation in MDS into a common pathway.
Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm of the skin that shows frequent lymph node metastases, but has only rarely been reported in the bone marrow. Herein we report a case of a 64-year-old male with a history of plasma cell myeloma and recent skin diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma who presented for a routine follow-up bone marrow to assess his myeloma. The biopsy showed persistent plasma cell myeloma, trilineage dysplasia, and clusters of neuroendocrine cells consistent with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Discussion of this case, a review of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, and identification of clinical settings in which staging bone marrow biopsy may be warranted are presented.
OBJECTIVE - The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are aging-associated disorders characterized by ineffective maturation of hematopoietic elements, which are often diagnostically challenging. This study identifies microRNAs (miRNA) and miRNA targets that might represent diagnostic markers for MDS.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - This study utilized a total of 42 MDS samples and 45 controls. A discovery set of 20 frozen bone marrow mononuclear cell samples (10 MDS, 10 controls) was profiled on a custom Agilent miRNA microarray. Classifier miRNAs were validated in a separate set of 49 paraffin-embedded particle preparations by real-time polymerase chain reaction (24 MDS, 25 controls). Target prediction analysis was compared to a de novo transcriptional profile of MDS derived from the Microarray Innovations in Leukemia study. c-Myb and Sufu were further investigated by immunohistochemical stains on a set of 26 paraffin-embedded samples.
RESULTS - We identified 13 miRNAs of interest from the discovery set, 8 of which proved statistically significant on real-time polymerase chain reaction verification. These eight miRNAs were then examined in an independent real-time polymerase chain reaction validation set. Notably, hsa-miR-378, hsa-miR-632, and hsa-miR-636 demonstrated particularly high discrimination between MDS and normal controls. Target prediction identified potential targets of miRNA regulation that correspond to many of the genes that characterize MDS. Immunohistochemical staining performed on a third validation set confirmed that c-Myb and Sufu are differentially expressed in MDS.
CONCLUSIONS - Our data utilize both discovery and validation sets and two complementary platforms to identify miRNAs associated with MDS. We have analyzed predicted targets and identified c-Myb and Sufu as potential diagnostic markers of MDS.
Copyright © 2011 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
By using flow cytometry, we analyzed myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) expression in myeloid precursors in bone marrow from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and control samples from patients undergoing orthopedic procedures. The median percentage of MNDA-dim myeloid precursors in MDS cases was 67.4% (range, 0.7%-97.5%; interquartile range, 44.9%-82.7%) of myeloid cells, with bimodal MNDA expression in most MDS samples. Control samples demonstrated a median MNDA-dim percentage in myeloid precursors of 1.2% (range, 0.2%-13.7%; interquartile range, 0.6%-2.7%), with no bimodal pattern in most samples. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for MNDA-dim percentage in myeloid precursors was 0.96 (P = 9 × 10(-7)). Correlation of MNDA-dim levels with World Health Organization 2008 morphologic diagnoses was not significant (P = .21), but correlation with patient International Prognostic Scoring System scores suggested a trend (P = .07). Flow cytometric assessment of MNDA in myeloid precursors in bone marrow may be useful for the diagnosis of MDS.
Although some trials have allowed matched or single human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched related donors (mmRDs) along with HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs) for pediatric bone marrow transplantation in early-stage hematologic malignancies, whether mmRD grafts lead to similar outcomes is not known. We compared patients < 18 years old reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing allogeneic T-replete, myeloablative bone marrow transplantation between 1993 and 2006. In total, patients receiving bone marrow from 1208 MSDs, 266 8/8 allelic-matched unrelated donors (URDs), and 151 0-1 HLA-antigen mmRDs were studied. Multivariate analysis showed that recipients of MSD transplants had less transplantation-related mortality, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and chronic GVHD, along with better disease-free and overall survival than the URD and mmRD groups. No differences were observed in transplant-related mortality, acute and chronic GVHD, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival between the mmRD and URD groups. These data show that mmRD and 8/8 URD outcomes are similar, whereas MSD outcomes are superior to the other 2 sources. Whether allele level typing could identify mmRD recipients with better outcomes will not be known unless centers alter practice and type mmRD at the allele level.