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In vitro safety pharmacology evaluation of 2-hydroxybenzylamine acetate.
Fuller JC, Pitchford LM, Morrison RD, Daniels JS, Flynn CR, Abumrad NN, Oates JA, Boutaud O, Rathmacher JA
(2018) Food Chem Toxicol 121: 541-548
MeSH Terms: Adult, Benzylamines, Blood Proteins, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, ERG1 Potassium Channel, Erythrocytes, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Hepatocytes, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Mutagenicity Tests, Salmonella typhimurium
Show Abstract · Added April 15, 2019
2-hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA), a compound found in buckwheat, is a potent scavenger of reactive γ-ketoaldehydes, which are increased in diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. While the potential of 2-HOBA is promising, studies were needed to characterize the safety of the compound before clinical trials. In a series of experiments, the risks of 2-HOBA-mediated mutagenicity and cardio-toxicity were assessed in vitro. The effects of 2-HOBA on the mRNA expression of select cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were also assessed in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Further, the distribution and metabolism of 2-HOBA in blood were determined. Our results indicate that 2-HOBA is not cytotoxic or mutagenic in vitro and does not induce the expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. The results of the hERG testing showed a low risk of cardiac QT wave prolongation. Plasma protein binding and red blood cell distribution characteristics indicate low protein binding and no preferential distribution into erythrocytes. The major metabolites identified were salicylic acid and the glycoside conjugate of 2-HOBA. Together, these findings support development of 2-HOBA as a nutritional supplement and provide important information for the design of further preclinical safety studies in animals as well as for human clinical trials with 2-HOBA.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
FEMA expert panel review of p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al genotoxicity testing results.
Cohen SM, Fukushima S, Gooderham NJ, Guengerich FP, Hecht SS, Rietjens IMCM, Smith RL, Bastaki M, Harman CL, McGowen MM, Taylor SV
(2016) Food Chem Toxicol 98: 201-209
MeSH Terms: Animals, DNA Damage, Legislation, Food, Micronucleus Tests, Monoterpenes, Mutagenicity Tests, Perilla, Rats
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al is a naturally occurring cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde that is used as a flavoring substance throughout the world. Due to the chemical structure and the potential DNA reactivity of the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety, a battery of genotoxicity assays was requested by the European Food Safety Authority. Previous genotoxicity studies on the substance gave mixed results, but both positive and negative results were hampered by not always being performed to any standard guideline. The new test battery data indicated some evidence of mutagenicity in vitro, but an in vivo comet/micronucleus combination assay performed in rats was concluded by the study directors to not result in any biologically relevant positive responses. However, EFSA concluded that the in vivo assay gave evidence that p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al was of potential genotoxic concern. The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) has reviewed the newly available data and considered its interpretation relative to standard guidelines such as that established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and has concluded that the results in the comet/micronucleus combination assay are consistent with the interpretation by the study directors; namely, that p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al does not appear to have any in vivo genotoxic potential.
Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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8 MeSH Terms
In vivo roles of conjugation with glutathione and O6-alkylguanine DNA-alkyltransferase in the mutagenicity of the bis-electrophiles 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane in mice.
Cho SH, Guengerich FP
(2013) Chem Res Toxicol 26: 1765-74
MeSH Terms: Animals, Butadienes, Buthionine Sulfoximine, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, DNA Adducts, DNA Mutational Analysis, Epoxy Compounds, Ethylene Dibromide, Glutathione, Glutathione Transferase, Guanine, Liver, Male, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, Mutagenicity Tests, Mutation, Mutation Rate, O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase, Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
Several studies with bacteria and in vitro mammalian systems have provided evidence of the roles of two thiol-based conjugation systems, glutathione (GSH) transferase and O(6)-alkylguanine DNA-alkyltransferase (AGT), in the bioactivation of the bis-electrophiles 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), the latter an oxidation product of 1,3-butadiene. The in vivo relevance of these conjugation reactions to biological activity in mammals has not been addressed, particularly with DEB. In this work, we used transgenic Big Blue mice, utilizing the cII gene, to examine the effects of manipulation of conjugation pathways on liver mutations arising from dibromoethane and DEB in vivo. Treatment of the mice with butathionine sulfoxime (BSO) prior to dibromoethane lowered hepatic GSH levels, dibromoethane-GSH DNA adduct levels (N(7)-guanyl), and the cII mutation frequency. Administration of O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BzGua), an inhibitor of AGT, did not change the mutation frequency. Depletion of GSH (BSO) and AGT (O(6)-BzGua) lowered the mutation frequency induced by DEB, and BSO lowered the levels of GSH-DEB N(7)-guanyl and N(6)-adenyl DNA adducts. Our results provide evidence that the GSH conjugation pathway is a major in vivo factor in dibromoethane genotoxicity; both GSH conjugation and AGT conjugation are major factors in the genotoxicity of DEB. The latter findings are considered to be relevant to the carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.
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20 MeSH Terms
Safety assessment of borosilicate glasses as used in cosmetics.
Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA
(2013) Int J Toxicol 32: 65S-72S
MeSH Terms: Animals, Boron Compounds, Consumer Product Safety, Cosmetics, Glass, Humans, Mutagenicity Tests, Silicates, Skin
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2014
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of calcium sodium borosilicate, calcium aluminum borosilicate, calcium titanium borosilicate, silver borosilicate, and zinc borosilicate as used in cosmetics. These borosilicate glasses function mostly as bulking agents. Available animal and human data were considered along with data from a previous safety assessment of magnesium silicates. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. Data submitted on calcium borosilicate, which is not a cosmetic ingredient, are also included as additional support for the safety of borosilicate glass ingredients. The Panel concluded that borosilicate glasses are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.
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9 MeSH Terms
Safety assessment of bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2 and bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-1 as used in cosmetics.
Fiume MM, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA
(2013) Int J Toxicol 32: 56S-64S
MeSH Terms: Adipates, Animals, Consumer Product Safety, Cosmetics, Emollients, Humans, Mutagenicity Tests, Skin
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2014
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2 and bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-1 as used in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. Both ingredients are lanolin substitutes and are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents--emollients. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety.
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8 MeSH Terms
Safety assessment of lauriminodipropionic acid, sodium lauriminodipropionate, and disodium lauriminodipropionate as used in cosmetics.
Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler D, Marks JG, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA
(2013) Int J Toxicol 32: 49S-55S
MeSH Terms: Animals, Consumer Product Safety, Cosmetics, Humans, Imidoesters, Mutagenicity Tests, Reproduction, Skin, Surface-Active Agents
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2014
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of lauriminodipropionic acid, sodium lauriminodipropionate, and disodium lauriminodipropionate as used in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics as hair-conditioning agents and surfactant-cleansing agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the safety of these ingredients in cosmetics. The Panel concluded that lauriminodipropionic acid, sodium lauriminodipropionate, and disodium lauriminodipropionate are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentration.
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9 MeSH Terms
Safety assessment of decyl glucoside and other alkyl glucosides as used in cosmetics.
Fiume MM, Heldreth B, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler D, Marks JG, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA
(2013) Int J Toxicol 32: 22S-48S
MeSH Terms: Animals, Consumer Product Safety, Cosmetics, Glucosides, Humans, Mutagenicity Tests, Reproduction, Skin
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2014
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of 19 alkyl glucosides as used in cosmetics and concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. Most of these ingredients function as surfactants in cosmetics, but some have additional functions as skin-conditioning agents, hair-conditioning agents, or emulsion stabilizers. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data on these ingredients. Since glucoside hydrolases in human skin are likely to break down these ingredients to release their respective fatty acids and glucose, the Panel also reviewed CIR reports on the safety of fatty alcohols and were able to extrapolate data from those previous reports to support safety.
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8 MeSH Terms
Replication, repair, and translesion polymerase bypass of N⁶-oxopropenyl-2'-deoxyadenosine.
Maddukuri L, Shuck SC, Eoff RL, Zhao L, Rizzo CJ, Guengerich FP, Marnett LJ
(2013) Biochemistry 52: 8766-76
MeSH Terms: DNA Polymerase I, DNA Repair, DNA Replication, DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase, Deoxyadenosines, Humans, Kinetics, Mutagenicity Tests, Mutagens, Sulfolobus solfataricus
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
The oxidative stress products malondialdehyde and base propenal react with DNA bases forming the adduction products 3-(2'-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG) and N(6)-(oxypropenyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (OPdA). M1dG is mutagenic in vivo and miscodes in vitro, but little work has been done on OPdA. To improve our understanding of the effect of OPdA on polymerase activity and mutagenicity, we evaluated the ability of the translesion DNA polymerases hPols η, κ, and ι to bypass OPdA in vitro. hPols η and κ inserted dNTPs opposite the lesion and extended the OPdA-modified primer to the terminus. hPol ι inserted dNTPs opposite OPdA but failed to fully extend the primer. Steady-state kinetic analysis indicated that these polymerases preferentially insert dTTP opposite OPdA, although less efficiently than opposite dA. Minimal incorrect base insertion was observed for all polymerases, and dCTP was the primary mis-insertion event. Examining replicative and repair polymerases revealed little effect of OPdA on the Sulfolobus solfataricus polymerase Dpo1 or the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase displayed a reduced level of OPdA bypass compared to unmodified DNA, and OPdA nearly completely blocked the activity of base excision repair polymerase hPol β. This work demonstrates that bypass of OPdA is generally error-free, modestly decreases the catalytic activity of most polymerases, and blocks hPol β polymerase activity. Although mis-insertion opposite OPdA is relatively weak, the efficiency of bypass may introduce A → G transitions observed in vivo.
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10 MeSH Terms
Mutagenic spectra arising from replication bypass of the 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-N(5)-methyl formamidopyrimidine adduct in primate cells.
Earley LF, Minko IG, Christov PP, Rizzo CJ, Lloyd RS
(2013) Chem Res Toxicol 26: 1108-14
MeSH Terms: Animals, Base Sequence, COS Cells, Chlorocebus aethiops, DNA Adducts, DNA Replication, Mutagenesis, Mutagenicity Tests, Pyrimidines
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
DNA exposures to electrophilic methylating agents that are commonly used during chemotherapeutic treatments cause diverse chemical modifications of nucleobases, with reaction at N7-dG being the most abundant. Although this base modification frequently results in destabilization of the glycosyl bond and spontaneous depurination, the adduct can react with hydroxide ion to yield a stable, ring-opened MeFapy-dG, and this lesion has been reported to persist in animal tissues. Results from prior in vitro replication bypass investigations of the MeFapy-dG adduct had revealed complex spectra of replication errors that differed depending on the identity of DNA polymerase and the local sequence context. In this study, a series of nine site-specifically modified MeFapy-dG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides were engineered into a shuttle vector and subjected to replication in primate cells. In all nine sequence contexts examined, MeFapy-dG was shown to be associated with a strong mutator phenotype, predominantly causing base substitutions, with G to T transversions being most common. Single and dinucleotide deletions were also found in a subset of the sequence contexts. Interestingly, single-nucleotide deletions occurred at not only the adducted site, but also one nucleotide downstream of the adduct. Standard models for primer-template misalignment could account for some but not all mutations observed. These data demonstrate that in addition to mutagenesis predicted from replication of DNAs containing O(6)-Me-dG and O(4)-Me-dT, the MeFapy-dG adduct likely contributes to mutagenic events following chemotherapeutic treatments.
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9 MeSH Terms
Mutation spectra of S-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxybutyl)glutathione: comparison with 1,3-butadiene and its metabolites in the Escherichia coli rpoB gene.
Cho SH, Guengerich FP
(2012) Chem Res Toxicol 25: 1522-30
MeSH Terms: Animals, Butadienes, Cell Survival, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, DNA, DNA Adducts, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases, Epoxy Compounds, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli Proteins, Glutathione, Glutathione Transferase, Mice, Microsomes, Liver, Mutagenicity Tests, Mutation, Rats, Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
S-(2-Hydroxy-3,4-epoxybutyl)glutathione (DEB-GSH conjugate) is formed from the reaction of 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) with glutathione (GSH), and the conjugate is considerably more mutagenic than several other butadiene-derived epoxides-including DEB-in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 [Cho, S.-H., (2010) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 1544-1546]. We previously identified six DNA adducts in the reaction of the DEB-GSH conjugate with nucleosides and calf thymus DNA and two DNA adducts in livers of mice and rats treated with DEB [Cho, S.-H. and Guengerich, F. P. (2012) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 25, 706-712]. To define the role of GSH conjugation in 1,3-butadiene (BD) metabolism and characterize the mechanism of GSH transferase (GST)-enhanced mutagenicity of DEB, mutation spectra of BD and its metabolites in the absence and presence of GST/GSH and mouse liver microsomes were compared in the rpoB gene of Escherichia coli TRG8. The presence of GST considerably enhanced mutations. The mutation spectra derived from the DEB-GSH conjugate, the DEB/GST/GSH system, and the BD/mouse liver microsomes/GST/GSH system matched each other and were different from those derived from the other systems devoid of GSH. The major adducts in E. coli TRG8 cells treated with the DEB/GST/GSH system, the BD/mouse liver microsomes/GST/GSH system, or the DEB-GSH conjugate were S-[4-(N(7)-guanyl)-2,3-dihydroxybutyl]GSH, S-[4-(N(3)-adenyl)-2,3-dihydroxybutyl]GSH, and S-[4-(N(6)-deoxyadenosinyl)-2,3-dihydroxybutyl]GSH, indicating the presence of the GSH-containing DNA adducts in the systems. These results, along with the strong enhancement of mutagenicity by GST in this system, indicate the relevance of these GSH-containing DNA adducts.
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18 MeSH Terms