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BACKGROUND - Smokers have lower risk of obesity, which some consider a "beneficial" side effect of smoking. However, some studies suggest that smoking is simultaneously associated with higher central adiposity and, more specifically, ectopic adipose deposition. Little is known about the association of smoking with intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), an ectopic adipose depot associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and a key determinant of muscle quality and function. We tested the hypothesis that smokers have higher abdominal IMAT and lower lean muscle quality than never smokers.
METHODS AND FINDINGS - We measured abdominal muscle total, lean, and adipose volumes (in cubic centimeters) and attenuation (in Hounsfield units [HU]) along with subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes using computed tomography (CT) in 3,020 middle-aged Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) participants (age 42-58, 56.3% women, 52.6% white race) at the year 25 (Y25) visit. The longitudinal CARDIA study was initiated in 1985 with the recruitment of young adult participants (aged 18-30 years) equally balanced by female and male sex and black and white race at 4 field centers located in Birmingham, AL, Chicago, IL, Minneapolis, MN, and Oakland, CA. Multivariable linear models included potential confounders such as physical activity and dietary habits along with traditional CVD risk factors. Current smokers had lower BMI than never smokers. Nevertheless, in the fully adjusted multivariable model with potential confounders, including BMI and CVD risk factors, adjusted mean (95% CI) IMAT volume was 2.66 (2.55-2.76) cm3 in current smokers (n = 524), 2.36 (2.29-2.43) cm3 in former smokers (n = 944), and 2.23 (2.18-2.29) cm3 in never smokers (n = 1,552) (p = 0.007 for comparison of former versus never smoker, and p < 0.001 for comparison of current smoker versus never and former smoker). Moreover, compared to participants who never smoked throughout life (41.6 [41.3-41.9] HU), current smokers (40.4 [39.9-40.9] HU) and former smokers (40.8 [40.5-41.2] HU) had lower lean muscle attenuation suggesting lower muscle quality in the fully adjusted model (p < 0.001 for comparison of never smokers with either of the other two strata). Among participants who had ever smoked, pack-years of smoking exposure were directly associated with IMAT volume (β [95% CI]: 0.017 [0.010-0.025]) (p < 0.001). Despite having less SAT, current smokers also had higher VAT/SAT ratio than never smokers. These findings must be viewed with caution as residual confounding and/or reverse causation may contribute to these associations.
CONCLUSIONS - We found that, compared to those who never smoked, current and former smokers had abdominal muscle composition that was higher in adipose tissue volume, a finding consistent with higher CVD risk and age-related physical deconditioning. These findings challenge the belief that smoking-associated weight loss or maintenance confers a health benefit.
Iron is an essential element for multiple fundamental biological processes required for life; yet iron overload can be cytotoxic. Consequently, iron concentrations at the cellular and tissue level must be exquisitely governed by mechanisms that complement and fine-tune systemic control. It is well appreciated that macrophages are vital for systemic iron homeostasis, supplying or sequestering iron as needed for erythropoiesis or bacteriostasis, respectively. Indeed, recycling of iron through erythrophagocytosis by splenic macrophages is a major contributor to systemic iron homeostasis. However, accumulating evidence suggests that tissue-resident macrophages regulate local iron availability and modulate the tissue microenvironment, contributing to cellular and tissue function. Here, we summarize the significance of tissue-specific regulation of iron availability and highlight how resident macrophages are critical for this process. This tissue-dependent regulation has broad implications for understanding both resident macrophage function and tissue iron homeostasis in health and disease.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many genetic variations associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asians, but understanding the functional genetic variants that influence traits is often a complex process. In this study, fine mapping and other analytical strategies were performed to investigate the effects of G protein signaling modulator 1 (GPSM1) on insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. A total of 128 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GPSM1 were analysed in 21,897 T2DM cases and 32,710 healthy controls from seven GWASs. The SNP rs28539249 in intron 9 of GPSM1 showed a nominally significant association with T2DM in Asians (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.04-1.10, P < 10). The GPSM1 mRNA was increased in skeletal muscle and correlated with T2DM traits across obese mice model. An eQTL for the cis-acting regulation of GPSM1 expression in human skeletal muscle was identified for rs28539249, and the increased GPSM1 expression related with T2DM traits within GEO datasets. Another independent Asian cohort showed that rs28539249 is associated with the skeletal muscle expression of CACFD1, GTF3C5, SARDH, and FAM163B genes, which are functionally enriched for endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Moreover, rs28539249 locus was predicted to disrupt regulatory regions in human skeletal muscle with enriched epigenetic marks and binding affinity for CTCF. Supershift EMSA assays followed luciferase assays demonstrated the CTCF specifically binding to rs28539249-C allele leading to decreased transcriptional activity. Thus, the post-GWAS annotation confirmed the Asian-specific association of genetic variant in GPSM1 with T2DM, suggesting a role for the variant in the regulation in skeletal muscle.
OBJECTIVE - The continuous endothelium of skeletal muscle (SkM) capillaries regulates insulin's access to skeletal myocytes. Whether impaired transendothelial insulin transport (EIT) contributes to SkM insulin resistance (IR), however, is unknown.
METHODS - Male and female C57/Bl6 mice were fed either chow or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Intravital microscopy was used to measure EIT in SkM capillaries, electron microscopy to assess endothelial ultrastructure, and glucose tracers to measure indices of glucose metabolism.
RESULTS - Diet-induced obesity (DIO) male mice were found to have a ~15% reduction in EIT compared with lean mice. Impaired EIT was associated with a 45% reduction in endothelial vesicles. Despite impaired EIT, hyperinsulinemia sustained delivery of insulin to the interstitial space in DIO male mice. Even with sustained interstitial insulin delivery, DIO male mice still showed SkM IR indicating severe myocellular IR in this model. Interestingly, there was no difference in EIT, endothelial ultrastructure, or SkM insulin sensitivity between lean female mice and female mice fed a high-fat diet.
CONCLUSIONS - These results suggest that, in male mice, obesity results in ultrastructural alterations to the capillary endothelium that delay EIT. Nonetheless, the myocyte appears to exceed the endothelium as a contributor to SkM IR in DIO male mice.
© 2020 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a major health problem worldwide. Skeletal muscle (SKM) is the key tissue for whole-body glucose disposal and utilization. New drugs aimed at improving insulin sensitivity of SKM would greatly expand available therapeutic options. β-arrestin-1 and -2 (Barr1 and Barr2, respectively) are two intracellular proteins best known for their ability to mediate the desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recent studies suggest that Barr1 and Barr2 regulate several important metabolic functions including insulin release and hepatic glucose production. Since SKM expresses many GPCRs, including the metabolically important β2-adrenergic receptor, the goal of this study was to examine the potential roles of Barr1 and Barr2 in regulating SKM and whole-body glucose metabolism. Using SKM-specific knockout (KO) mouse lines, we showed that the loss of SKM Barr2, but not of SKM Barr1, resulted in mild improvements in glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. SKM-specific Barr1- and Barr2-KO mice did not show any significant differences in exercise performance. However, lack of SKM Barr2 led to increased glycogen breakdown following a treadmill exercise challenge. Interestingly, mice that lacked both Barr1 and Barr2 in SKM showed no significant metabolic phenotypes. Thus, somewhat surprisingly, our data indicate that SKM β-arrestins play only rather subtle roles (SKM Barr2) in regulating whole-body glucose homeostasis and SKM insulin sensitivity.
These studies test, using intravital microscopy (IVM), the hypotheses that perfusion effects on insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake (MGU) are ) capillary recruitment independent and ) mediated through the dispersion of glucose rather than insulin. For , capillary perfusion was visualized before and after intravenous insulin. No capillary recruitment was observed. For , mice were treated with vasoactive compounds (sodium nitroprusside, hyaluronidase, and lipopolysaccharide), and dispersion of fluorophores approximating insulin size (10-kDa dextran) and glucose (2-NBDG) was measured using IVM. Subsequently, insulin and 2[C]deoxyglucose were injected and muscle phospho-2[C]deoxyglucose (2[C]DG) accumulation was used as an index of MGU. Flow velocity and 2-NBDG dispersion, but not perfused surface area or 10-kDa dextran dispersion, predicted phospho-2[C]DG accumulation. For , microspheres of the same size and number as are used for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) studies of capillary recruitment were visualized using IVM. Due to their low concentration, microspheres were present in only a small fraction of blood-perfused capillaries. Microsphere-perfused blood volume correlated to flow velocity. These findings suggest that ) flow velocity rather than capillary recruitment controls microvascular contributions to MGU, ) glucose dispersion is more predictive of MGU than dispersion of insulin-sized molecules, and ) CEU measures regional flow velocity rather than capillary recruitment.
BACKGROUND - Aerobic exercise training is known to have beneficial effects on whole-body glucose metabolism in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The responses of the liver to such training are less well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic exercise training on splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU) and insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) in obese subjects with T2D.
METHODS - Participants included 11 obese humans with T2D, who underwent 15 ± 2 weeks of aerobic exercise training (AEX; n = 6) or remained sedentary for 15 ± 1 weeks (SED; n = 5). After an initial screening visit, each subject underwent an oral glucose load clamp and an isoglycemic/two-step (20 and 40 mU/m/min) hyperinsulinemic clamp (ISO-clamp) to assess SGU and insulin-mediated suppression of EGP, respectively. After the intervention period, both tests were repeated.
RESULTS - In AEX, the ability of insulin to suppress EGP was improved during both the low (69 ± 9 and 80 ± 6% suppression; pre-post, respectively; p < 0.05) and high (67 ± 6 and 82 ± 4% suppression, respectively; p < 0.05) insulin infusion periods. Despite markedly improved muscle insulin sensitivity, SGU was reduced in AEX after training (22.9 ± 3.3 and 9.1 ± 6.0 g pre-post in AEX, respectively; p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS - In obese T2D subjects, exercise training improves whole-body glucose metabolism, in part, by improving insulin-mediated suppression of EGP and enhancing muscle glucose uptake, which occur despite reduced SGU during an oral glucose challenge.
BACKGROUND/AIMS - The prostaglandin E (PGE) EP3 receptor has a multifaceted role in metabolism. Drugs targeting EP3 have been proposed as therapeutics for diabetes; however, studies utilizing global EP3 knockout mice suggest that EP3 blockade increases obesity and insulin resistance. The present studies attempt to determine the effect of acute EP3 antagonist treatment on the diabetic phenotype.
METHODS - DG-041 was confirmed to be a high affinity antagonist at the mouse EP3 receptor by competition radioligand binding and by blockade of EP3-mediated responses. DG-041 pharmacokinetic studies were performed to determine the most efficacious route of administration. Male C57BL/6 × BALB/c (CB6F1) mice were fed diets containing 10%, 45%, or 60% calories from fat to induce obesity. Changes to the metabolic phenotype in these mice were evaluated after one week treatment with DG-041.
RESULTS - Subcutaneous injections of DG-041 at 20 mg/kg blocked the sulprostone-evoked rise in mean arterial pressure confirming the efficacy of this administration regime. Seven day treatment with DG-041 had minimal effect on body composition or glycemic control. DG-041 administration caused a reduction in skeletal muscle triglyceride content while showing a trend toward increased hepatic triglycerides.
CONCLUSION - Short term EP3 administration of DG-041 produced effective blockade of the EP3 receptor and decreased skeletal muscle triglyceride content but had no significant effects on the diabetic phenotype.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
PURPOSE - MR fingerprinting (MRF) sequences permit efficient T and T estimation in cranial and extracranial regions, but these areas may include substantial fat signals that bias T and T estimates. MRI fat signal fraction estimation is also a topic of active research in itself, but may be complicated by B heterogeneity and blurring during spiral k-space acquisitions, which are commonly used for MRF. An MRF method is proposed that separates fat and water signals, estimates water T and T, and accounts for B effects with spiral blurring correction, in a single sequence.
THEORY AND METHODS - A k-space-based fat-water separation method is further extended to unbalanced steady-state free precession MRF with swept echo time. Repeated application of this k-space fat-water separation to demodulated forms of the measured data allows a B map and correction to be approximated. The method is compared with MRF without fat separation across a broad range of fat signal fractions (FSFs), water Ts and Ts, and under heterogeneous static fields in simulations, phantoms, and in vivo.
RESULTS - The proposed method's FSF estimates had a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.990 with conventional measurements, and reduced biases in the T and T estimates due to fat signal relative to other MRF sequences by several hundred ms. The B correction improved the FSF, T, and T estimation compared to those estimates without correction.
CONCLUSION - The proposed method improves MRF water T and T estimation in the presence of fat and provides accurate FSF estimation with inline B correction.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sepsis costs the healthcare system $23 billion annually and has a mortality rate between 10 and 40%. An early indication of sepsis is the onset of hyperglycemia, which is the result of sepsis-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Previous investigations have focused on events in the myocyte (e.g., insulin signaling and glucose transport and subsequent metabolism) as the causes for this insulin-resistant state. However, the delivery of insulin to the skeletal muscle is also an important determinant of insulin action. Skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow, which delivers the insulin to the muscle, is known to be decreased during sepsis. Here we test whether the reduced capillary blood flow to skeletal muscle belies the sepsis-induced insulin resistance by reducing insulin delivery to the myocyte. We hypothesize that decreased capillary flow and consequent decrease in insulin delivery is an early event that precedes gross cardiovascular alterations seen with sepsis. This hypothesis was examined in mice treated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polymicrobial sepsis followed by intravital microscopy of the skeletal muscle microcirculation. We calculated insulin delivery to the myocyte using two independent methods and found that LPS and sepsis rapidly reduce insulin delivery to the skeletal muscle by ~50%; this was driven by decreases in capillary flow velocity and the number of perfused capillaries. Furthermore, the changes in skeletal muscle microcirculation occur before changes in both cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. These data suggest that a rapid reduction in skeletal muscle insulin delivery contributes to the induction of insulin resistance during sepsis.