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Rotavirus is an important cause of diarrheal disease in young mammals. Rotavirus species A (RVA) causes most human rotavirus diarrheal disease and primarily affects infants and young children. Rotavirus species B (RVB) has been associated with sporadic outbreaks of human adult diarrheal disease. RVA and RVB are predicted to encode mostly homologous proteins but differ significantly in the proteins encoded by the NSP1 gene. In the case of RVB, the NSP1 gene encodes two putative protein products of unknown function, NSP1-1 and NSP1-2. We demonstrate that human RVB NSP1-1 mediates syncytium formation in cultured human cells. Based on sequence alignment, NSP1-1 proteins from species B, G, and I contain features consistent with fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins, which have previously been identified in other genera of the family. Like some other FAST proteins, RVB NSP1-1 is predicted to have an N-terminal myristoyl modification. Addition of an N-terminal FLAG peptide disrupts NSP1-1-mediated fusion. NSP1-1 from a human RVB mediates fusion of human cells but not hamster cells and, thus, may serve as a species tropism determinant. NSP1-1 also can enhance RVA replication in human cells, both in single-cycle infection studies and during a multicycle time course in the presence of fetal bovine serum, which inhibits rotavirus spread. These findings suggest potential yet untested roles for NSP1-1 in RVB species tropism, immune evasion, and pathogenesis. While species A rotavirus is commonly associated with diarrheal disease in young children, species B rotavirus has caused sporadic outbreaks of adult diarrheal disease. A major genetic difference between species A and B rotaviruses is the NSP1 gene, which encodes two proteins for species B rotavirus. We demonstrate that the smaller of these proteins, NSP1-1, can mediate fusion of cultured human cells. Comparison with viral proteins of similar function provides insight into NSP1-1 domain organization and fusion mechanism. These comparisons suggest that there is a fatty acid modification at the amino terminus of the protein, and our results show that an intact amino terminus is required for NSP1-1-mediated fusion. NSP1-1 from a human virus mediates fusion of human cells, but not hamster cells, and enhances species A rotavirus replication in culture. These findings suggest potential, but currently untested, roles for NSP1-1 in RVB host species tropism, immune evasion, and pathogenesis.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually-transmitted infection gonorrhea, a global disease that is difficult to treat and for which there is no vaccine. This pathogen employs an arsenal of conserved outer membrane proteins called TonB-dependent transporters (TdTs) that allow the gonococcus to overcome nutritional immunity, the host strategy of sequestering essential nutrients away from invading bacteria to handicap infectious ability. N. gonorrhoeae produces eight known TdTs, of which four are utilized for acquisition of iron or iron chelates from host-derived proteins or xenosiderophores produced by other bacteria. Of the remaining TdTs, two of them, TdfH and TdfJ, facilitate zinc uptake. TdfH was recently shown to bind Calprotectin, a member of the S100 protein family, and subsequently extract its zinc, which is then internalized by N. gonorrhoeae. Like Calprotectin, other S100s are also capable of binding transition metals such as zinc and copper, and thus have demonstrated growth suppression of numerous other pathogens via metal sequestration. Considering the functional and structural similarities of the TdTs and of the S100s, as well as the upregulation in response to Zn limitation shown by TdfH and TdfJ, we sought to evaluate whether other S100s have the ability to support gonococcal growth by means of zinc acquisition and to frame this growth in the context of the TdTs. We found that both S100A7 and S10012 are utilized by N. gonorrhoeae as a zinc source in a mechanism that depends on the zinc transport system ZnuABC. Moreover, TdfJ binds directly to S100A7, from which it internalizes zinc. This interaction is restricted to the human version of S100A7, and zinc presence in S100A7 is required to fully support gonococcal growth. These studies highlight how gonococci co-opt human nutritional immunity, by presenting a novel interaction between TdfJ and human S100A7 for overcoming host zinc restriction.
Dendrite growth is constrained by a self-avoidance response that induces retraction but the downstream pathways that balance these opposing mechanisms are unknown. We have proposed that the diffusible cue UNC-6(Netrin) is captured by UNC-40(DCC) for a short-range interaction with UNC-5 to trigger self-avoidance in the C. elegans PVD neuron. Here we report that the actin-polymerizing proteins UNC-34(Ena/VASP), WSP-1(WASP), UNC-73(Trio), MIG-10(Lamellipodin) and the Arp2/3 complex effect dendrite retraction in the self-avoidance response mediated by UNC-6(Netrin). The paradoxical idea that actin polymerization results in shorter rather than longer dendrites is explained by our finding that NMY-1 (non-muscle myosin II) is necessary for retraction and could therefore mediate this effect in a contractile mechanism. Our results also show that dendrite length is determined by the antagonistic effects on the actin cytoskeleton of separate sets of effectors for retraction mediated by UNC-6(Netrin) versus outgrowth promoted by the DMA-1 receptor. Thus, our findings suggest that the dendrite length depends on an intrinsic mechanism that balances distinct modes of actin assembly for growth versus retraction.
Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are molecular machines that can mediate interbacterial DNA transfer through conjugation and delivery of effector molecules into host cells. The Cag T4SS translocates CagA, a bacterial oncoprotein, into gastric cells, contributing to gastric cancer pathogenesis. We report the structure of a membrane-spanning Cag T4SS assembly, which we describe as three sub-assemblies: a 14-fold symmetric outer membrane core complex (OMCC), 17-fold symmetric periplasmic ring complex (PRC), and central stalk. Features that differ markedly from those of prototypical T4SSs include an expanded OMCC and unexpected symmetry mismatch between the OMCC and PRC. This structure is one of the largest bacterial secretion system assemblies ever reported and illustrates the remarkable structural diversity that exists among bacterial T4SSs.
© 2019, Chung et al.
GFP labeling by genome editing can reveal the authentic location of a native protein, but is frequently hampered by weak GFP signals and broad expression across a range of tissues that may obscure cell-specific localization. To overcome these problems, we engineered a Native And Tissue-specific Fluorescence (NATF) strategy that combines genome editing and split-GFP to yield bright, cell-specific protein labeling. We use clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats CRISPR/Cas9 to insert a tandem array of seven copies of the GFP11 β-strand ( ) at the genomic locus of each target protein. The resultant knock-in strain is then crossed with separate reporter lines that express the complementing split-GFP fragment () in specific cell types, thus affording tissue-specific labeling of the target protein at its native level. We show that NATF reveals the otherwise undetectable intracellular location of the immunoglobulin protein OIG-1 and demarcates the receptor auxiliary protein LEV-10 at cell-specific synaptic domains in the nervous system.
Copyright © 2019 by the Genetics Society of America.
Advances over the past 25 years have revealed much about how the structural properties of membranes and associated proteins are linked to the thermodynamics and kinetics of membrane protein (MP) folding. At the same time biochemical progress has outlined how cellular proteostasis networks mediate MP folding and manage misfolding in the cell. When combined with results from genomic sequencing, these studies have established paradigms for how MP folding and misfolding are linked to the molecular etiologies of a variety of diseases. This emerging framework has paved the way for the development of a new class of small molecule "pharmacological chaperones" that bind to and stabilize misfolded MP variants, some of which are now in clinical use. In this review, we comprehensively outline current perspectives on the folding and misfolding of integral MPs as well as the mechanisms of cellular MP quality control. Based on these perspectives, we highlight new opportunities for innovations that bridge our molecular understanding of the energetics of MP folding with the nuanced complexity of biological systems. Given the many linkages between MP misfolding and human disease, we also examine some of the exciting opportunities to leverage these advances to address emerging challenges in the development of therapeutics and precision medicine.
Planar cell polarity (PCP) and intercellular junctional complexes establish tissue structure and coordinated behaviors across epithelial sheets. In multiciliated ependymal cells, rotational and translational PCP coordinate cilia beating and direct cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Thus, PCP disruption results in ciliopathies and hydrocephalus. PCP establishment depends on the polarization of cytoskeleton and requires the asymmetric localization of core and global regulatory modules, including membrane proteins like Vangl1/2 or Frizzled. We analyzed the subcellular localization of select proteins that make up these modules in ependymal cells and the effect of Trp73 loss on their localization. We identify a novel function of the Trp73 tumor suppressor gene, the TAp73 isoform in particular, as an essential regulator of PCP through the modulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton dynamics, demonstrating that Trp73 is a key player in the organization of ependymal ciliated epithelia. Mechanistically, we show that p73 regulates translational PCP and actin dynamics through TAp73-dependent modulation of non-musclemyosin-II activity. In addition, TAp73 is required for the asymmetric localization of PCP-core and global signaling modules and regulates polarized microtubule dynamics, which in turn set up the rotational PCP. Therefore, TAp73 modulates, directly and/or indirectly, transcriptional programs regulating actin and microtubules dynamics and Golgi organization signaling pathways. These results shed light into the mechanism of ependymal cell planar polarization and reveal p73 as an epithelial architect during development regulating the cellular cytoskeleton.
Purpose - The purpose of this study was to characterize the palmitoyl-proteome in lens fiber cells. S-palmitoylation is the most common form of protein S-acylation and the reversible nature of this modification functions as a molecular switch to regulate many biological processes. This modification could play important roles in regulating protein functions and protein-protein interactions in the lens.
Methods - The palmitoyl-proteome of bovine lens fiber cells was investigated by combining acyl-biotin exchange (ABE) chemistry and mass-spectrometry analysis. Due to the possibility of false-positive results from ABE experiment, a method was also developed for direct detection of palmitoylated peptides by mass spectrometry for validating palmitoylation of lens proteins MP20 and AQP5. Palmitoylation levels on AQP5 in different regions of the lens were quantified after iodoacetamide (IAA)-palmitate exchange.
Results - The ABE experiment identified 174 potential palmitoylated proteins. These proteins include 39 well-characterized palmitoylated proteins, 92 previously reported palmitoylated proteins in other tissues, and 43 newly identified potential palmitoylated proteins including two important transmembrane proteins in the lens, AQP5 and MP20. Further analysis by direct detection of palmitoylated peptides confirmed palmitoylation of AQP5 on C6 and palmitoylation of MP20 on C159. Palmitoylation of AQP5 was found to only occur in a narrow region of the inner lens cortex and does not occur in the lens epithelium, in the lens outer cortex, or in the lens nucleus.
Conclusions - AQP5 and MP20 are among 174 palmitoylated proteins found in bovine lens fiber cells. This modification to AQP5 and MP20 may play a role in their translocation from the cytoplasm to cell membranes during fiber cell differentiation.
Identification of cell-surface markers specific to human pancreatic β cells would allow in vivo analysis and imaging. Here we introduce a biomarker, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-3 (NTPDase3), that is expressed on the cell surface of essentially all adult human β cells, including those from individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. NTPDase3 is expressed dynamically during postnatal human pancreas development, appearing first in acinar cells at birth, but several months later its expression declines in acinar cells while concurrently emerging in islet β cells. Given its specificity and membrane localization, we utilized an NTPDase3 antibody for purification of live human β cells as confirmed by transcriptional profiling, and, in addition, for in vivo imaging of transplanted human β cells. Thus, NTPDase3 is a cell-surface biomarker of adult human β cells, and the antibody directed to this protein should be a useful new reagent for β cell sorting, in vivo imaging, and targeting.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES) is a tight-junction associated protein that was originally discovered from a cDNA screen of the developing heart. Research over the last decade has shown that not only is BVES is expressed in cardiac and skeletal tissue, but BVES is also is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal epithelium. Mice lacking BVES sustain worse intestinal injury and inflammation. Furthermore, BVES is suppressed in gastrointestinal cancers, and mouse modeling has shown that loss of BVES promotes tumor formation. Recent work from multiple laboratories has revealed that BVES can regulate several molecular pathways, including cAMP, WNT, and promoting the degradation of the oncogene, c-Myc. This review will summarize our current understanding of how BVES regulates the intestinal epithelium and discuss how BVES functions at the molecular level to preserve epithelial phenotypes and suppress tumorigenesis.