The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Antisense morpholino oligonucleotides have been commonly used in zebrafish to inhibit mRNA function, either by inhibiting pre-mRNA splicing or by blocking translation initiation. Even with the advent of genome editing by CRISP/Cas9 technology, morpholinos provide a useful and rapid tool to knockdown gene expression. This is especially true when dealing with multiple alleles and large gene families where genetic redundancy can complicate knockout of all family members. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that are often encoded in gene families and can display extensive genetic redundancy. This redundancy, plus their small size which can limit targeting by CRISPR/Cas9, makes morpholino-based strategies particularly attractive for inhibition of miRNA function. We provide the rationale, background, and methods to inhibit miRNA function with antisense morpholinos during early development and in the adult retina in zebrafish.
Damage of the zebrafish retina triggers a spontaneous regeneration response that is initiated by Müller Glia (MG) dedifferentiation and asymmetric cell division to produce multipotent progenitor cells. Subsequent expansion of the progenitor pool by proliferation is critical for retina regeneration. Pax6b expression in the progenitor cells is necessary for their proliferation, but exact regulation of its expression is unclear. Here, we show that miR-203 is downregulated during regeneration in proliferating progenitor cells. Elevated miR-203 levels inhibit progenitor cell expansion without affecting MG dedifferentiation or progenitor cell generation. Using GFP-reporter assays and gain and loss of function experiments in the retina, we show that miR-203 expression must be suppressed to allow pax6b expression and subsequent progenitor cell proliferation.
Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In mice, homozygous deletion of the cardiac sodium channel Scn5a results in defects in cardiac morphology and embryonic death before robust sodium current can be detected. In zebrafish, morpholino knockdown of cardiac sodium channel orthologs scn5Laa and scn5Lab perturbs specification of precardiac mesoderm and inhibits growth of the embryonic heart. It is not known which developmental processes are perturbed by sodium channel knockdown and whether reduced cell number is from impaired migration of cardiac progenitors into the heart, impaired myocyte proliferation, or both. We found that embryos deficient in scn5Lab displayed defects in primary cardiogenesis specific to loss of nkx2.5, but not nkx2.7. We generated kaede reporter fish and demonstrated that embryos treated with anti-scn5Lab morpholino showed normal secondary differentiation of cardiomyocytes at the arterial pole between 30 and 48 h post-fertilization. However, while proliferating myocytes were readily detected at 48 hpf in wild type embryos, there were no BrdU-positive cardiomyocytes in embryos subjected to anti-scn5Lab treatment. Proliferating myocytes were present in embryos injected with anti-tnnt2 morpholino to phenocopy the silent heart mutation, and absent in embryos injected with anti-tnnt2 and anti-scn5Lab morpholinos, indicating cardiac contraction is not required for the loss of proliferation. These data demonstrate that the role of scn5Lab in later heart growth does not involve contribution of the secondary heart field, but rather proliferation of cardiomyocytes, and appears unrelated to the role of the channel in cardiac electrogenesis.
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.