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Fur regulation of Staphylococcus aureus heme oxygenases is required for heme homeostasis.
Lojek LJ, Farrand AJ, Weiss A, Skaar EP
(2018) Int J Med Microbiol 308: 582-589
MeSH Terms: Aerobiosis, Bacterial Proteins, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Heme, Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing), Homeostasis, Iron, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Oxygenases, Repressor Proteins, Staphylococcus aureus
Show Abstract · Added March 15, 2018
Heme is a cofactor that is essential for cellular respiration and for the function of many enzymes. If heme levels become too low within the cell, S. aureus switches from producing energy via respiration to producing energy by fermentation. S. aureus encodes two heme oxygenases, IsdI and IsdG, which cleave the porphyrin heme ring releasing iron for use as a nutrient source. Both isdI and isdG are only expressed under low iron conditions and are regulated by the canonical Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur). Here we demonstrate that unregulated expression of isdI and isdG within S. aureus leads to reduced growth under low iron conditions. Additionally, the constitutive expression of these enzymes leads to decreased heme abundance in S. aureus, an increase in the fermentation product lactate, and increased resistance to gentamicin. This work demonstrates that S. aureus has developed tuning mechanisms, such as Fur regulation, to ensure that the cell has sufficient quantities of heme for efficient ATP production through aerobic respiration.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
11 MeSH Terms
Differential repair of etheno-DNA adducts by bacterial and human AlkB proteins.
Zdżalik D, Domańska A, Prorok P, Kosicki K, van den Born E, Falnes PØ, Rizzo CJ, Guengerich FP, Tudek B
(2015) DNA Repair (Amst) 30: 1-10
MeSH Terms: Adenine, AlkB Homolog 2, Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase, AlkB Homolog 3, Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase, Bacteria, Bacterial Proteins, Cytosine, DNA, DNA Adducts, DNA Glycosylases, DNA Repair, DNA Repair Enzymes, DNA, Single-Stranded, Dioxygenases, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli Proteins, Guanine, Humans, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rhizobium etli, Streptomyces, Substrate Specificity, Xanthomonas campestris
Show Abstract · Added January 7, 2016
AlkB proteins are evolutionary conserved Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, which remove alkyl and highly promutagenic etheno(ɛ)-DNA adducts, but their substrate specificity has not been fully determined. We developed a novel assay for the repair of ɛ-adducts by AlkB enzymes using oligodeoxynucleotides with a single lesion and specific DNA glycosylases and AP-endonuclease for identification of the repair products. We compared the repair of three ɛ-adducts, 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (ɛA), 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (ɛC) and 1,N(2)-ethenoguanine (1,N(2)-ɛG) by nine bacterial and two human AlkBs, representing four different structural groups defined on the basis of conserved amino acids in the nucleotide recognition lid, engaged in the enzyme binding to the substrate. Two bacterial AlkB proteins, MT-2B (from Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and SC-2B (Streptomyces coelicolor) did not repair these lesions in either double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) DNA. Three proteins, RE-2A (Rhizobium etli), SA-2B (Streptomyces avermitilis), and XC-2B (Xanthomonas campestris) efficiently removed all three lesions from the DNA substrates. Interestingly, XC-2B and RE-2A are the first AlkB proteins shown to be specialized for ɛ-adducts, since they do not repair methylated bases. Three other proteins, EcAlkB (Escherichia coli), SA-1A, and XC-1B removed ɛA and ɛC from ds and ssDNA but were inactive toward 1,N(2)-ɛG. SC-1A repaired only ɛA with the preference for dsDNA. The human enzyme ALKBH2 repaired all three ɛ-adducts in dsDNA, while only ɛA and ɛC in ssDNA and repair was less efficient in ssDNA. ALKBH3 repaired only ɛC in ssDNA. Altogether, we have shown for the first time that some AlkB proteins, namely ALKBH2, RE-2A, SA-2B and XC-2B can repair 1,N(2)-ɛG and that ALKBH3 removes only ɛC from ssDNA. Our results also suggest that the nucleotide recognition lid is not the sole determinant of the substrate specificity of AlkB proteins.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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2 Members
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23 MeSH Terms
Mechanism of repair of acrolein- and malondialdehyde-derived exocyclic guanine adducts by the α-ketoglutarate/Fe(II) dioxygenase AlkB.
Singh V, Fedeles BI, Li D, Delaney JC, Kozekov ID, Kozekova A, Marnett LJ, Rizzo CJ, Essigmann JM
(2014) Chem Res Toxicol 27: 1619-31
MeSH Terms: Acrolein, Borohydrides, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, DNA, DNA Adducts, DNA Repair, DNA, Single-Stranded, Deoxyguanosine, Escherichia coli Proteins, Malondialdehyde, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Oligonucleotides, Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Show Abstract · Added January 7, 2016
The structurally related exocyclic guanine adducts α-hydroxypropano-dG (α-OH-PdG), γ-hydroxypropano-dG (γ-OH-PdG), and M1dG are formed when DNA is exposed to the reactive aldehydes acrolein and malondialdehyde (MDA). These lesions are believed to form the basis for the observed cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of acrolein and MDA. In an effort to understand the enzymatic pathways and chemical mechanisms that are involved in the repair of acrolein- and MDA-induced DNA damage, we investigated the ability of the DNA repair enzyme AlkB, an α-ketoglutarate/Fe(II) dependent dioxygenase, to process α-OH-PdG, γ-OH-PdG, and M1dG in both single- and double-stranded DNA contexts. By monitoring the repair reactions using quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry, it was established that AlkB can oxidatively dealkylate γ-OH-PdG most efficiently, followed by M1dG and α-OH-PdG. The AlkB repair mechanism involved multiple intermediates and complex, overlapping repair pathways. For example, the three exocyclic guanine adducts were shown to be in equilibrium with open-ring aldehydic forms, which were trapped using (pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) or NaBH4. AlkB repaired the trapped open-ring form of γ-OH-PdG but not the trapped open-ring of α-OH-PdG. Taken together, this study provides a detailed mechanism by which three-carbon bridge exocyclic guanine adducts can be processed by AlkB and suggests an important role for the AlkB family of dioxygenases in protecting against the deleterious biological consequences of acrolein and MDA.
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2 Members
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13 MeSH Terms
An open-source analytical platform for analysis of C. elegans swimming-induced paralysis.
Hardaway JA, Wang J, Fleming PA, Fleming KA, Whitaker SM, Nackenoff A, Snarrenberg CL, Hardie SL, Zhang B, Blakely RD
(2014) J Neurosci Methods 232: 58-62
MeSH Terms: Analysis of Variance, Animals, Animals, Genetically Modified, Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic, Caenorhabditis elegans, Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins, Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Electronic Data Processing, Imipramine, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Mutation, Paralysis, Receptors, Dopamine D2, Swimming
Show Abstract · Added May 21, 2014
BACKGROUND - The nematode Caenhorhabditis elegans offers great power for the identification and characterization of genes that regulate behavior. In support of this effort, analytical methods are required that provide dimensional analyses of subcomponents of behavior. Previously, we demonstrated that loss of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter, dat-1, evokes DA-dependent Swimming-Induced Paralysis (Swip) (Mcdonald et al., 2007), a behavior compatible with forward genetic screens (Hardaway et al., 2012).
NEW METHOD - Here, we detail the development and implementation of SwimR, a set of tools that provide for an automated, kinetic analysis of C. elegans Swip. SwimR relies on open source programs that can be freely implemented and modified.
RESULTS - We show that SwimR can display time-dependent alterations of swimming behavior induced by drug-treatment, illustrating this capacity with the dat-1 blocker and tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (IMI). We demonstrate the capacity of SwimR to extract multiple kinetic parameters that are impractical to obtain in manual assays.
COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS - Standard measurements of C. elegans swimming utilizes manual assessments of the number of animals exhibiting swimming versus paralysis. Our approach deconstructs the time course and rates of movement in an automated fashion, offering a significant increase in the information that can be obtained from swimming behavior.
CONCLUSIONS - The SwimR platform is a powerful tool for the deconstruction of worm thrashing behavior in the context of both genetic and pharmacological manipulations that can be used to segregate pathways that underlie nematode swimming mechanics.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
2 Members
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15 MeSH Terms
Obesity-associated variants within FTO form long-range functional connections with IRX3.
Smemo S, Tena JJ, Kim KH, Gamazon ER, Sakabe NJ, Gómez-Marín C, Aneas I, Credidio FL, Sobreira DR, Wasserman NF, Lee JH, Puviindran V, Tam D, Shen M, Son JE, Vakili NA, Sung HK, Naranjo S, Acemel RD, Manzanares M, Nagy A, Cox NJ, Hui CC, Gomez-Skarmeta JL, Nóbrega MA
(2014) Nature 507: 371-5
MeSH Terms: Adipose Tissue, Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO, Animals, Basal Metabolism, Body Mass Index, Body Weight, Brain, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diet, Genes, Dominant, Homeodomain Proteins, Humans, Hypothalamus, Introns, Male, Mice, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Obesity, Oxo-Acid-Lyases, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Proteins, Thinness, Transcription Factors, Zebrafish
Show Abstract · Added February 22, 2016
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reproducibly associated variants within introns of FTO with increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although the molecular mechanisms linking these noncoding variants with obesity are not immediately obvious, subsequent studies in mice demonstrated that FTO expression levels influence body mass and composition phenotypes. However, no direct connection between the obesity-associated variants and FTO expression or function has been made. Here we show that the obesity-associated noncoding sequences within FTO are functionally connected, at megabase distances, with the homeobox gene IRX3. The obesity-associated FTO region directly interacts with the promoters of IRX3 as well as FTO in the human, mouse and zebrafish genomes. Furthermore, long-range enhancers within this region recapitulate aspects of IRX3 expression, suggesting that the obesity-associated interval belongs to the regulatory landscape of IRX3. Consistent with this, obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with expression of IRX3, but not FTO, in human brains. A direct link between IRX3 expression and regulation of body mass and composition is demonstrated by a reduction in body weight of 25 to 30% in Irx3-deficient mice, primarily through the loss of fat mass and increase in basal metabolic rate with browning of white adipose tissue. Finally, hypothalamic expression of a dominant-negative form of Irx3 reproduces the metabolic phenotypes of Irx3-deficient mice. Our data suggest that IRX3 is a functional long-range target of obesity-associated variants within FTO and represents a novel determinant of body mass and composition.
0 Communities
2 Members
0 Resources
26 MeSH Terms
Heterotropic activation of the midazolam hydroxylase activity of CYP3A by a positive allosteric modulator of mGlu5: in vitro to in vivo translation and potential impact on clinically relevant drug-drug interactions.
Blobaum AL, Bridges TM, Byers FW, Turlington ML, Mattmann ME, Morrison RD, Mackie C, Lavreysen H, Bartolomé JM, Macdonald GJ, Steckler T, Jones CK, Niswender CM, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW, Stauffer SR, Daniels JS
(2013) Drug Metab Dispos 41: 2066-75
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Animals, Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A, Drug Interactions, Hepatocytes, Humans, Intestinal Mucosa, Intestines, Ketoconazole, Kinetics, Liver, Male, Mice, Microsomes, Microsomes, Liver, Midazolam, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Show Abstract · Added February 19, 2015
Allosteric modulation of G protein-coupled receptors has gained considerable attention in the drug discovery arena because it opens avenues to achieve greater selectivity over orthosteric ligands. We recently identified a series of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu(5)) for the treatment of schizophrenia that exhibited robust heterotropic activation of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. The prototypical compound from this series, 5-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2-((3-fluorophenoxy)methyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazine (VU0448187), was found to activate CYP3A4 to >100% of its baseline intrinsic midazolam (MDZ) hydroxylase activity in vitro; activation was CYP3A substrate specific and mGlu(5) PAM dependent. Additional studies revealed the concentration-dependence of CYP3A activation by VU0448187 in multispecies hepatic and intestinal microsomes and hepatocytes, as well as a diminished effect observed in the presence of ketoconazole. Kinetic analyses of the effect of VU0448187 on MDZ metabolism in recombinant P450 or human liver microsomes resulted in a significant increase in V(max) (minimal change in K(m)) and required the presence of cytochrome b5. The atypical kinetics translated in vivo, as rats receiving an intraperitoneal administration of VU0448187 prior to MDZ treatment demonstrated a significant increase in circulating 1- and 4-hydroxy- midazolam (1-OH-MDZ, 4-OH-MDZ) levels compared with rats administered MDZ alone. The discovery of a potent substrate-selective activator of rodent CYP3A with an in vitro to in vivo translation serves to illuminate the impact of increasing intrinsic enzymatic activity of hepatic and extrahepatic CYP3A in rodents, and presents the basis to build models capable of framing the clinical relevance of substrate-dependent heterotropic activation.
0 Communities
3 Members
0 Resources
19 MeSH Terms
Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study.
Perera MA, Cavallari LH, Limdi NA, Gamazon ER, Konkashbaev A, Daneshjou R, Pluzhnikov A, Crawford DC, Wang J, Liu N, Tatonetti N, Bourgeois S, Takahashi H, Bradford Y, Burkley BM, Desnick RJ, Halperin JL, Khalifa SI, Langaee TY, Lubitz SA, Nutescu EA, Oetjens M, Shahin MH, Patel SR, Sagreiya H, Tector M, Weck KE, Rieder MJ, Scott SA, Wu AH, Burmester JK, Wadelius M, Deloukas P, Wagner MJ, Mushiroda T, Kubo M, Roden DM, Cox NJ, Altman RB, Klein TE, Nakamura Y, Johnson JA
(2013) Lancet 382: 790-6
MeSH Terms: African Americans, Alleles, Anticoagulants, Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9, Female, Genome-Wide Association Study, Genotype, Humans, Male, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases, Warfarin
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
BACKGROUND - VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans.
METHODS - We did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ≥18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfarin were obtained at International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) sites and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA). Patients enrolled at IWPC sites but who were not used for discovery made up the independent replication cohort. All participants were genotyped. We did a stepwise conditional analysis, conditioning first for VKORC1 -1639G→A, followed by the composite genotype of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. We prespecified a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5×10(-8) in the discovery cohort and p<0·0038 in the replication cohort.
FINDINGS - The discovery cohort contained 533 participants and the replication cohort 432 participants. After the prespecified conditioning in the discovery cohort, we identified an association between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2C cluster on chromosome 10 (rs12777823) and warfarin dose requirement that reached genome-wide significance (p=1·51×10(-8)). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (p=5·04×10(-5)); analysis of the two cohorts together produced a p value of 4·5×10(-12). Individuals heterozygous for the rs12777823 A allele need a dose reduction of 6·92 mg/week and those homozygous 9·34 mg/week. Regression analysis showed that the inclusion of rs12777823 significantly improves warfarin dose variability explained by the IWPC dosing algorithm (21% relative improvement).
INTERPRETATION - A novel CYP2C single nucleotide polymorphism exerts a clinically relevant effect on warfarin dose in African Americans, independent of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Incorporation of this variant into pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms could improve warfarin dose prediction in this population.
FUNDING - National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Wisconsin Network for Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
3 Members
0 Resources
14 MeSH Terms
Warfarin pharmacogenomics in children.
Vear SI, Stein CM, Ho RH
(2013) Pediatr Blood Cancer 60: 1402-7
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Algorithms, Anticoagulants, Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases, Child, Child, Preschool, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9, Female, Humans, International Normalized Ratio, Male, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Pharmacogenetics, Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases, Warfarin
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
Warfarin is the most commonly used oral anticoagulant worldwide. Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic index, requiring frequent monitoring of the INR to achieve therapeutic anticoagulation. The role of pharmacogenomics in warfarin disposition and response has been well established in adults, but remains unclear for pediatric patients. In this review, we focus on the important CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants involved in warfarin response, our current understanding of warfarin disposition and pharmacogenomics, and recent warfarin pharmacogenetic studies in pediatric patients. Finally, we discuss the need for future pediatric studies and the clinical implications of developing pharmacogenetic-based dosing algorithms in children.
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
1 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
16 MeSH Terms
A common X-linked inborn error of carnitine biosynthesis may be a risk factor for nondysmorphic autism.
Celestino-Soper PB, Violante S, Crawford EL, Luo R, Lionel AC, Delaby E, Cai G, Sadikovic B, Lee K, Lo C, Gao K, Person RE, Moss TJ, German JR, Huang N, Shinawi M, Treadwell-Deering D, Szatmari P, Roberts W, Fernandez B, Schroer RJ, Stevenson RE, Buxbaum JD, Betancur C, Scherer SW, Sanders SJ, Geschwind DH, Sutcliffe JS, Hurles ME, Wanders RJ, Shaw CA, Leal SM, Cook EH, Goin-Kochel RP, Vaz FM, Beaudet AL
(2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109: 7974-81
MeSH Terms: Autistic Disorder, Carnitine, Chromosomes, Human, X, Cognition, Exons, Gene Deletion, Genes, X-Linked, Humans, Male, Metabolism, Inborn Errors, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Penetrance, Risk Factors, Siblings
Show Abstract · Added February 20, 2014
We recently reported a deletion of exon 2 of the trimethyllysine hydroxylase epsilon (TMLHE) gene in a proband with autism. TMLHE maps to the X chromosome and encodes the first enzyme in carnitine biosynthesis, 6-N-trimethyllysine dioxygenase. Deletion of exon 2 of TMLHE causes enzyme deficiency, resulting in increased substrate concentration (6-N-trimethyllysine) and decreased product levels (3-hydroxy-6-N-trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine) in plasma and urine. TMLHE deficiency is common in control males (24 in 8,787 or 1 in 366) and was not significantly increased in frequency in probands from simplex autism families (9 in 2,904 or 1 in 323). However, it was 2.82-fold more frequent in probands from male-male multiplex autism families compared with controls (7 in 909 or 1 in 130; P = 0.023). Additionally, six of seven autistic male siblings of probands in male-male multiplex families had the deletion, suggesting that TMLHE deficiency is a risk factor for autism (metaanalysis Z-score = 2.90 and P = 0.0037), although with low penetrance (2-4%). These data suggest that dysregulation of carnitine metabolism may be important in nondysmorphic autism; that abnormalities of carnitine intake, loss, transport, or synthesis may be important in a larger fraction of nondysmorphic autism cases; and that the carnitine pathway may provide a novel target for therapy or prevention of autism.
0 Communities
1 Members
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14 MeSH Terms
Predicting warfarin dosage in European-Americans and African-Americans using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record.
Ramirez AH, Shi Y, Schildcrout JS, Delaney JT, Xu H, Oetjens MT, Zuvich RL, Basford MA, Bowton E, Jiang M, Speltz P, Zink R, Cowan J, Pulley JM, Ritchie MD, Masys DR, Roden DM, Crawford DC, Denny JC
(2012) Pharmacogenomics 13: 407-18
MeSH Terms: Adult, African Americans, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Anticoagulants, Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases, Calcium-Binding Proteins, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, Cytochrome P450 Family 4, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Administration Schedule, Electronic Health Records, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Mixed Function Oxygenases, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Substance-Related Disorders, Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases, Warfarin
Show Abstract · Added December 10, 2013
AIM - Warfarin pharmacogenomic algorithms reduce dosing error, but perform poorly in non-European-Americans. Electronic health record (EHR) systems linked to biobanks may allow for pharmacogenomic analysis, but they have not yet been used for this purpose.
PATIENTS & METHODS - We used BioVU, the Vanderbilt EHR-linked DNA repository, to identify European-Americans (n = 1022) and African-Americans (n = 145) on stable warfarin therapy and evaluated the effect of 15 pharmacogenetic variants on stable warfarin dose.
RESULTS - Associations between variants in VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 with weekly dose were observed in European-Americans as well as additional variants in CYP2C9 and CALU in African-Americans. Compared with traditional 5 mg/day dosing, implementing the US FDA recommendations or the International Warfarin Pharmacogenomics Consortium (IWPC) algorithm reduced error in weekly dose in European-Americans (13.5-12.4 and 9.5 mg/week, respectively) but less so in African-Americans (15.2-15.0 and 13.8 mg/week, respectively). By further incorporating associated variants specific for European-Americans and African-Americans in an expanded algorithm, dose-prediction error reduced to 9.1 mg/week (95% CI: 8.4-9.6) in European-Americans and 12.4 mg/week (95% CI: 10.0-13.2) in African-Americans. The expanded algorithm explained 41 and 53% of dose variation in African-Americans and European-Americans, respectively, compared with 29 and 50%, respectively, for the IWPC algorithm. Implementing these predictions via dispensable pill regimens similarly reduced dosing error.
CONCLUSION - These results validate EHR-linked DNA biorepositories as real-world resources for pharmacogenomic validation and discovery.
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5 Members
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23 MeSH Terms