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Structural principles underlying the composition of protective antiviral monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktails are poorly defined. Here, we exploited antibody cooperativity to develop a therapeutic mAb cocktail against Ebola virus. We systematically analyzed the antibody repertoire in human survivors and identified a pair of potently neutralizing mAbs that cooperatively bound to the ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP). High-resolution structures revealed that in a two-antibody cocktail, molecular mimicry was a major feature of mAb-GP interactions. Broadly neutralizing mAb rEBOV-520 targeted a conserved epitope on the GP base region. mAb rEBOV-548 bound to a glycan cap epitope, possessed neutralizing and Fc-mediated effector function activities, and potentiated neutralization by rEBOV-520. Remodeling of the glycan cap structures by the cocktail enabled enhanced GP binding and virus neutralization. The cocktail demonstrated resistance to virus escape and protected non-human primates (NHPs) against Ebola virus disease. These data illuminate structural principles of antibody cooperativity with implications for development of antiviral immunotherapeutics.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
infects every niche of the human host. In response to microbial infection, vertebrates have an arsenal of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit bacterial growth or kill bacterial cells. One class of antimicrobial compounds consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are highly abundant in eukaryotes and encountered by at the host-pathogen interface. Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids in vertebrates and is released in large amounts during the oxidative burst. Most of the released AA is converted to bioactive signaling molecules, but, independently of its role in inflammatory signaling, AA is toxic to Here, we report that AA kills through a lipid peroxidation mechanism whereby AA is oxidized to reactive electrophiles that modify macromolecules, eliciting toxicity. This process is rescued by cotreatment with antioxidants as well as in a strain genetically inactivated for (USA300 mutant) that produces lower levels of reactive oxygen species. However, resistance to AA stress in the USA300 mutant comes at a cost, making the mutant more susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics and attenuated for pathogenesis in a murine infection model compared to the parental methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strain, indicating that resistance to AA toxicity increases susceptibility to other stressors encountered during infection. This report defines the mechanism by which AA is toxic to and identifies lipid peroxidation as a pathway that can be modulated for the development of future therapeutics to treat infections. Despite the ability of the human immune system to generate a plethora of molecules to control infections, is among the pathogens with the greatest impact on human health. One class of host molecules toxic to consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we investigated the antibacterial properties of arachidonic acid, one of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans, and discovered that the mechanism of toxicity against proceeds through lipid peroxidation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the immune system kills , and by which avoids host killing, will enable the optimal design of therapeutics that complement the ability of the vertebrate immune response to eliminate infections.
Copyright © 2019 Beavers et al.
Intrinsic resistance of unknown mechanism impedes the clinical utility of inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6i) in malignancies other than breast cancer. Here, we used melanoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) to study the mechanisms for CDK4/6i resistance in preclinical settings. We observed that melanoma PDXs resistant to CDK4/6i frequently displayed activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway, and inhibition of this pathway improved CDK4/6i response in a p21-dependent manner. We showed that a target of p21, CDK2, was necessary for proliferation in CDK4/6i-treated cells. Upon treatment with CDK4/6i, melanoma cells up-regulated cyclin D1, which sequestered p21 and another CDK inhibitor, p27, leaving a shortage of p21 and p27 available to bind and inhibit CDK2. Therefore, we tested whether induction of p21 in resistant melanoma cells would render them responsive to CDK4/6i. Because p21 is transcriptionally driven by p53, we coadministered CDK4/6i with a murine double minute (MDM2) antagonist to stabilize p53, allowing p21 accumulation. This resulted in improved antitumor activity in PDXs and in murine melanoma. Furthermore, coadministration of CDK4/6 and MDM2 antagonists with standard of care therapy caused tumor regression. Notably, the molecular features associated with response to CDK4/6 and MDM2 inhibitors in PDXs were recapitulated by an ex vivo organotypic slice culture assay, which could potentially be adopted in the clinic for patient stratification. Our findings provide a rationale for cotargeting CDK4/6 and MDM2 in melanoma.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Severe acute kidney injury has a high mortality and is a risk factor for progressive chronic kidney disease. None of the potential therapies that have been identified in preclinical studies have successfully improved clinical outcomes. This failure is partly because animal models rarely reflect the complexity of human disease: most preclinical studies are short term and are commonly performed in healthy, young, male mice. Therapies that are effective in preclinical models that share common clinical features seen in patients with acute kidney injury, including genetic diversity, different sexes, and comorbidities, and evaluate long-term outcomes are more likely to predict success in the clinic. Here, we evaluated susceptibility to chronic kidney disease after ischemia-reperfusion injury with delayed nephrectomy by monitoring long-term functional and histological responses to injury. We defined conditions required to induce long-term postinjury renal dysfunction and fibrosis without increased mortality in a reproducible way and evaluate effect of mouse strains, sexes, and preexisting diabetes on these responses.
Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient critical for the pathogenesis of , a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality. Paradoxically, excess Mn is toxic; therefore, maintenance of intracellular Mn homeostasis is required for survival. Here we describe a Mn exporter in , MntE, which is a member of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) protein family and conserved among Gram-positive pathogens. Upregulation of transcription in response to excess Mn is dependent on the presence of MntR, a transcriptional repressor of the Mn uptake system. Inactivation of or leads to reduced growth in media supplemented with Mn, demonstrating MntE is required for detoxification of excess Mn. Inactivation of results in elevated levels of intracellular Mn, but reduced intracellular iron (Fe) levels, supporting the hypothesis that MntE functions as a Mn efflux pump and Mn efflux influences Fe homeostasis. Strains inactivated for are more sensitive to the oxidants NaOCl and paraquat, indicating Mn homeostasis is critical for resisting oxidative stress. Furthermore, and are required for full virulence of during infection, suggesting experiences Mn toxicity Combined, these data support a model in which MntR controls Mn homeostasis by balancing transcriptional repression of and induction of , both of which are critical for pathogenesis. Thus, Mn efflux contributes to bacterial survival and virulence during infection, establishing MntE as a potential antimicrobial target and expanding our understanding of Mn homeostasis. Manganese (Mn) is generally viewed as a critical nutrient that is beneficial to pathogenic bacteria due to its function as an enzymatic cofactor and its capability of acting as an antioxidant; yet paradoxically, high concentrations of this transition metal can be toxic. In this work, we demonstrate utilizes the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family protein MntE to alleviate Mn toxicity through efflux of excess Mn. Inactivation of leads to a significant reduction in resistance to oxidative stress and mediated mortality within a mouse model of systemic infection. These results highlight the importance of MntE-mediated Mn detoxification in intracellular Mn homeostasis, resistance to oxidative stress, and virulence. Therefore, this establishes MntE as a potential target for development of anti- therapeutics.
Copyright © 2019 Grunenwald et al.
The nutrient metal iron plays a key role in the survival of microorganisms. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system scavenges heme-iron from the human host, enabling acquisition of iron in iron-deplete conditions in Staphylococcus aureus during infection. The cell surface receptors IsdB and IsdH bind hemoproteins and transfer heme to IsdA, the final surface protein before heme-iron is transported through the peptidoglycan. To define the human B-cell response to IsdA, we isolated human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to the surface Isd proteins and determined their mechanism of action. We describe the first isolation of fully human IsdA and IsdH mAbs, as well as cross-reactive Isd mAbs. Two of the identified IsdA mAbs worked in a murine septic model of infection to reduce bacterial burden during staphylococcal infection. Their protection was a result of both heme-blocking and Fc-mediated effector functions, underscoring the importance of targeting S. aureus using diverse mechanisms.
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: email@example.com.
While polymeric nano-formulations for RNAi therapeutics hold great promise for molecularly-targeted, personalized medicine, they possess significant systemic delivery challenges including rapid clearance from circulation and the potential for carrier-associated toxicity due to cationic polymer or lipid components. Herein, we evaluated the in vivo pharmacokinetic and safety impact of often-overlooked formulation parameters, including the ratio of carrier polymer to cargo siRNA and hydrophobic siRNA modification in combination with hydrophobic polymer components (dual hydrophobization). For these studies, we used nano-polyplexes (NPs) with well-shielded, zwitterionic coronas, resulting in various NP formulations of equivalent hydrodynamic size and neutral surface charge regardless of charge ratio. Doubling nano-polyplex charge ratio from 10 to 20 increased circulation half-life five-fold and pharmacokinetic area under the curve four-fold, but was also associated with increased liver enzymes, a marker of hepatic damage. Dual hydrophobization achieved by formulating NPs with palmitic acid-modified siRNA (siPA-NPs) both reduced the amount of carrier polymer required to achieve optimal pharmacokinetic profiles and abrogated liver toxicities. We also show that optimized zwitterionic siPA-NPs are well-tolerated upon long-term, repeated administration in mice and exhibit greater than two-fold increased uptake in orthotopic MDA-MB-231 xenografts compared to commercial transfection reagent, in vivo-jetPEI. These data suggest that charge ratio optimization has important in vivo implications and that dual hydrophobization strategies can be used to maximize both NP circulation time and safety.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Synthetically engineered DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs) are an in vivo platform for evaluation and delivery of human mAb to control against infectious disease. Here, we engineer DMAbs encoding potent anti-Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) mAbs isolated from Ebola virus disease survivors. We demonstrate the development of a human IgG1 DMAb platform for in vivo EBOV-GP mAb delivery and evaluation in a mouse model. Using this approach, we show that DMAb-11 and DMAb-34 exhibit functional and molecular profiles comparable to recombinant mAb, have a wide window of expression, and provide rapid protection against lethal mouse-adapted EBOV challenge. The DMAb platform represents a simple, rapid, and reproducible approach for evaluating the activity of mAb during clinical development. DMAbs have the potential to be a mAb delivery system, which may be advantageous for protection against highly pathogenic infectious diseases, like EBOV, in resource-limited and other challenging settings.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized mainly by epidermal hyperplasia, scaling, and erythema; T helper 17 cells have a role in its pathogenesis. Although IL-26, known as a T helper 17 cytokine, is upregulated in psoriatic skin lesions, its precise role is unclear. We investigated the role of IL-26 in the imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like murine model using human IL-26 transgenic mice. Erythema symptoms induced by daily applications of imiquimod increased dramatically in human IL-26 transgenic mice compared with controls. Vascularization and immune cell infiltration were prominent in skin lesions of human IL-26 transgenic mice. Levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1, FGF2, and FGF7 were significantly upregulated in the skin lesions of imiquimod-treated human IL-26 transgenic mice and psoriasis patients. In vitro analysis demonstrated that FGF1, FGF2, and FGF7 levels were elevated in human keratinocytes and vascular endothelial cells following IL-26 stimulation. Furthermore, IL-26 acted directly on vascular endothelial cells, promoting proliferation and tube formation, possibly through protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and NF-κB pathways. Moreover, similar effects of IL-26 were observed in the murine contact hypersensitivity model, indicating that these effects are not restricted to psoriasis. Altogether, our data indicate that IL-26 may be a promising therapeutic target in T cell-mediated skin inflammation, including psoriasis.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Histology-directed imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a spatially targeted IMS acquisition method informed by expert annotation that provides rapid molecular characterization of select tissue structures. The expert annotations are usually determined on digital whole slide images of histological stains where the staining preparation is incompatible with optimal IMS preparation, necessitating serial sections: one for annotation, one for IMS. Registration is then used to align staining annotations onto the IMS tissue section. Herein, we report a next-generation histology-directed platform implementing IMS-compatible autofluorescence (AF) microscopy taken prior to any staining or IMS. The platform enables two histology-directed workflows, one that improves the registration process between two separate tissue sections using automated, computational monomodal AF-to-AF microscopy image registration, and a registration-free approach that utilizes AF directly to identify ROIs and acquire IMS on the same section. The registration approach is fully automated and delivers state of the art accuracy in histology-directed workflows for transfer of annotations (∼3-10 μm based on 4 organs from 2 species) while the direct AF approach is registration-free, allowing targeting of the finest structures visible by AF microscopy. We demonstrate the platform in biologically relevant case studies of liver stage malaria and human kidney disease with spatially targeted acquisition of sparsely distributed (composing less than one tenth of 1% of the tissue section area) malaria infected mouse hepatocytes and glomeruli in the human kidney case study.