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The Marburgvirus-Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody MR191 Targets a Conserved Site to Block Virus Receptor Binding.
King LB, Fusco ML, Flyak AI, Ilinykh PA, Huang K, Gunn B, Kirchdoerfer RN, Hastie KM, Sangha AK, Meiler J, Alter G, Bukreyev A, Crowe JE, Saphire EO
(2018) Cell Host Microbe 23: 101-109.e4
MeSH Terms: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Binding Sites, Carrier Proteins, Cell Line, Cercopithecus aethiops, Crystallography, X-Ray, Drosophila melanogaster, Humans, Marburgvirus, Membrane Glycoproteins, Receptors, Virus, Tobacco, Vero Cells, Viral Envelope Proteins, Viral Fusion Proteins, Virus Attachment
Show Abstract · Added March 17, 2018
Since their first identification 50 years ago, marburgviruses have emerged several times, with 83%-90% lethality in the largest outbreaks. Although no vaccines or therapeutics are available for human use, the human antibody MR191 provides complete protection in non-human primates when delivered several days after inoculation of a lethal marburgvirus dose. The detailed neutralization mechanism of MR191 remains outstanding. Here we present a 3.2 Å crystal structure of MR191 complexed with a trimeric marburgvirus surface glycoprotein (GP). MR191 neutralizes by occupying the conserved receptor-binding site and competing with the host receptor Niemann-Pick C1. The structure illuminates previously disordered regions of GP including the stalk, fusion loop, CXCC switch, and an N-terminal region of GP2 that wraps about the outside of GP1 to anchor a marburgvirus-specific "wing" antibody epitope. Virus escape mutations mapped far outside the MR191 receptor-binding site footprint suggest a role for these other regions in the GP quaternary structure.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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20 MeSH Terms
Lrig1+ gastric isthmal progenitor cells restore normal gastric lineage cells during damage recovery in adult mouse stomach.
Choi E, Lantz TL, Vlacich G, Keeley TM, Samuelson LC, Coffey RJ, Goldenring JR, Powell AE
(2018) Gut 67: 1595-1605
MeSH Terms: Animals, Biomarkers, Cell Lineage, Disease Models, Animal, Gastric Mucosa, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Predictive Value of Tests, Sensitivity and Specificity, Stem Cells, Stomach Ulcer, Wound Healing
Show Abstract · Added September 27, 2017
OBJECTIVE - Lrig1 is a marker of proliferative and quiescent stem cells in the skin and intestine. We examined whether Lrig1-expressing cells are long-lived gastric progenitors in gastric glands in the mouse stomach. We also investigated how the Lrig1-expressing progenitor cells contribute to the regeneration of normal gastric mucosa by lineage commitment to parietal cells after acute gastric injury in mice.
DESIGN - We performed lineage labelling using (Lrig1/YFP) or (Lrig1/LacZ) mice to examine whether the Lrig1-YFP-marked cells are gastric progenitor cells. We studied whether Lrig1-YFP-marked cells give rise to normal gastric lineage cells in damaged mucosa using Lrig1/YFP mice after treatment with DMP-777 to induce acute injury. We also studied Lrig1- (Lrig1 knockout) mice to examine whether the Lrig1 protein is required for regeneration of gastric corpus mucosa after acute injury.
RESULTS - Lrig1-YFP-marked cells give rise to gastric lineage epithelial cells both in the gastric corpus and antrum, in contrast to published results that Lgr5 only marks progenitor cells within the gastric antrum. Lrig1-YFP-marked cells contribute to replacement of damaged gastric oxyntic glands during the recovery phase after acute oxyntic atrophy in the gastric corpus. Lrig1 null mice recovered normally from acute gastric mucosal injury indicating that Lrig1 protein is not required for lineage differentiation. Lrig1+ isthmal progenitor cells did not contribute to transdifferentiating chief cell lineages after acute oxyntic atrophy.
CONCLUSIONS - Lrig1 marks gastric corpus epithelial progenitor cells capable of repopulating the damaged oxyntic mucosa by differentiating into normal gastric lineage cells in mouse stomach.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
1 Communities
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14 MeSH Terms
CD318 is a ligand for CD6.
Enyindah-Asonye G, Li Y, Ruth JH, Spassov DS, Hebron KE, Zijlstra A, Moasser MM, Wang B, Singer NG, Cui H, Ohara RA, Rasmussen SM, Fox DA, Lin F
(2017) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114: E6912-E6921
MeSH Terms: A549 Cells, Animals, Antigens, CD, Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte, Antigens, Neoplasm, Arthritis, Rheumatoid, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Cell Line, Cell Line, Tumor, Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental, Humans, Ligands, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Neoplasm Proteins, Synovial Membrane, T-Lymphocytes
Show Abstract · Added March 22, 2018
It has been proposed that CD6, an important regulator of T cells, functions by interacting with its currently identified ligand, CD166, but studies performed during the treatment of autoimmune conditions suggest that the CD6-CD166 interaction might not account for important functions of CD6 in autoimmune diseases. The antigen recognized by mAb 3A11 has been proposed as a new CD6 ligand distinct from CD166, yet the identity of it is hitherto unknown. We have identified this CD6 ligand as CD318, a cell surface protein previously found to be present on various epithelial cells and many tumor cells. We found that, like CD6 knockout (KO) mice, CD318 KO mice are also protected in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In humans, we found that CD318 is highly expressed in synovial tissues and participates in CD6-dependent adhesion of T cells to synovial fibroblasts. In addition, soluble CD318 is chemoattractive to T cells and levels of soluble CD318 are selectively and significantly elevated in the synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile inflammatory arthritis. These results establish CD318 as a ligand of CD6 and a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory arthritis.
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18 MeSH Terms
The nature and biology of basement membranes.
Pozzi A, Yurchenco PD, Iozzo RV
(2017) Matrix Biol 57-58: 1-11
MeSH Terms: Agrin, Animals, Basement Membrane, Bone Diseases, Developmental, Collagen Type IV, Diabetic Nephropathies, Extracellular Matrix, Gene Expression Regulation, Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans, Humans, Laminin, Lupus Nephritis, Mechanotransduction, Cellular, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mutation, Protein Isoforms
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2017
Basement membranes are delicate, nanoscale and pliable sheets of extracellular matrices that often act as linings or partitions in organisms. Previously considered as passive scaffolds segregating polarized cells, such as epithelial or endothelial cells, from the underlying mesenchyme, basement membranes have now reached the center stage of biology. They play a multitude of roles from blood filtration to muscle homeostasis, from storing growth factors and cytokines to controlling angiogenesis and tumor growth, from maintaining skin integrity and neuromuscular structure to affecting adipogenesis and fibrosis. Here, we will address developmental, structural and biochemical aspects of basement membranes and discuss some of the pathogenetic mechanisms causing diseases linked to abnormal basement membranes.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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16 MeSH Terms
Identification and Functional Assessment of Age-Dependent Truncations to Cx46 and Cx50 in the Human Lens.
Slavi N, Wang Z, Harvey L, Schey KL, Srinivas M
(2016) Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 57: 5714-5722
MeSH Terms: Aging, Cataract, Cell Membrane Permeability, Cells, Cultured, Connexins, Humans, Lens, Crystalline, Membrane Glycoproteins, Middle Aged, Patch-Clamp Techniques, Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Show Abstract · Added May 6, 2017
Purpose - Many proteins in the lens undergo extensive posttranslational modifications (PTMs) with age, leading to alterations in their function. The extent to which lens gap junction proteins, Cx46 and Cx50, accumulate PTMs with aging is not known. In this study, we identified truncations in Cx46 and Cx50 in the human lens using mass spectrometry. We also examined the effect of truncations on channel function using electrophysiological measurements.
Methods - Human lenses were dissected into cortex, outer nucleus, and nucleus regions, and fiber cell membranes were subjected to trypsin digestion. Tryptic peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS). Effects of truncations on channel conductance, permeability, and gating were assessed in transfected cells.
Results - Cleavage sites were identified in the C-terminus, the cytoplasmic loop, and the N-terminus of Cx46 and Cx50. Levels of C-terminal truncations, which were found at residues 238 to 251 in Cx46 and at residues 238 to 253 and 274 to 284 in Cx50, were similar in different lens regions. In contrast, levels of truncations in cytoplasmic loop and N-terminal domains of Cx46 and Cx50 increased dramatically from outer cortex to nucleus. Most of the C-terminally truncated proteins were functional, whereas truncations in the cytoplasmic loop did not result in the formation of functional channels.
Conclusions - Accumulation of cytoplasmic loop and N-terminal truncations in the core might lead to decreases in coupling with age. This reduction is expected to lead to an increase in intracellular calcium and a decrease in levels of glutathione in the nucleus. These changes may ultimately lead to age-related nuclear cataracts.
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11 MeSH Terms
Glomerular basement membrane heparan sulfate in health and disease: A regulator of local complement activation.
Borza DB
(2017) Matrix Biol 57-58: 299-310
MeSH Terms: Agrin, Animals, Collagen Type IV, Complement Activation, Complement C3b, Complement Factor H, Gene Expression Regulation, Glomerular Basement Membrane, Glomerulonephritis, Membranous, Heparitin Sulfate, Humans, Laminin, Lupus Nephritis, Membrane Glycoproteins, Signal Transduction, Static Electricity
Show Abstract · Added December 2, 2016
The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is an essential component of the glomerular filtration barrier. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans such as agrin are major components of the GBM, along with α345(IV) collagen, laminin-521 and nidogen. A loss of GBM heparan sulfate chains is associated with proteinuria in several glomerular diseases and may contribute to the underlying pathology. As the major determinants of the anionic charge of the GBM, heparan sulfate chains have been thought to impart charge selectivity to the glomerular filtration, a view challenged by the negligible albuminuria in mice that lack heparan sulfate in the GBM. Recent studies provide increasing evidence that heparan sulfate chains modulate local complement activation by recruiting complement regulatory protein factor H, the major inhibitor of the alternative pathway in plasma. Factor H selectively inactivates C3b bound to surfaces bearing host-specific polyanions such as heparan sulfate, thus limiting complement activation on self surfaces such as the GBM, which are not protected by cell-bound complement regulators. We discuss mechanisms whereby the acquired loss of GBM heparan sulfate can impair the local regulation of the alternative pathway, exacerbating complement activation and glomerular injury in immune-mediated kidney diseases such as membranous nephropathy and lupus nephritis.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1 Communities
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16 MeSH Terms
A "Trojan horse" bispecific-antibody strategy for broad protection against ebolaviruses.
Wec AZ, Nyakatura EK, Herbert AS, Howell KA, Holtsberg FW, Bakken RR, Mittler E, Christin JR, Shulenin S, Jangra RK, Bharrhan S, Kuehne AI, Bornholdt ZA, Flyak AI, Saphire EO, Crowe JE, Aman MJ, Dye JM, Lai JR, Chandran K
(2016) Science 354: 350-354
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antibodies, Bispecific, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Binding Sites, Carrier Proteins, Cell Line, Tumor, Ebolavirus, Endosomes, Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola, Humans, Immunotherapy, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Receptors, Virus, Viral Envelope Proteins, Virus Internalization
Show Abstract · Added April 13, 2017
There is an urgent need for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies that broadly protect against Ebola virus and other filoviruses. The conserved, essential interaction between the filovirus glycoprotein, GP, and its entry receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) provides an attractive target for such mAbs but is shielded by multiple mechanisms, including physical sequestration in late endosomes. Here, we describe a bispecific-antibody strategy to target this interaction, in which mAbs specific for NPC1 or the GP receptor-binding site are coupled to a mAb against a conserved, surface-exposed GP epitope. Bispecific antibodies, but not parent mAbs, neutralized all known ebolaviruses by coopting viral particles themselves for endosomal delivery and conferred postexposure protection against multiple ebolaviruses in mice. Such "Trojan horse" bispecific antibodies have potential as broad antifilovirus immunotherapeutics.
Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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19 MeSH Terms
Structures of Ebola virus GP and sGP in complex with therapeutic antibodies.
Pallesen J, Murin CD, de Val N, Cottrell CA, Hastie KM, Turner HL, Fusco ML, Flyak AI, Zeitlin L, Crowe JE, Andersen KG, Saphire EO, Ward AB
(2016) Nat Microbiol 1: 16128
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibody Formation, Cross Reactions, Cryoelectron Microscopy, Ebolavirus, Epitopes, Glycoproteins, Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola, Humans, Membrane Glycoproteins, Models, Structural, Mutation, Protein Multimerization, Sequence Alignment, Viral Proteins
Show Abstract · Added April 13, 2017
The Ebola virus (EBOV) GP gene encodes two glycoproteins. The major product is a soluble, dimeric glycoprotein (sGP) that is secreted abundantly. Despite the abundance of sGP during infection, little is known regarding its structure or functional role. A minor product, resulting from transcriptional editing, is the transmembrane-anchored, trimeric viral surface glycoprotein (GP). GP mediates attachment to and entry into host cells, and is the intended target of antibody therapeutics. Because large portions of sequence are shared between GP and sGP, it has been hypothesized that sGP may potentially subvert the immune response or may contribute to pathogenicity. In this study, we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of GP and sGP in complex with GP-specific and GP/sGP cross-reactive antibodies undergoing human clinical trials. The structure of the sGP dimer presented here, in complex with both an sGP-specific antibody and a GP/sGP cross-reactive antibody, permits us to unambiguously assign the oligomeric arrangement of sGP and compare its structure and epitope presentation to those of GP. We also provide biophysical evaluation of naturally occurring GP/sGP mutations that fall within the footprints identified by our high-resolution structures. Taken together, our data provide a detailed and more complete picture of the accessible Ebolavirus glycoprotein landscape and a structural basis to evaluate patient and vaccine antibody responses towards differently structured products of the GP gene.
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16 MeSH Terms
PAFR activation of NF-κB p65 or p105 precursor dictates pro- and anti-inflammatory responses during TLR activation in murine macrophages.
Ishizuka EK, Filgueiras LR, Rios FJ, Serezani CH, Jancar S
(2016) Sci Rep 6: 32092
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cytokines, Inflammation, Inflammation Mediators, Interleukin-10, Lipopolysaccharides, Lipoproteins, Macrophages, Peritoneal, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88, NF-kappa B p50 Subunit, Platelet Activating Factor, Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Toll-Like Receptor 2, Toll-Like Receptor 4, Toll-Like Receptors, Transcription Factor RelA
Show Abstract · Added May 4, 2017
Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) implicated in many diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether PAFR signaling changes the macrophages responsiveness to agonists of TLR2 (Pam3Cys), TLR4 (LPS), and TLR3 agonist Poly(I:C). Exogenous PAF inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-12p40, IL-6, and TNF-α) and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in macrophages challenged with Pam3Cys and LPS, but not with Poly (I:C). PAF did not affect mRNA expression of MyD88, suggesting that PAF acts downstream the adaptor. PAF inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and increased NF-κB p105 phosphorylation, which is processed in the proteasome to generate p50 subunit. The PAF potentiation of IL-10 production was dependent on proteasome processing but independent of NF-κB transactivation domain. Inhibition of p50 abolished the PAF-induced IL-10 production. These findings indicate that the impaired transcriptional activity of the p65 subunit and the enhanced p105 phosphorylation induced by PAF are responsible for down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up regulation of IL-10, respectively, in LPS-challenged macrophages. Together, our data unveil a heretofore unrecognized role for PAFR in modulating activation of NF-κB in macrophages.
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19 MeSH Terms
Quantitative proteomics revealed novel proteins associated with molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
Suman S, Basak T, Gupta P, Mishra S, Kumar V, Sengupta S, Shukla Y
(2016) J Proteomics 148: 183-93
MeSH Terms: Adult, Biomarkers, Tumor, Breast Neoplasms, Case-Control Studies, Complement C4b-Binding Protein, Female, Fibronectins, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Humans, Membrane Glycoproteins, Middle Aged, Proteomics, Receptor, ErbB-2, Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms, alpha-Macroglobulins
Show Abstract · Added November 3, 2017
UNLABELLED - The early diagnosis and successful treatment of breast cancer (BC) is still a challenging task due to the diverse origin and functional heterogeneity of cancer cells. The heterogeneity of BC may likely to explained by molecular BC subtypes, comprises Luminal-A (LA), Luminal-B (LB), Triple-negative (TN) and HER2-positive (HP), which are governed by a variety of cancer associated pathways. To identify protein signatures in different BC subtypes, we performed isobaric tag for absolute and relative quantitation (iTRAQ) of enriched blood plasma samples of BC subtypes (N=32) and healthy subjects (N=8). After analyses of data, 58 proteins were found to be modulated in BC subtypes from healthy subjects (p<0.05) and among these; Fibronectin (FN1), Alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), and Complement component-4-binding protein-alpha (C4BPA) and Complement factor-B (CFB) were selected for validation in BC subtypes and healthy subjects in the independent set of blood plasma (N=100) and tissue samples (N=25). Statistical analysis showed the significant modulation of FN1 and C4BPA in LB, and A2M in TN patients in both plasma as well as tissues comparatively control (p<0.05). Further, FN1 and C4BPA in LB subtype revealed a good diagnostic accuracy in plasma level validation. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and regression analysis demonstrated that these proteins with associated criterion of expression could act as discriminating signatures among BC subtypes with diagnostic and prognostic relevance.
SIGNIFICANCE - The heterogeneity of breast cancer (BC) has gained many challenges for successful management of BC, thus, the delineating proteomic alterations BC subtypes may provide great clinical values in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutics of BC. The findings from the present quantitative proteomic study have deciphered the altered proteomic patterns and their possible molecular interactions in each BC subtype. The study showed a strong association of FN1, A2M, C4BPA and CFB in molecular subtypes of BC, in which, C4BPA and A2M demonstrated a potent signature in blood plasma and tissue samples of LB and TN subtypes in BC patients, respectively. The findings also revealed the altered level expressions of these selected proteins could classify BC subtypes through plasma and tissue based expression analysis in patients and control samples. Hence, these proteins could have clinical importance for the diagnosis and prognosis purposes among molecular BC subtypes.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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15 MeSH Terms