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OBJECTIVE - To quantify and contextualize the risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related hospitalization and illness severity in type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a prospective cohort study to identify case subjects with COVID-19 across a regional health care network of 137 service locations. Using an electronic health record query, chart review, and patient contact, we identified clinical factors influencing illness severity.
RESULTS - We identified COVID-19 in 6,138, 40, and 273 patients without diabetes and with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Compared with not having diabetes, people with type 1 diabetes had adjusted odds ratios of 3.90 (95% CI 1.75-8.69) for hospitalization and 3.35 (95% CI 1.53-7.33) for greater illness severity, which was similar to risk in type 2 diabetes. Among patients with type 1 diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA), hypertension, race, recent diabetic ketoacidosis, health insurance status, and less diabetes technology use were significantly associated with illness severity.
CONCLUSIONS - Diabetes status, both type 1 and type 2, independently increases the adverse impacts of COVID-19. Potentially modifiable factors (e.g., HbA) had significant but modest impact compared with comparatively static factors (e.g., race and insurance) in type 1 diabetes, indicating an urgent and continued need to mitigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection risk in this community.
© 2020 by the American Diabetes Association.
Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) have improved survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and comprise the therapeutic backbone at all phases of therapy. Although well-tolerated, IMiDs increase rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this phase IV, single-arm pilot study, fifty patients with MM on IMiDs received apixaban 2·5 mg orally twice daily for primary prevention of VTE and were prospectively monitored for six months. The primary safety outcomes were rates of major haemorrhage and clinically relevant non-major haemorrhage over six months. The primary efficacy outcome was the rate of symptomatic VTE over six months. IMiDs used were lenalidomide (58%) or pomalidomide (42%). During the six-month evaluation period, no patients experienced major haemorrhage or VTE. Three patients experienced clinically relevant, non-major haemorrhage which was managed medically, and all were able to resume apixaban. One patient stopped therapy shortly after initiation due to an allergic reaction to apixaban. No patients experienced stroke, myocardial infarction, or death. In this pilot study, low-dose apixaban was safe and well-tolerated as a primary prevention therapy of VTE for patients with MM receiving IMiDs. Further studies are needed to validate low-dose apixaban as a standard primary prevention anti-thrombotic strategy for patients with MM receiving IMiDs.
© 2020 British Society for Haematology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
BACKGROUND - The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports on the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs).
METHODS - The American Heart Association, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update. The 2020 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. This year's edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, metrics to assess and monitor healthy diets, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, a focus on the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors, implementation strategies, and implications of the American Heart Association's 2020 Impact Goals.
RESULTS - Each of the 26 chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics.
CONCLUSIONS - The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, healthcare administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.
Background Few data exist on the long-term risk prediction of elevated left ventricular (LV) mass quantified by MRI for cardiovascular (CV) events in a contemporary, ethnically diverse cohort. Purpose To assess the long-term impact of elevated LV mass on CV events in a prospective cohort study of a multiethnic population in relationship to risk factors and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. Materials and Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, or MESA (: NCT00005487), is an ongoing prospective multicenter population-based study in the United States. A total of 6814 participants (age range, 45-84 years) free of clinical CV disease at baseline were enrolled between 2000 and 2002. In 4988 participants (2613 [52.4%] women; mean age, 62 years ± 10.1 [standard deviation]) followed over 15 years for CV events, LV mass was derived from cardiac MRI at baseline enrollment by using semiautomated software at a central core laboratory. Cox proportional hazard models, Kaplan-Meier curves, and scores were applied to assess the impact of LV hypertrophy. Results A total of 290 participants had hard coronary heart disease (CHD) events (207 myocardial infarctions [MIs], 95 CHD deaths), 57 had other CV disease-related deaths, and 215 had heart failure (HF). LV hypertrophy was an independent predictor of hard CHD events (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9, 3.8), MI (HR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.0), CHD death (HR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.5, 7.3), other CV death (HR: 7.5; 95% CI: 4.2, 13.5), and HF (HR: 5.4; 95% CI: 3.8, 7.5) ( < .001 for all end points). LV hypertrophy was a stronger predictor than CAC for CHD death, other CV death, and HF ( scores: 5.4 vs 3.4, 6.8 vs 2.4, and 9.7 vs 3.2 for LV hypertrophy vs CAC, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated an increased risk of CV events in participants with LV hypertrophy, particularly after 5 years. Conclusion Elevated left ventricular mass was strongly associated with hard coronary heart disease events, other cardiovascular death, and heart failure over 15 years of follow-up, independent of traditional risk factors and coronary artery calcium score. © RSNA, 2019 See also the editorial by Hanneman in this issue.
BACKGROUND - Accumulating data support a protective role of Helicobacter pylori against inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which might be mediated by strain-specific constituents, specifically cagA expression.
AIM - To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to more clearly define the association between CagA seropositivity and IBD.
METHODS - We identified comparative studies that included sufficient detail to determine the odds or risk of IBD, Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) amongst individuals with vs without evidence of cagA expression (eg CagA seropositivity). Estimates were pooled using a random effects model.
RESULTS - Three clinical studies met inclusion criteria. cagA expression was represented by CagA seropositivity in all studies. Compared to CagA seronegativity overall, CagA seropositivity was associated with lower odds of IBD (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.21-0.44) and CD (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.17-0.38), and statistically nonsignificant lower odds for UC (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.35-1.32). Similarly, compared to H pylori non-exposed individuals, H pylori exposed, CagA seropositive individuals had lower odds of IBD (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.16-0.41) and CD (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15-0.35), but not UC (OR 0.66, 0.34-1.27). However, there was no significant difference in the odds of IBD, CD or UC between H pylori exposed, CagA seronegative and H pylori non-exposed individuals.
CONCLUSION - We found evidence for a significant association between CagA seropositive H pylori exposure and reduced odds of IBD, particularly CD, but not for CagA seronegative H pylori exposure. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and define underlying mechanisms.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schizophrenia is conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder and pre-morbid differences in social function and cognition have been well-established. Less is known about pre-morbid temperament and personality. Inhibited temperament-the predisposition to respond to novelty with wariness, fear, or caution-is a premorbid risk factor for anxiety, depression, and substance use but is understudied in schizophrenia. Participants were patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n = 166) and healthy controls (n = 180). Patients completed measures of childhood inhibited temperament, clinical symptoms (anxiety, depression, PANSS factors), and quality of life. Patients had significantly higher levels of inhibited temperament relative to healthy controls. In patients with schizophrenia, higher inhibited temperament was significantly associated with co-morbid anxiety disorders, greater anxiety and depression symptoms, higher PANSS Distress scores, lower PANSS Excitement scores, and lower quality of life. The current findings replicate and extend previous research with a larger sample and are consistent with vulnerability in an affective path to psychosis. In schizophrenia, higher inhibited temperament was associated with a cluster of mood and anxiety symptoms. Inhibited temperament was not associated with psychosis symptoms. Patients with high inhibited temperament may especially benefit from treatments that specifically target anxiety and depression.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.
OBJECTIVE - Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoO) and IBD are immune-mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with possible overlapping pathogenic mechanisms. Our aim was to define the epidemiology and clinical implications of concurrent EoO and IBD diagnoses.
DESIGN - We conducted a prospective cohort analysis using the Truven MarketScan database (2009-2016) to estimate the incidence and prevalence of EoO in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) or UC and vice versa. Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the risk of EoO-related or IBD-related complications among patients with concurrent diagnoses.
RESULTS - Among 134 013 536 individuals, the incidence of EoO, CD and UC were 23.1, 51.2 and 55.2 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. The risk of EoO was higher among patients with CD (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 5.4, p<0.01; prevalence ratio (PR) 7.8, p<0.01) or UC (IRR 3.5, p<0.01; PR 5.0, p<0.01), while the risk of IBD was higher among patients with EoO (CD: IRR 5.7, p<0.01; PR 7.6, p<0.01; UC: IRR 3.4, p<0.01; PR 4.9, p<0.01) versus individuals without either diagnosis. Concurrent diagnosis of EoO and IBD was associated with greater composite risk of IBD-related complications (CD: adjusted HR (aHR) 1.09, p=0.01; UC: aHR 1.10, p=0.04) but lower composite risk of EoO-related complications (aHR 0.59; p<0.01).
CONCLUSION - Based on a population-based prospective cohort analysis, the risk of EoO is significantly higher among patients with IBD and vice versa. Concurrent diagnoses might modify the risk of IBD-related and EoO-related complications. Studies defining the mechanisms underlying these observations are needed.
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
PURPOSE - The relationship between exposure to abuse and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is well-documented. However, studies have yet to examine posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which develops following exposure to trauma and worsens health outcomes in chronic pain. We aimed to assess the prevalence and impact of PTSD in patients with IC/BPS, including their relation to genitourinary symptom presentation and widespread pain phenotype.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - We recruited 202 participants with chronic pain from an academic medical center and classified 64 individuals as IC/BPS based on validated epidemiological criteria. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires assessing trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, emotional distress, pain, and urinary symptoms. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests assessed study aims comparing IC/BPS to other chronic pain.
RESULTS - Although elevated, IC/BPS trauma exposure rates were equivalent to that of other chronic pain conditions in the sample. Despite this equivalence, in comparison, IC/BPS patients had significantly higher rates of PTSD symptoms, with 42% meeting provisional diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Among IC/BPS, those meeting provisional criteria for PTSD had significantly higher incidence of lifetime sexual abuse, childhood trauma, and presentations consistent with the widespread pain phenotype. In IC/BPS, there was no association between PTSD and genitourinary symptoms, but provisional PTSD was associated with more pain, emotional distress, and poorer quality of life.
CONCLUSIONS - We recommend that patients with IC/BPS and widespread pain have ongoing screening and monitoring of PTSD. We recommend using trauma-informed care practices with these patients to increase trust and safety, which could improve treatment compliance and follow-up.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dysregulated iron transport and a compromised blood-brain barrier are implicated in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We quantified the levels of proteins involved in iron transport and/or angiogenesis-ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-as well as biomarkers of neuroinflammation, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 405 individuals with HIV infection and comprehensive neuropsychiatric assessments. Associations with HAND [defined by a Global Deficit Score (GDS) ≥ 0.5, GDS as a continuous measure (cGDS), or by Frascati criteria] were evaluated for the highest versus lowest tertile of each biomarker, adjusting for potential confounders. Higher CSF VEGF was associated with GDS-defined impairment [odds ratio (OR) 2.17, p = 0.006] and cGDS in unadjusted analyses and remained associated with GDS impairment after adjustment (p = 0.018). GDS impairment was also associated with higher CSF ceruloplasmin (p = 0.047) and with higher ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin in persons with minimal comorbidities (ORs 2.37 and 2.13, respectively; both p = 0.043). In persons with minimal comorbidities, higher ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin were associated with HAND by Frascati criteria (both p < 0.05), and higher ceruloplasmin predicted worse impairment (higher cGDS values, p < 0.01). In the subgroup with undetectable viral load and minimal comorbidity, CSF ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin were strongly associated with GDS impairment (ORs 5.57 and 2.96, respectively; both p < 0.01) and HAND (both p < 0.01). Concurrently measured CSF IL-6 and TNF-α were only weakly correlated to these three biomarkers. Higher CSF ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and VEGF are associated with a significantly greater likelihood of HAND, suggesting that interventions aimed at disordered iron transport and angiogenesis may be beneficial in this disorder.