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Individuals with chronic kidney disease have elevated levels of oxidative stress and are at a significantly higher risk of skeletal fracture. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in bone and compromise mechanical properties, are known to be driven in part by oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to study effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on reducing oxidative stress and improving various bone parameters, most specifically mechanical properties, in an animal model of progressive CKD. Male Cy/+ (CKD) rats and unaffected littermates were untreated (controls) or treated with NAC (80 mg/kg, IP) from 30 to 35 weeks of age. Endpoint measures included serum biochemistries, assessments of systemic oxidative stress, bone morphology, and mechanical properties, and AGE levels in the bone. CKD rats had the expected phenotype that included low kidney function, elevated parathyroid hormone, higher cortical porosity, and compromised mechanical properties. NAC treatment had mixed effects on oxidative stress markers, significantly reducing TBARS (a measure of lipid peroxidation) while not affecting 8-OHdG (a marker of DNA oxidation) levels. AGE levels in the bone were elevated in CKD animals and were reduced with NAC although this did not translate to a benefit in bone mechanical properties. In conclusion, NAC failed to significantly improve bone architecture/geometry/mechanical properties in our rat model of progressive CKD.
The missing heritability of breast cancer could be partially attributed to rare variants (MAF < 0.5%). To identify breast cancer-associated rare coding variants, we conducted whole-exome sequencing (~50×) in genomic DNA samples obtained from 831 breast cancer cases and 839 controls of Chinese females. Using burden tests for each gene that included rare missense or predicted deleterious variants, we identified 29 genes showing promising associations with breast cancer risk. We replicated the association for two genes, OGDHL and BRCA2, at a Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.05, by genotyping an independent set of samples from 1,628 breast cancer cases and 1,943 controls. The association for OGDHL was primarily driven by three predicted deleterious variants (p.Val827Met, p.Pro839Leu, p.Phe836Ser; p < 0.01 for all). For BRCA2, we characterized a total of 27 disruptive variants, including 18 nonsense, six frameshift and three splicing variants, whereas they were only detected in cases, but none of the controls. All of these variants were either very rare (AF < 0.1%) or not detected in >4,500 East Asian women from the genome Aggregation database (gnomAD), providing additional support to our findings. Our study revealed a potential novel gene and multiple disruptive variants of BRCA2 for breast cancer risk, which may identify high-risk women in Chinese populations.
© 2019 UICC.
infects every niche of the human host. In response to microbial infection, vertebrates have an arsenal of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit bacterial growth or kill bacterial cells. One class of antimicrobial compounds consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are highly abundant in eukaryotes and encountered by at the host-pathogen interface. Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids in vertebrates and is released in large amounts during the oxidative burst. Most of the released AA is converted to bioactive signaling molecules, but, independently of its role in inflammatory signaling, AA is toxic to Here, we report that AA kills through a lipid peroxidation mechanism whereby AA is oxidized to reactive electrophiles that modify macromolecules, eliciting toxicity. This process is rescued by cotreatment with antioxidants as well as in a strain genetically inactivated for (USA300 mutant) that produces lower levels of reactive oxygen species. However, resistance to AA stress in the USA300 mutant comes at a cost, making the mutant more susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics and attenuated for pathogenesis in a murine infection model compared to the parental methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strain, indicating that resistance to AA toxicity increases susceptibility to other stressors encountered during infection. This report defines the mechanism by which AA is toxic to and identifies lipid peroxidation as a pathway that can be modulated for the development of future therapeutics to treat infections. Despite the ability of the human immune system to generate a plethora of molecules to control infections, is among the pathogens with the greatest impact on human health. One class of host molecules toxic to consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we investigated the antibacterial properties of arachidonic acid, one of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans, and discovered that the mechanism of toxicity against proceeds through lipid peroxidation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the immune system kills , and by which avoids host killing, will enable the optimal design of therapeutics that complement the ability of the vertebrate immune response to eliminate infections.
Copyright © 2019 Beavers et al.
The voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1 (KV7.1) assembles with the KCNE1 accessory protein to generate the slow delayed rectifier current, IKS, which is critical for membrane repolarization as part of the cardiac action potential. Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in KCNQ1 are the most common cause of congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS), type 1 LQTS, an inherited genetic predisposition to cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. A detailed structural understanding of KCNQ1 is needed to elucidate the molecular basis for KCNQ1 LOF in disease and to enable structure-guided design of new anti-arrhythmic drugs. In this work, advanced structural models of human KCNQ1 in the resting/closed and activated/open states were developed by Rosetta homology modeling guided by newly available experimentally-based templates: X. leavis KCNQ1 and various resting voltage sensor structures. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the capacity of the models to describe experimentally established channel properties including state-dependent voltage sensor gating charge interactions and pore conformations, PIP2 binding sites, and voltage sensor-pore domain interactions were validated. Rosetta energy calculations were applied to assess the utility of each model in interpreting mutation-evoked KCNQ1 dysfunction by predicting the change in protein thermodynamic stability for 50 experimentally characterized KCNQ1 variants with mutations located in the voltage-sensing domain. Energetic destabilization was successfully predicted for folding-defective KCNQ1 LOF mutants whereas wild type-like mutants exhibited no significant energetic frustrations, which supports growing evidence that mutation-induced protein destabilization is an especially common cause of KCNQ1 dysfunction. The new KCNQ1 Rosetta models provide helpful tools in the study of the structural basis for KCNQ1 function and can be used to generate hypotheses to explain KCNQ1 dysfunction.
BACKGROUND - CaM (calmodulin) mutations are associated with congenital arrhythmia susceptibility (calmodulinopathy) and are most often de novo. In this report, we sought to broaden the genotype-phenotype spectrum of calmodulinopathies with 2 novel calmodulin mutations and to investigate mosaicism in 2 affected families.
METHODS - CaM mutations were identified in 4 independent cases by DNA sequencing. Biochemical and electrophysiological studies were performed to determine functional consequences of each mutation.
RESULTS - Genetic studies identified 2 novel CaM variants (-E141K in 2 cases; -E141V) and one previously reported CaM pathogenic variant (-D130G) among 4 probands with shared clinical features of prolonged QTc interval (range 505-725 ms) and documented ventricular arrhythmia. A fatal outcome occurred for 2 of the cases. The parents of all probands were asymptomatic with normal QTc duration. However, 2 of the families had multiple affected offspring or multiple occurrences of intrauterine fetal demise. The mother from the family with recurrent intrauterine fetal demise exhibited the -E141K mutant allele in 25% of next-generation sequencing reads indicating somatic mosaicism, whereas -D130G was present in 6% of captured molecules of the paternal DNA sample, also indicating mosaicism. Two novel mutations (E141K and E141V) impaired Ca binding affinity to the C-domain of CaM. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes overexpressing mutant or wild-type CaM showed that both mutants impaired Ca-dependent inactivation of L-type Ca channels and prolonged action potential duration.
CONCLUSIONS - We report 2 families with somatic mosaicism associated with arrhythmogenic calmodulinopathy, and demonstrate dysregulation of L-type Ca channels by 2 novel CaM mutations affecting the same residue. Parental mosaicism should be suspected in families with unexplained fetal arrhythmia or fetal demise combined with a documented CaM mutation.
BACKGROUND - Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is a highly morbid disease that features enlarged brain ventricles and impaired cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis. Although early linkage or targeted sequencing studies in large multigenerational families have localized several genes for CH, the etiology of most CH cases remains unclear. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing (WES) have identified five new bona fide CH genes, implicating impaired regulation of neural stem cell fate in CH pathogenesis. Nonetheless, in the majority of CH cases, the pathological etiology remains unknown, suggesting more genes await discovery.
METHODS - WES of family members of a sporadic and familial form of severe L1CAM mutation-negative CH associated with aqueductal stenosis was performed. Rare genetic variants were analyzed, prioritized, and validated. De novo copy number variants (CNVs) were identified using the XHMM algorithm and validated using qPCR. Xenopus oocyte experiments were performed to access mutation impact on protein function and expression.
RESULTS - A novel inherited protein-damaging mutation (p.Pro605Leu) in SLC12A6, encoding the K -Cl cotransporter KCC3, was identified in both affected members of multiplex kindred CHYD110. p.Pro605 is conserved in KCC3 orthologs and among all human KCC paralogs. The p.Pro605Leu mutation maps to the ion-transporting domain, and significantly reduces KCC3-dependent K transport. A novel de novo CNV (deletion) was identified in SLC12A7, encoding the KCC3 paralog and binding partner KCC4, in another family (CHYD130) with sporadic CH.
CONCLUSION - These findings identify two novel, related genes associated with CH, and implicate genetically encoded impairments in ion transport for the first time in CH pathogenesis.
© 2019 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A novel, common, and potent cardiovascular risk factor has recently emerged: clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). CHIP arises from somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem cells that yield clonal progeny of mutant leukocytes in blood. Individuals with CHIP have a doubled risk of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke, and worsened heart failure outcomes independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The recognition of CHIP as a nontraditional risk factor challenges specialists in hematology/oncology and cardiovascular medicine alike. Should we screen for CHIP? If so, in whom? How should we assess cardiovascular risk in people with CHIP? How should we manage the excess cardiovascular risk in the absence of an evidence base? This review explains CHIP, explores the clinical quandaries, strives to provide reasonable recommendations for the multidisciplinary management of cardiovascular risk in individuals with CHIP, and highlights current knowledge gaps.
Copyright © 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Activating mutation of the KRAS gene is common in some cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, but rare in other cancers. Chronic pancreatitis is a predisposing condition for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but how it synergizes with KRAS mutation is not known.
METHODS - We used a mouse model to express an activating mutation of Kras in conjunction with obstruction of the main pancreatic duct to recapitulate a common etiology of human chronic pancreatitis. Because the cell of origin of PDAC is not clear, Kras mutation was introduced into either duct cells or acinar cells.
RESULTS - Although Kras expression in both cell types was protective against damage-associated cell death, chronic pancreatitis induced p53, p21, and growth arrest only in acinar-derived cells. Mutant duct cells did not elevate p53 or p21 expression and exhibited increased proliferation driving the appearance of PDAC over time.
CONCLUSIONS - One mechanism by which tissues may be susceptible or resistant to KRAS-initiated tumorigenesis is whether they undergo a p53-mediated damage response. In summary, we have uncovered a mechanism by which inflammation and intrinsic cellular programming synergize for the development of PDAC.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Sex differences mediating predisposition to kidney injury are well known, with evidence indicating lower CKD incidence rates and slower decline in renal function in nondiabetic CKD for premenopausal women compared with men. However, signaling pathways involved have not been elucidated to date. The EGF receptor (EGFR) is widely expressed in the kidney in glomeruli and tubules, and persistent and dysregulated EGFR activation mediates progressive renal injury.
METHODS - To investigate the sex differences in response to renal injury, we examined EGFR expression in mice, in human kidney tissue, and in cultured cell lines.
RESULTS - In wild type mice, renal mRNA and protein EGFR levels were comparable in males and females at postnatal day 7 but were significantly lower in age-matched adult females than in adult males. Similar gender differences in renal EGFR expression were detected in normal adult human kidneys. In Dsk5 mutant mice with a gain-of-function allele that increases basal EGFR kinase activity, males had progressive glomerulopathy, albuminuria, loss of podocytes, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but female Dsk5 mice had minimal kidney injury. Oophorectomy had no effect on renal EGFR levels in female Dsk5 mice, while castration protected against the kidney injury in male Dsk5 mice, in association with a reduction in EGFR expression to levels seen in females. Conversely, testosterone increased EGFR expression and renal injury in female Dsk5 mice. Testosterone directly stimulated EGFR expression in cultured kidney cells.
CONCLUSIONS - These studies indicate that differential renal EGFR expression plays a role in the sex differences in susceptibility to progressive kidney injury that may be mediated at least in part by testosterone.
Copyright © 2019 by the American Society of Nephrology.
BACKGROUND - Mutations in SLC6A1 have been associated mainly with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability. We identified a novel missense mutation in a patient with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) characterized by severe seizures and developmental delay.
METHODS - Exome Sequencing was performed in an epilepsy patient cohort. The impact of the mutation was evaluated by H γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, structural modeling, live cell microscopy, cell surface biotinylation and a high-throughput assay flow cytometry in both neurons and non neuronal cells.
RESULTS - We discovered a heterozygous missense mutation (c700G to A [pG234S) in the SLC6A1 encoding GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1). Structural modeling suggests the mutation destabilizes the global protein conformation. With transient expression of enhanced yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) tagged rat GAT-1 cDNAs, we demonstrated that the mutant GAT-1(G234S) transporter had reduced total protein expression in both rat cortical neurons and HEK 293 T cells. With a high-throughput flow cytometry assay and live cell surface biotinylation, we demonstrated that the mutant GAT-1(G234S) had reduced cell surface expression. H radioactive labeling GABA uptake assay in HeLa cells indicated a reduced function of the mutant GAT-1(G234S).
CONCLUSIONS - This mutation caused instability of the mutant transporter protein, which resulted in reduced cell surface and total protein levels. The mutation also caused reduced GABA uptake in addition to reduced protein expression, leading to reduced GABA clearance, and altered GABAergic signaling in the brain. The impaired trafficking and reduced GABA uptake function may explain the epilepsy phenotype in the patient.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.