Other search tools

About this data

The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.

If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.

Results: 1 to 10 of 2035

Publication Record

Connections

Structural basis of a potent human monoclonal antibody against Zika virus targeting a quaternary epitope.
Long F, Doyle M, Fernandez E, Miller AS, Klose T, Sevvana M, Bryan A, Davidson E, Doranz BJ, Kuhn RJ, Diamond MS, Crowe JE, Rossmann MG
(2019) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 116: 1591-1596
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Cryoelectron Microscopy, Disease Models, Animal, Epitopes, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Vaccination, Viral Envelope Proteins, Zika Virus, Zika Virus Infection
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2019
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a major human pathogen and member of the genus in the Flaviviridae family. In contrast to most other insect-transmitted flaviviruses, ZIKV also can be transmitted sexually and from mother to fetus in humans. During recent outbreaks, ZIKV infections have been linked to microcephaly, congenital disease, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neutralizing antibodies have potential as therapeutic agents. We report here a 4-Å-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the ZIKV virion in complex with Fab fragments of the potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibody ZIKV-195. The footprint of the ZIKV-195 Fab fragment expands across two adjacent envelope (E) protein protomers. ZIKV neutralization by this antibody is presumably accomplished by cross-linking the E proteins, which likely prevents formation of E protein trimers required for fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. A single dose of ZIKV-195 administered 5 days after virus inoculation showed marked protection against lethality in a stringent mouse model of infection.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
MeSH Terms
Heme sensing and detoxification by HatRT contributes to pathogenesis during Clostridium difficile infection.
Knippel RJ, Zackular JP, Moore JL, Celis AI, Weiss A, Washington MK, DuBois JL, Caprioli RM, Skaar EP
(2018) PLoS Pathog 14: e1007486
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bacterial Proteins, Clostridium Infections, Clostridium difficile, Genes, Bacterial, Heme, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Operon, Virulence
Show Abstract · Added April 7, 2019
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that infects the colon, causing symptoms ranging from infectious diarrhea to fulminant colitis. In the last decade, the number of C. difficile infections has dramatically risen, making it the leading cause of reported hospital acquired infection in the United States. Bacterial toxins produced during C. difficile infection (CDI) damage host epithelial cells, releasing erythrocytes and heme into the gastrointestinal lumen. The reactive nature of heme can lead to toxicity through membrane disruption, membrane protein and lipid oxidation, and DNA damage. Here we demonstrate that C. difficile detoxifies excess heme to achieve full virulence within the gastrointestinal lumen during infection, and that this detoxification occurs through the heme-responsive expression of the heme activated transporter system (HatRT). Heme-dependent transcriptional activation of hatRT was discovered through an RNA-sequencing analysis of C. difficile grown in the presence of a sub-toxic concentration of heme. HatRT is comprised of a TetR family transcriptional regulator (hatR) and a major facilitator superfamily transporter (hatT). Strains inactivated for hatR or hatT are more sensitive to heme toxicity than wild-type. HatR binds heme, which relieves the repression of the hatRT operon, whereas HatT functions as a heme efflux pump. In a murine model of CDI, a strain inactivated for hatT displayed lower pathogenicity in a toxin-independent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that HatR senses intracellular heme concentrations leading to increased expression of the hatRT operon and subsequent heme efflux by HatT during infection. These results describe a mechanism employed by C. difficile to relieve heme toxicity within the host, and set the stage for the development of therapeutic interventions to target this bacterial-specific system.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
MeSH Terms
SIRT2 knockout exacerbates insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice.
Lantier L, Williams AS, Hughey CC, Bracy DP, James FD, Ansari MA, Gius D, Wasserman DH
(2018) PLoS One 13: e0208634
MeSH Terms: Acetylation, Animals, Diet, High-Fat, Energy Metabolism, Insulin, Insulin Resistance, Liver, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mitochondria, Muscle, Skeletal, Phosphorylation, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Sirtuin 2
Show Abstract · Added January 8, 2019
The NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT2 is unique amongst sirtuins as it is effective in the cytosol, as well as the mitochondria. Defining the role of cytosolic acetylation state in specific tissues is difficult since even physiological effects at the whole body level are unknown. We hypothesized that genetic SIRT2 knockout (KO) would lead to impaired insulin action, and that this impairment would be worsened in HF fed mice. Insulin sensitivity was tested using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in SIRT2 KO mice and WT littermates. SIRT2 KO mice exhibited reduced skeletal muscle insulin-induced glucose uptake compared to lean WT mice, and this impairment was exacerbated in HF SIRT2 KO mice. Liver insulin sensitivity was unaffected in lean SIRT2 KO mice. However, the insulin resistance that accompanies HF-feeding was worsened in SIRT2 KO mice. It was notable that the effects of SIRT2 KO were largely disassociated from cytosolic acetylation state, but were closely linked to acetylation state in the mitochondria. SIRT2 KO led to an increase in body weight that was due to increased food intake in HF fed mice. In summary, SIRT2 deletion in vivo reduces muscle insulin sensitivity and contributes to liver insulin resistance by a mechanism that is unrelated to cytosolic acetylation state. Mitochondrial acetylation state and changes in feeding behavior that result in increased body weight correspond to the deleterious effects of SIRT2 KO on insulin action.
2 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
16 MeSH Terms
A protective human monoclonal antibody targeting the West Nile virus E protein preferentially recognizes mature virions.
Goo L, Debbink K, Kose N, Sapparapu G, Doyle MP, Wessel AW, Richner JM, Burgomaster KE, Larman BC, Dowd KA, Diamond MS, Crowe JE, Pierson TC
(2019) Nat Microbiol 4: 71-77
MeSH Terms: Aedes, Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Cell Line, Cercopithecus aethiops, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Protein Domains, Vero Cells, Viral Envelope Proteins, West Nile Fever, West Nile Virus Vaccines, West Nile virus
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2019
West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flavivirus genus, is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in the United States. The development of neutralizing antibodies against the flavivirus envelope (E) protein is critical for immunity and vaccine protection. Previously identified candidate therapeutic mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) target epitopes within the E domain III lateral ridge and the domain I-II hinge region, respectively. To explore the neutralizing antibody repertoire elicited by WNV infection for potential therapeutic application, we isolated ten mAbs from WNV-infected individuals. mAb WNV-86 neutralized WNV with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 2 ng ml, one of the most potently neutralizing flavivirus-specific antibodies ever isolated. WNV-86 targets an epitope in E domain II, and preferentially recognizes mature virions lacking an uncleaved form of the chaperone protein prM, unlike most flavivirus-specific antibodies. In vitro selection experiments revealed a neutralization escape mechanism involving a glycan addition to E domain II. Finally, a single dose of WNV-86 administered two days post-infection protected mice from lethal WNV challenge. This study identifies a highly potent human neutralizing mAb with therapeutic potential that targets an epitope preferentially displayed on mature virions.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
18 MeSH Terms
Role of Bile Acids and GLP-1 in Mediating the Metabolic Improvements of Bariatric Surgery.
Albaugh VL, Banan B, Antoun J, Xiong Y, Guo Y, Ping J, Alikhan M, Clements BA, Abumrad NN, Flynn CR
(2019) Gastroenterology 156: 1041-1051.e4
MeSH Terms: Anastomosis, Surgical, Animals, Anticholesteremic Agents, Bariatric Surgery, Bile Acids and Salts, Blood Glucose, Cholestyramine Resin, Diet, High-Fat, Gallbladder, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor, Glucose Tolerance Test, Ileum, Insulin Resistance, Intestines, Lymph, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Signal Transduction, Verrucomicrobia, Weight Loss
Show Abstract · Added January 4, 2019
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Bile diversion to the ileum (GB-IL) has strikingly similar metabolic and satiating effects to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in rodent obesity models. The metabolic benefits of these procedures are thought to be mediated by increased bile acids, although parallel changes in body weight and other confounding variables limit this interpretation.
METHODS - Global G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 null (Tgr5) and intestinal-specific farnesoid X receptor null (Fxr) mice on high-fat diet as well as wild-type C57BL/6 and glucagon-like polypeptide 1 receptor deficient (Glp-1r) mice on chow diet were characterized following GB-IL.
RESULTS - GB-IL induced weight loss and improved oral glucose tolerance in Tgr5, but not Fxr mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting a role for intestinal Fxr. GB-IL in wild-type, chow-fed mice prompted weight-independent improvements in glycemia and glucose tolerance secondary to augmented insulin responsiveness. Improvements were concomitant with increased levels of lymphatic GLP-1 in the fasted state and increased levels of intestinal Akkermansia muciniphila. Improvements in fasting glycemia after GB-IL were mitigated with exendin-9, a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, or cholestyramine, a bile acid sequestrant. The glucoregulatory effects of GB-IL were lost in whole-body Glp-1r mice.
CONCLUSIONS - Bile diversion to the ileum improves glucose homeostasis via an intestinal Fxr-Glp-1 axis. Altered intestinal bile acid availability, independent of weight loss, and intestinal Akkermansia muciniphila appear to mediate the metabolic changes observed after bariatric surgery and might be manipulated for treatment of obesity and diabetes.
Copyright © 2019 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
2 Members
0 Resources
25 MeSH Terms
Pancreatic islet-autonomous insulin and smoothened-mediated signalling modulate identity changes of glucagon α-cells.
Cigliola V, Ghila L, Thorel F, van Gurp L, Baronnier D, Oropeza D, Gupta S, Miyatsuka T, Kaneto H, Magnuson MA, Osipovich AB, Sander M, Wright CEV, Thomas MK, Furuyama K, Chera S, Herrera PL
(2018) Nat Cell Biol 20: 1267-1277
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Differentiation, Cell Plasticity, Cell Proliferation, Female, Glucagon-Secreting Cells, Insulin, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Islets of Langerhans, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mice, SCID, Mice, Transgenic, Signal Transduction, Smoothened Receptor
Show Abstract · Added November 6, 2018
The mechanisms that restrict regeneration and maintain cell identity following injury are poorly characterized in higher vertebrates. Following β-cell loss, 1-2% of the glucagon-producing α-cells spontaneously engage in insulin production in mice. Here we explore the mechanisms inhibiting α-cell plasticity. We show that adaptive α-cell identity changes are constrained by intra-islet insulin- and Smoothened-mediated signalling, among others. The combination of β-cell loss or insulin-signalling inhibition, with Smoothened inactivation in α- or δ-cells, stimulates insulin production in more α-cells. These findings suggest that the removal of constitutive 'brake signals' is crucial to neutralize the refractoriness to adaptive cell-fate changes. It appears that the maintenance of cell identity is an active process mediated by repressive signals, which are released by neighbouring cells and curb an intrinsic trend of differentiated cells to change.
2 Communities
2 Members
1 Resources
16 MeSH Terms
Attenuation of diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation following bariatric surgery in female mice.
Herrick MK, Favela KM, Simerly RB, Abumrad NN, Bingham NC
(2018) Mol Med 24: 56
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bariatric Surgery, Diet, High-Fat, Female, Hypothalamus, Inflammation, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Obesity
Show Abstract · Added April 11, 2019
BACKGROUND - Exposure of rodents to chronic high-fat diet (HFD) results in upregulation of inflammatory markers and proliferation of microglia within the mediobasal hypothalamus. Such hypothalamic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction, central leptin resistance, and maintenance of obesity. Bariatric surgeries result in long-term stable weight loss and improved metabolic function. However, the effects of such surgical procedures on HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation are unknown. We sought to characterize the effects of two bariatric surgical procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and biliary diversion (BD-IL), in female mice with particular emphasis on HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation and microgliosis.
METHODS - RYGB and BD-IL were performed on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Quantitative RT-PCR and fluorescent microscopy were used to evaluate hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression and microgliosis. Results were compared to lean (CD), DIO sham-surgerized mice (DIO-SHAM), and dietary weight loss (DIO-Rev) controls.
RESULTS - In female mice, RYGB and BD-IL result in normalization of hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression and microgliosis within 8 weeks of surgery, despite ongoing exposure to HFD. Paralleling these results, the hypothalamic expression levels of the orexigenic neuropeptide Agrp and the anorexic response of surgical mice to exogenous leptin were comparable to lean controls (CD). In contrast, results from DIO-Rev mice were comparable to DIO-SHAM mice, despite transition back to standard rodent show and normalization of weight.
CONCLUSION - Bariatric surgery attenuates HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation and microgliosis and restores leptin sensitivity, despite ongoing exposure to HFD.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
MeSH Terms
Generation of MLC-2v-tdTomato knock-in reporter mouse line.
Zhang Z, Nam YJ
(2018) Genesis 56: e23256
MeSH Terms: Animals, Gene Knock-In Techniques, Genes, Reporter, Lycopersicon esculentum, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred Strains, Mice, Transgenic, Myosin Light Chains
Show Abstract · Added April 2, 2019
MLC-2v is a myosin light chain regulatory protein which is specifically expressed in ventricular cardiomyocytes and slow twitch skeletal muscle cells. MLC-2v plays critical roles in ventricular maturation during heart development. Mice lacking MLC-2v are embryonic lethal due to heart failure associated with abnormal myofibrillar organization of ventricular cardiomyocytes. To study the development of ventricular cardiac muscle and slow twitch skeletal muscle, we generated a new MLC-2v reporter mouse line by knocking-in a tdTomato reporter cassette into 3' UTR of the MLC-2v gene without disrupting the endogenous gene. Our results demonstrated specific MLC-2v-tdTomato knock-in reporter expression in ventricular cardiomyocytes and slow twitch muscle during myogenesis, precisely recapitulating the spatiotemporal expression pattern of endogenous MLC-2v. No tdTomato expression was observed in the atria, fast twitch muscle or other organs throughout development into adulthood. Isolated neonatal and adult ventricular cardiomyocytes uniformly express tdTomato. Taken together, MLC-2v-tdTomato knock-in reporter mouse model described in this article will serve as a valuable tool to study cardiac chamber and skeletal muscle specification during development and regeneration by overcoming the pitfalls of transgenic strategies.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
MeSH Terms
Cutting Edge: IL-1α and Not IL-1β Drives IL-1R1-Dependent Neonatal Murine Sepsis Lethality.
Benjamin JT, Moore DJ, Bennett C, van der Meer R, Royce A, Loveland R, Wynn JL
(2018) J Immunol 201: 2873-2878
MeSH Terms: Animals, Animals, Newborn, Female, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Inflammation, Interleukin-1alpha, Interleukin-1beta, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type I, Sepsis, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added October 12, 2018
Sepsis disproportionately affects the very old and the very young. IL-1 signaling is important in innate host defense but may also play a deleterious role in acute inflammatory conditions (including sepsis) by promulgating life-threatening inflammation. IL-1 signaling is mediated by two distinct ligands: IL-1α and IL-1β, both acting on a common receptor (IL-1R1). IL-1R1 targeting has not reduced adult human sepsis mortality despite biologic plausibility. Because the specific role of IL-1α or IL-1β in sepsis survival is unknown in any age group and the role of IL-1 signaling remains unknown in neonates, we studied the role of IL-1 signaling, including the impact of IL-1α and IL-1β, on neonatal murine sepsis survival. IL-1 signaling augments the late plasma inflammatory response to sepsis. IL-1α and not IL-1β is the critical mediator of sepsis mortality, likely because of paracrine actions within the tissue. These data do not support targeting IL-1 signaling in neonates.
Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
14 MeSH Terms
Bid maintains mitochondrial cristae structure and function and protects against cardiac disease in an integrative genomics study.
Salisbury-Ruf CT, Bertram CC, Vergeade A, Lark DS, Shi Q, Heberling ML, Fortune NL, Okoye GD, Jerome WG, Wells QS, Fessel J, Moslehi J, Chen H, Roberts LJ, Boutaud O, Gamazon ER, Zinkel SS
(2018) Elife 7:
MeSH Terms: Animals, Apoptosis, BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein, Beclin-1, Cell Respiration, Fibrosis, Gene Expression Regulation, Genome-Wide Association Study, Genomics, Heart Diseases, Heart Ventricles, Humans, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mitochondria, Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases, Mutation, Myeloid Progenitor Cells, Myocardial Infarction, Myocytes, Cardiac, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Protein Multimerization, Protein Structure, Secondary, Protein Subunits, Reactive Oxygen Species, Reproducibility of Results, Up-Regulation
Show Abstract · Added December 11, 2018
Bcl-2 family proteins reorganize mitochondrial membranes during apoptosis, to form pores and rearrange cristae. In vitro and in vivo analysis integrated with human genetics reveals a novel homeostatic mitochondrial function for Bcl-2 family protein Bid. Loss of full-length Bid results in apoptosis-independent, irregular cristae with decreased respiration. mice display stress-induced myocardial dysfunction and damage. A gene-based approach applied to a biobank, validated in two independent GWAS studies, reveals that decreased genetically determined BID expression associates with myocardial infarction (MI) susceptibility. Patients in the bottom 5% of the expression distribution exhibit >4 fold increased MI risk. Carrier status with nonsynonymous variation in Bid's membrane binding domain, Bid, associates with MI predisposition. Furthermore, Bid but not Bid associates with Mcl-1, previously implicated in cristae stability; decreased MCL-1 expression associates with MI. Our results identify a role for Bid in homeostatic mitochondrial cristae reorganization, that we link to human cardiac disease.
© 2018, Salisbury-Ruf et al.
0 Communities
3 Members
0 Resources
26 MeSH Terms