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Sulfenylation of Human Liver and Kidney Microsomal Cytochromes P450 and Other Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes as a Response to Redox Alteration.
Albertolle ME, Phan TTN, Pozzi A, Guengerich FP
(2018) Mol Cell Proteomics 17: 889-900
MeSH Terms: Animals, Biocatalysis, Cysteine, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, Humans, Hydrogen Peroxide, Kidney, Mice, Transgenic, Microsomes, Liver, Oxidation-Reduction, Pharmaceutical Preparations, Recombinant Proteins, Staining and Labeling, Sulfenic Acids, Sulfhydryl Compounds
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
The lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides an oxidizing environment to aid in the formation of disulfide bonds, which is tightly regulated by both antioxidant proteins and small molecules. On the cytoplasmic side of the ER, cytochrome P450 (P450) proteins have been identified as a superfamily of enzymes that are important in the formation of endogenous chemicals as well as in the detoxication of xenobiotics. Our previous report described oxidative inhibition of P450 Family 4 enzymes via oxidation of the heme-thiolate cysteine to a sulfenic acid (-SOH) (Albertolle, M. E. (2017) 292, 11230-11242). Further proteomic analyses of murine kidney and liver microsomes led to the finding that a number of other drug-metabolizing enzymes located in the ER are also redox-regulated in this manner. We expanded our analysis of sulfenylated enzymes to human liver and kidney microsomes. Evaluation of the sulfenylation, catalytic activity, and spectral properties of P450s 1A2, 2C8, 2D6, and 3A4 led to the identification of two classes of redox sensitivity in P450 enzymes: heme-thiolate-sensitive and thiol-insensitive. These findings provide evidence for a mammalian P450 regulatory mechanism, which may also be relevant to other drug-metabolizing enzymes. (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007913.).
© 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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15 MeSH Terms
Discovery and Characterization of 1H-Pyrazol-5-yl-2-phenylacetamides as Novel, Non-Urea-Containing GIRK1/2 Potassium Channel Activators.
Wieting JM, Vadukoot AK, Sharma S, Abney KK, Bridges TM, Daniels JS, Morrison RD, Wickman K, Weaver CD, Hopkins CR
(2017) ACS Chem Neurosci 8: 1873-1879
MeSH Terms: Acetamides, Animals, Brain, G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Liver, Membrane Transport Modulators, Mice, Microsomes, Liver, Molecular Structure, Pyrazoles, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
The G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (GIRK, K3) are a family of inward-rectifying potassium channels, and there is significant evidence supporting the roles of GIRKs in a number of physiological processes and as potential targets for numerous indications. Previously reported urea containing molecules as GIRK1/2 preferring activators have had significant pharmacokinetic (PK) liabilities. Here we report a novel series of 1H-pyrazolo-5-yl-2-phenylacetamides in an effort to improve upon the PK properties. This series of compounds display nanomolar potency as GIRK1/2 activators with improved brain distribution (rodent K > 0.6).
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13 MeSH Terms
Metabolic profiles of pomalidomide in human plasma simulated with pharmacokinetic data in control and humanized-liver mice.
Shimizu M, Suemizu H, Mitsui M, Shibata N, Guengerich FP, Yamazaki H
(2017) Xenobiotica 47: 844-848
MeSH Terms: Angiogenesis Inhibitors, Animals, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, Glucuronides, Hepatocytes, Humans, Liver, Metabolome, Mice, Microsomes, Liver, Thalidomide
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
1. Pomalidomide has been shown to be potentially teratogenic in thalidomide-sensitive animal species such as rabbits. Screening for thalidomide analogs devoid of teratogenicity/toxicity - attributable to metabolites formed by cytochrome P450 enzymes - but having immunomodulatory properties is a strategic pathway towards development of new anticancer drugs. 2. In this study, plasma concentrations of pomalidomide, its primary 5-hydroxylated metabolite, and its glucuronide conjugate(s) were investigated in control and humanized-liver mice. Following oral administration of pomalidomide (100 mg/kg), plasma concentrations of 7-hydroxypomalidomide and 5-hydroxypomalidomide glucuronide were slightly higher in humanized-liver mice than in control mice. 3. Simulations of human plasma concentrations of pomalidomide were achieved with simplified physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models in both groups of mice in accordance with reported pomalidomide concentrations after low dose administration in humans. 4. The results indicate that pharmacokinetic profiles of pomalidomide were roughly similar between control mice and humanized-liver mice and that control and humanized-liver mice mediated pomalidomide 5-hydroxylation in vivo. Introducing one aromatic amino group into thalidomide resulted in less species differences in in vivo pharmacokinetics in control and humanized-liver mice.
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11 MeSH Terms
Discovery and characterization of a novel series of N-phenylsulfonyl-1H-pyrrole picolinamides as positive allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4).
Gogliotti RD, Blobaum AL, Morrison RM, Daniels JS, Salovich JM, Cheung YY, Rodriguez AL, Loch MT, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW, Niswender CM, Hopkins CR
(2016) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 26: 2984-2987
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Animals, Microsomes, Liver, Picolinic Acids, Pyrroles, Rats, Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate, Structure-Activity Relationship, Sulfonamides, Triazoles
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel series of N-phenylsulfonyl-1H-pyrrole picolinamides as novel positive allosteric modulators of mGlu4. We detail our work towards finding phenyl replacements for the core scaffold of previously reported phenyl sulfonamides and phenyl sulfone compounds. Our efforts culminated in the identification of N-(1-((3,4-dimethylphenyl)sulfonyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)picolinamide as a potent PAM of mGlu4.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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10 MeSH Terms
Discovery and optimization of a novel series of highly CNS penetrant M4 PAMs based on a 5,6-dimethyl-4-(piperidin-1-yl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core.
Wood MR, Noetzel MJ, Engers JL, Bollinger KA, Melancon BJ, Tarr JC, Han C, West M, Gregro AR, Lamsal A, Chang S, Ajmera S, Smith E, Chase P, Hodder PS, Bubser M, Jones CK, Hopkins CR, Emmitte KA, Niswender CM, Wood MW, Duggan ME, Conn PJ, Bridges TM, Lindsley CW
(2016) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 26: 3029-3033
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Animals, Brain, Humans, Microsomes, Liver, Piperidines, Pyrimidines, Quinazolines, Rats, Receptor, Muscarinic M4, Structure-Activity Relationship, Thiophenes
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
This Letter describes the chemical optimization of a novel series of M4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5,6-dimethyl-4-(piperidin-1-yl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core, identified from an MLPCN functional high-throughput screen. The HTS hit was potent and selective, but not CNS penetrant. Potency was maintained, while CNS penetration was improved (rat brain:plasma Kp=0.74), within the original core after several rounds of optimization; however, the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core was subject to extensive oxidative metabolism. Ultimately, we identified a 6-fluoroquinazoline core replacement that afforded good M4 PAM potency, muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity and CNS penetration (rat brain:plasma Kp>10). Moreover, this campaign provided fundamentally distinct M4 PAM chemotypes, greatly expanding the available structural diversity for this exciting CNS target.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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12 MeSH Terms
Increased lethality and defective pulmonary clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1-knockout mice.
Dolan JM, Weinberg JB, O'Brien E, Abashian A, Procario MC, Aronoff DM, Crofford LJ, Peters-Golden M, Ward L, Mancuso P
(2016) Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 310: L1111-20
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cyclooxygenase 1, Cytokines, Dinoprostone, Female, Immunity, Innate, Lung, Macrophages, Alveolar, Membrane Proteins, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Microsomes, Nitric Oxide, Pneumonia, Pneumococcal, Streptococcus pneumoniae
Show Abstract · Added June 2, 2017
The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases dramatically during pneumococcal pneumonia, and this lipid mediator impairs alveolar macrophage (AM)-mediated innate immune responses. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of PGE2, and its expression is enhanced during bacterial infections. Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 in mice results in diminished PGE2 production and elevated levels of other prostaglandins after infection. Since PGE2 plays an important immunoregulatory role during bacterial pneumonia we assessed the impact of mPGES-1 deletion in the host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia in vivo and in AMs in vitro. Wild-type (WT) and mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae via the intratracheal route. Compared with WT animals, we observed reduced survival and increased lung and spleen bacterial burdens in mPGES-1 KO mice 24 and 48 h after S. pneumoniae infection. While we found modest differences between WT and mPGES-1 KO mice in pulmonary cytokines, AMs from mPGES-1 KO mice exhibited defective killing of ingested bacteria in vitro that was associated with diminished inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Treatment of AMs from mPGES-1 KO mice with an NO donor restored bacterial killing in vitro. These results suggest that mPGES-1 plays a critical role in bacterial pneumonia and that genetic ablation of this enzyme results in diminished pulmonary host defense in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that specific inhibition of PGE2 synthesis by targeting mPGES-1 may weaken host defense against bacterial infections.
Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
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15 MeSH Terms
Lead optimization of the VU0486321 series of mGlu1 PAMs. Part 1: SAR of modifications to the central aryl core.
Garcia-Barrantes PM, Cho HP, Blobaum AL, Niswender CM, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW
(2015) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 25: 5107-10
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Animals, Brain, Coumarins, Furans, Humans, Microsomes, Liver, Phthalimides, Rats, Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate, Stereoisomerism, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added February 18, 2016
This Letter describes the lead optimization of the VU0486321 series of mGlu1 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). While first generation PAMs from Roche were reported in the late 1990s, little effort has focused on the development of mGlu1 PAMs since. New genetic data linking loss-of-function mutant mGlu1 receptors to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other neuropsychiatric disorders has rekindled interest in the target, but the ideal in vivo probe, for example, with good PK, brain penetration and low plasma protein binding, for robust target validation has been lacking. Here we describe the first modifications to the central aryl core of the VU0486321 series, where robust SAR was noted. Moreover, structural variants were identified that imparted selectivity (up to >793-fold) versus mGlu4.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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12 MeSH Terms
Discovery of a Selective and CNS Penetrant Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 3 with Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Activity in Rodents.
Engers JL, Rodriguez AL, Konkol LC, Morrison RD, Thompson AD, Byers FW, Blobaum AL, Chang S, Venable DF, Loch MT, Niswender CM, Daniels JS, Jones CK, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW, Emmitte KA
(2015) J Med Chem 58: 7485-500
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Animals, Anti-Anxiety Agents, Antidepressive Agents, Brain, Calcium, Dogs, Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring, Humans, Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells, Mice, Microsomes, Liver, Permeability, Pyridines, Rats, Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate, Stereoisomerism, Structure-Activity Relationship
Show Abstract · Added February 18, 2016
Previous preclinical work has demonstrated the therapeutic potential of antagonists of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus). Still, compounds that are selective for the individual group II mGlus (mGlu2 and mGlu3) have been scarce. There remains a need for such compounds with the balance of properties suitable for convenient use in a wide array of rodent behavioral studies. We describe here the discovery of a selective mGlu3 NAM 106 (VU0650786) suitable for in vivo work. Compound 106 is a member of a series of 5-aryl-6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazine-4(5H)-one compounds originally identified as a mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) chemotype. Its suitability for use in rodent behavioral models has been established by extensive in vivo PK studies, and the behavioral experiments presented here with compound 106 represent the first examples in which an mGlu3 NAM has demonstrated efficacy in models where prior efficacy had previously been noted with nonselective group II antagonists.
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18 MeSH Terms
A Screen of Approved Drugs Identifies the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide and Its Pharmacologically Active Metabolite 2-Hydroxy-Flutamide as Heterotropic Activators of Cytochrome P450 3A In Vitro and In Vivo.
Blobaum AL, Byers FW, Bridges TM, Locuson CW, Conn PJ, Lindsley CW, Daniels JS
(2015) Drug Metab Dispos 43: 1718-26
MeSH Terms: Androgen Receptor Antagonists, Animals, Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Enzyme Activators, Female, Flutamide, Guinea Pigs, Humans, Male, Mice, Microsomes, Liver, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Swine, Swine, Miniature
Show Abstract · Added February 18, 2016
Once thought to be an artifact of microsomal systems, atypical kinetics with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have been extensively investigated in vitro and found to be substrate and species dependent. Building upon increasing reports of heterotropic CYP activation and inhibition in clinical settings, we screened a compound library of clinically approved drugs and various probe compounds to identify the frequency of heterotropism observed with different drug classes and the associated CYP enzymes thereof (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4/5). Results of this screen revealed that the prescribed androgen receptor antagonist flutamide activated the intrinsic midazolam hydroxylase activity of CYP3A in human hepatic microsomes (66%), rat and human hepatocytes (36 and 160%, respectively), and in vivo in male Sprague-Dawley rats (>2-fold, combined area under the curve of primary rat in vivo midazolam metabolites). In addition, a screen of the pharmacologically active metabolite 2-hydroxy-flutamide revealed that this principle metabolite increased CYP3A metabolism of midazolam in human microsomes (30%) and hepatocytes (110%). Importantly, both flutamide and 2-hydroxy-flutamide demonstrated a pronounced increase in the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of commonly paired medications, nifedipine (antihypertensive) and amiodarone (antiarrhythmic), in multispecies hepatocytes (100% over baseline). These data serve to highlight the importance of an appropriate substrate and in vitro system selection in the pharmacokinetic modeling of atypical enzyme kinetics. In addition, the results of our investigation have illuminated a previously undiscovered class of heterotropic CYP3A activators and have demonstrated the importance of selecting commonly paired therapeutics in the in vitro and in vivo modeling of projected clinical outcomes.
Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
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16 MeSH Terms
Aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid and aspirin by human cytochromes P450.
Bojić M, Sedgeman CA, Nagy LD, Guengerich FP
(2015) Eur J Pharm Sci 73: 49-56
MeSH Terms: Aspirin, Benzaldehydes, Biotransformation, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, Deferoxamine, Enzyme Inhibitors, Humans, Hydroxylation, Isoenzymes, Microsomes, Liver, NADP, Organophosphates, Oxidation-Reduction, Reactive Oxygen Species, Recombinant Proteins, Salicylic Acid
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known and widely-used analgesic. It is rapidly deacetylated to salicylic acid, which forms two hippuric acids-salicyluric acid and gentisuric acid-and two glucuronides. The oxidation of aspirin and salicylic acid has been reported with human liver microsomes, but data on individual cytochromes P450 involved in oxidation is lacking. In this study we monitored oxidation of these compounds by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 (P450) using UPLC with fluorescence detection. Microsomal oxidation of salicylic acid was much faster than aspirin. The two oxidation products were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid, documented by its UV and mass spectrum) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Formation of neither product was inhibited by desferrioxamine, suggesting a lack of contribution of oxygen radicals under these conditions. Although more liphophilic, aspirin was oxidized less efficiently, primarily to the 2,5-dihydroxy product. Recombinant human P450s 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 all catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid. Inhibitor studies with human liver microsomes indicated that all six of the previously mentioned P450s could contribute to both the 5- and 3-hydroxylation of salicylic acid and that P450s 2A6 and 2B6 have contributions to 5-hydroxylation. Inhibitor studies indicated that the major human P450 involved in both 3- and 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid is P450 2E1.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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17 MeSH Terms