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Mitochondrial dysfunction is elevated in very early stages of Alzheimer's disease and exacerbates oxidative stress, which contributes to disease pathology. Mitochondria were isolated from 4-month-old wild-type mice, transgenic mice carrying the APP and PSEN1 mutations, mice with decreased brain and mitochondrial ascorbate (vitamin C) via heterozygous knockout of the sodium dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT2) and transgenic APP/PSEN1 mice with heterozygous SVCT2 expression. Mitochondrial isolates from SVCT2 mice were observed to consume less oxygen using high-resolution respirometry, and also exhibited decreased mitochondrial membrane potential compared to wild type isolates. Conversely, isolates from young (4 months) APP/PSEN1 mice consumed more oxygen, and exhibited an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential, but had a significantly lower ATP/ADP ratio compared to wild type isolates. Greater levels of reactive oxygen species were also produced in mitochondria isolated from both APP/PSEN1 and SVCT2 mice compared to wild type isolates. Acute administration of ascorbate to mitochondria isolated from wild-type mice increased oxygen consumption compared with untreated mitochondria suggesting ascorbate may support energy production. This study suggests that both presence of amyloid and ascorbate deficiency can contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction, even at an early, prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease, although occurring via different pathways. Ascorbate may, therefore, provide a useful preventative strategy against neurodegenerative disease, particularly in populations most at risk for Alzheimer's disease in which stores are often depleted through mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated oxidative stress.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Glucose regulation of pancreatic α-cell Ca(2+) entry through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels is essential for normal glucagon secretion and becomes defective during the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. The 2-pore domain K(+) channel, TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+) channel 1 (TASK-1), is an important modulator of membrane voltage and Ca(2+) entry. However, its role in α-cells has not been determined. Therefore, we addressed how TASK-1 channels regulate α-cell electrical activity, Ca(2+) entry, and glucagon secretion. We find that TASK-1 channels expressed in human and rodent α-cells are blocked by the TASK-1 channel inhibitor A1899. Alpha-cell 2-pore domain K(+) currents were also significantly reduced after ablation of mouse α-cell TASK-1 channels. Inhibition of TASK-1 channels with A1899 caused plasma membrane potential depolarization in both human and mouse α-cells, which resulted in increased electrical excitability. Moreover, ablation of α-cell TASK-1 channels increased α-cell electrical excitability under elevated glucose (11 mM) conditions compared with control α-cells. This resulted in significantly elevated α-cell Ca(2+) influx when TASK-1 channels were inhibited in the presence of high glucose (14 mM). However, there was an insignificant change in α-cell Ca(2+) influx after TASK-1 inhibition in low glucose (1 mM). Glucagon secretion from mouse and human islets was also elevated specifically in high (11 mM) glucose after acute TASK-1 inhibition. Interestingly, mice deficient for α-cell TASK-1 showed improvements in both glucose inhibition of glucagon secretion and glucose tolerance, which resulted from the chronic loss of α-cell TASK-1 currents. Therefore, these data suggest an important role for TASK-1 channels in limiting α-cell excitability and glucagon secretion during glucose stimulation.
Cellular proteins rely on reversible redox reactions to establish and maintain biological structure and function. How redox catabolic (NAD+/NADH) and anabolic (NADP+/NADPH) processes integrate during metabolism to maintain cellular redox homoeostasis, however, is unknown. The present work identifies a continuously cycling mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)-dependent redox circuit between the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). PDHC is shown to produce H2O2 in relation to reducing pressure within the complex. The H2O2 produced, however, is effectively masked by a continuously cycling redox circuit that links, via glutathione/thioredoxin, to NNT, which catalyses the regeneration of NADPH from NADH at the expense of ΔΨm. The net effect is an automatic fine-tuning of NNT-mediated energy expenditure to metabolic balance at the level of PDHC. In mitochondria, genetic or pharmacological disruptions in the PDHC-NNT redox circuit negate counterbalance changes in energy expenditure. At the whole animal level, mice lacking functional NNT (C57BL/6J) are characterized by lower energy-expenditure rates, consistent with their well-known susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. These findings suggest the integration of redox sensing of metabolic balance with compensatory changes in energy expenditure provides a potential mechanism by which cellular redox homoeostasis is maintained and body weight is defended during periods of positive and negative energy balance.
Mutation of threonine for isoleucine at codon 73 (I73T) in the human surfactant protein C (hSP-C) gene (SFTPC) accounts for a significant portion of SFTPC mutations associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Cell lines stably expressing tagged primary translation product of SP-C isoforms were generated to test the hypothesis that deposition of hSP-C(I73T) within the endosomal system promotes disruption of a key cellular quality control pathway, macroautophagy. By fluorescence microscopy, wild-type hSP-C (hSP-C(WT)) colocalized with exogenously expressed human ATP binding cassette class A3 (hABCA3), an indicator of normal trafficking to lysosomal-related organelles. In contrast, hSP-C(I73T) was dissociated from hABCA3 but colocalized to the plasma membrane as well as the endosomal network. Cells expressing hSP-C(I73T) exhibited increases in size and number of cytosolic green fluorescent protein/microtubule-associated protein 1 light-chain 3 (LC3) vesicles, some of which colabeled with red fluorescent protein from the gene dsRed/hSP-C(I73T). By transmission electron microscopy, hSP-C(I73T) cells contained abnormally large autophagic vacuoles containing organellar and proteinaceous debris, which phenocopied ultrastructural changes in alveolar type 2 cells in a lung biopsy from a SFTPC I73T patient. Biochemically, hSP-C(I73T) cells exhibited increased expression of Atg8/LC3, SQSTM1/p62, and Rab7, consistent with a distal block in autophagic vacuole maturation, confirmed by flux studies using bafilomycin A1 and rapamycin. Functionally, hSP-C(I73T) cells showed an impaired degradative capacity for an aggregation-prone huntingtin-1 reporter substrate. The disruption of autophagy-dependent proteostasis was accompanied by increases in mitochondria biomass and parkin expression coupled with a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. We conclude that hSP-C(I73T) induces an acquired block in macroautophagy-dependent proteostasis and mitophagy, which could contribute to the increased vulnerability of the lung epithelia to second-hit injury as seen in ILD.
Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We identified acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) as part of a proteomic signature predicting the risk of having lung cancer. Because ACBP is known to regulate β-oxidation, which in turn controls cellular proliferation, we hypothesized that ACBP contributes to regulation of cellular proliferation and survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by modulating β-oxidation. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to confirm the tissue localization of ABCP in pre-invasive and invasive NSCLCs. We correlated ACBP gene expression levels in NSCLCs with clinical outcomes. In loss-of-function studies, we tested the effect of the downregulation of ACBP on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in normal bronchial and NSCLC cell lines. Using tritiated-palmitate ((3)H-palmitate), we measured β-oxidation levels and tested the effect of etomoxir, a β-oxidation inhibitor, on proliferation and apoptosis. MALDI-IMS and IHC analysis confirmed that ACBP is overexpressed in pre-invasive and invasive lung cancers. High ACBP gene expression levels in NSCLCs correlated with worse survival (HR = 1.73). We observed a 40% decrease in β-oxidation and concordant decreases in proliferation and increases in apoptosis in ACBP-depleted NSCLC cells as compared with bronchial airway epithelial cells. Inhibition of β-oxidation by etomoxir in ACBP-overexpressing cells produced dose-dependent decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). These data suggest a role for ACBP in controlling lung cancer progression by regulating β-oxidation.
©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Fus1 is a tumor suppressor protein with recently described immunoregulatory functions. Although its role in sterile inflammation is being elucidated, its role in regulating immune responses to infectious agents has not been examined. We used here a murine model of Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia to identify the role of Fus1 in antibacterial host defenses. We found that the loss of Fus1 in mice results in significantly increased resistance to A. baumannii pneumonia. We observed earlier and more robust recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to the lungs of infected Fus1(-/-) mice, with a concomitant increase in phagocytosis of invading bacteria and more rapid clearance. Such a prompt and enhanced immune response to bacterial infection in Fus1(-/-) mice stems from early activation of proinflammatory pathways (NF-κB and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR]), most likely due to significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Significant early upregulation of interleukin-17 (IL-17) in Fus1(-/-) immune cells was also observed, together with significant downregulation of IL-10. Depletion of neutrophils eliminates the enhanced antibacterial defenses of the Fus1(-/-) mice, suggesting that ultimately it is the enhanced immune cell recruitment that mediates the increased resistance of Fus1(-/-) mice to A. baumannii pneumonia. Taken together, our data define the novel role for Fus1 in the immune response to A. baumannii pneumonia and highlight new avenues for immune modulating therapeutic targets for this treatment-resistant nosocomial pathogen.
Superoxide (O2(·-)) production by the NADPH oxidases is implicated in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. We have previously shown that activation of NADPH oxidases increases mitochondrial O2(·-) which is inhibited by the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (mitoKATP) inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoic acid and that scavenging of mitochondrial or cytoplasmic O2(·-) inhibits hypertension. We hypothesized that mitoKATP-mediated mitochondrial O2(·-) potentiates cytoplasmic O2(·-) by stimulation of NADPH oxidases. In this work we studied Nox isoforms as a potential target of mitochondrial O2(·-). We tested contribution of reverse electron transfer (RET) from complex II to complex I in mitochondrial O2(·-) production and NADPH oxidase activation in human aortic endothelial cells. Activation of mitoKATP with low dose of diazoxide (100 nM) decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester probe) and increased production of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic O2(·-) measured by site-specific probes and mitoSOX. Inhibition of RET with complex II inhibitor (malonate) or complex I inhibitor (rotenone) attenuated the production of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic O2(·-). Supplementation with a mitochondria-targeted SOD mimetic (mitoTEMPO) or a mitochondria-targeted glutathione peroxidase mimetic (mitoEbselen) inhibited production of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic O2(·-). Inhibition of Nox2 (gp91ds) or Nox2 depletion with small interfering RNA but not Nox1, Nox4, or Nox5 abolished diazoxide-induced O2(·-) production in the cytoplasm. Treatment of angiotensin II-infused mice with RET inhibitor dihydroethidium (malate) significantly reduced blood pressure. Our study suggests that mitoKATP-mediated mitochondrial O2(·-) stimulates cytoplasmic Nox2, contributing to the development of endothelial oxidative stress and hypertension.
Manganese (Mn) is an environmental risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Recessive inheritance of PARK2 mutations is strongly associated with early onset PD (EOPD). It is widely assumed that the influence of PD environmental risk factors may be enhanced by the presence of PD genetic risk factors in the genetic background of individuals. However, such interactions may be difficult to predict owing to the complexities of genetic and environmental interactions. Here we examine the potential of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived early neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to model differences in Mn neurotoxicity between a control subject (CA) with no known PD genetic risk factors and a subject (SM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 and family history of PD but no evidence of PD by neurological exam. Human iPS cells were generated from primary dermal fibroblasts of both subjects. We assessed several outcome measures associated with Mn toxicity and PD. No difference in sensitivity to Mn cytotoxicity or mitochondrial fragmentation was observed between SM and CA NPCs. However, we found that Mn exposure was associated with significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in SM compared to CA NPCs despite significantly less intracellular Mn accumulation. Thus, this report offers the first example of human subject-specific differences in PD-relevant environmental health related phenotypes that are consistent with pathogenic interactions between known genetic and environmental risk factors for PD.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Products of inflammation and the activation of nitric oxide synthase have been proposed as a mechanism of oligodendrocyte injury in CNS inflammation. There are currently three well described and known isoforms of NOS. Of these, neuronal NOS (nNOS) was initially discovered in neurons, endothelial NOS (eNOS) in vascular endothelium, while the inducible form of NOS (iNOS) is known to be activated in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. We examined the activation of nNOS and the down stream effects of NO production in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) and MO3.13 cell line following culture with LPS. Our studies show that both MO3.13 cells and OPC are susceptible to the cellular injury resulting from LPS mediated activation and NO production. Activation of the TLR4 receptor with LPS led to decrease in cell viability that was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and impaired enzymatic activity of complex I and complex IV protein of the respiratory chain. 7-NI, a known inhibitor of nNOS was able to rescue of cells from LPS mediated mitochondrial damage. Loss of mitochondrial function was associated with translocation of cytochrome C and apoptosis inducing factor to the cytosol, setting the stage for apoptosis. Phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt was required for optimal activation of NOS. These studies provide a biochemical basis for nNOS mediated oligodendrocyte injury and suggest similar mechanisms may play a role in diseases characterized by oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination.
Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.