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Cadherin-11 (CDH11) is upregulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases, including arthritis and calcific aortic valve disease. Our recent work has identified CDH11 as a potential therapeutic target and shown that treatment with a CDH11 functional blocking antibody can prevent hallmarks of calcific aortic valve disease in mice. The present study investigated the role of CDH11 in regulating the mechanobiological behavior of valvular interstitial cells believed to cause calcification. Aortic valve interstitial cells were harvested from Cdh11, Cdh11, and Cdh11 immortomice. Cells were subjected to inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and IL-6 to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which CDH11 regulates their mechanobiological changes. Histology was performed on aortic valves from Cdh11, Cdh11, and Cdh11 mice to identify key responses to CDH11 deletion in vivo. We showed that CDH11 influences cell behavior through its regulation of contractility and its ability to bind substrates via focal adhesions. We also show that transforming growth factor-β overrides the normal relationship between CDH11 and smooth muscle α-actin to exacerbate the myofibroblast disease phenotype. This phenotypic switch is potentiated through the IL-6 signaling axis and could act as a paracrine mechanism of myofibroblast activation in neighboring aortic valve interstitial cells in a positive feedback loop. These data suggest CDH11 is an important mediator of the myofibroblast phenotype and identify several mechanisms by which it modulates cell behavior. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cadherin-11 influences valvular interstitial cell contractility by regulating focal adhesions and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Transforming growth factor-β overrides the normal balance between cadherin-11 and smooth muscle α-actin expression to promote a myofibroblast phenotype. Cadherin-11 is necessary for IL-6 and chitinase-3-like protein 1 secretion, and IL-6 promotes contractility. Targeting cadherin-11 could therapeutically influence valvular interstitial cell phenotypes in a multifaceted manner.
Aims - Monocytes play an important role in hypertension. Circulating monocytes in humans exist as classical, intermediate, and non-classical forms. Monocyte differentiation can be influenced by the endothelium, which in turn is activated in hypertension by mechanical stretch. We sought to examine the role of increased endothelial stretch and hypertension on monocyte phenotype and function.
Methods and results - Human monocytes were cultured with confluent human aortic endothelial cells undergoing either 5% or 10% cyclical stretch. We also characterized circulating monocytes in normotensive and hypertensive humans. In addition, we quantified accumulation of activated monocytes and monocyte-derived cells in aortas and kidneys of mice with Angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Increased endothelial stretch enhanced monocyte conversion to CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocytes and monocytes bearing the CD209 marker and markedly stimulated monocyte mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-23, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4, and tumour necrosis factor α. STAT3 in monocytes was activated by increased endothelial stretch. Inhibition of STAT3, neutralization of IL-6 and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide prevented formation of intermediate monocytes in response to increased endothelial stretch. We also found evidence that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits formation of intermediate monocytes and STAT3 activation. In vivo studies demonstrated that humans with hypertension have increased intermediate and non-classical monocytes and that intermediate monocytes demonstrate evidence of STAT3 activation. Mice with experimental hypertension exhibit increased aortic and renal infiltration of monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages with activated STAT3.
Conclusions - These findings provide insight into how monocytes are activated by the vascular endothelium during hypertension. This is likely in part due to a loss of NO signalling and increased release of IL-6 and hydrogen peroxide by the dysfunctional endothelium and a parallel increase in STAT activation in adjacent monocytes. Interventions to enhance bioavailable NO, reduce IL-6 or hydrogen peroxide production or to inhibit STAT3 may have anti-inflammatory roles in hypertension and related conditions.
Cancer metastasis is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Despite its morbidity, metastasis is an inefficient process that few cells can survive. However, cancer cells can overcome these metastatic barriers via cellular responses to microenvironmental cues, such as through mechanotransduction. This review focuses on the mechanosensitive ion channels TRPV4 and P2X7, and their roles in metastasis, as both channels have been shown to significantly affect tumor cell dissemination. Upon activation, these channels help form tumor neovasculature, promote transendothelial migration, and increase cell motility. Conversely, they have also been linked to forms of cancer cell death dependent upon levels of activation, implying the complex functionality of mechanosensitive ion channels. Understanding the roles of TRPV4, P2X7 and other mechanosensitive ion channels in these processes may reveal new possible drug targets that modify channel function to reduce a tumor's metastatic potential.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are major components of the carcinoma microenvironment that promote tumor progression. However, the mechanisms by which CAFs regulate cancer cell migration are poorly understood. In this study, we show that fibronectin (Fn) assembled by CAFs mediates CAF-cancer cell association and directional migration. Compared with normal fibroblasts, CAFs produce an Fn-rich extracellular matrix with anisotropic fiber orientation, which guides the cancer cells to migrate directionally. CAFs align the Fn matrix by increasing nonmuscle myosin II- and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-mediated contractility and traction forces, which are transduced to Fn through α5β1 integrin. We further show that prostate cancer cells use αv integrin to migrate efficiently and directionally on CAF-derived matrices. We demonstrate that aligned Fn is a prominent feature of invasion sites in human prostatic and pancreatic carcinoma samples. Collectively, we present a new mechanism by which CAFs organize the Fn matrix and promote directional cancer cell migration.
© 2017 Erdogan et al.
Basement membranes are delicate, nanoscale and pliable sheets of extracellular matrices that often act as linings or partitions in organisms. Previously considered as passive scaffolds segregating polarized cells, such as epithelial or endothelial cells, from the underlying mesenchyme, basement membranes have now reached the center stage of biology. They play a multitude of roles from blood filtration to muscle homeostasis, from storing growth factors and cytokines to controlling angiogenesis and tumor growth, from maintaining skin integrity and neuromuscular structure to affecting adipogenesis and fibrosis. Here, we will address developmental, structural and biochemical aspects of basement membranes and discuss some of the pathogenetic mechanisms causing diseases linked to abnormal basement membranes.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Metastasis is a dynamic process in which cancer cells navigate the tumor microenvironment, largely guided by external chemical and mechanical cues. Our current understanding of metastatic cell migration has relied primarily on studies of single cell migration, most of which have been performed using two-dimensional (2D) cell culture techniques and, more recently, using three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. However, the current paradigm focused on single cell movements is shifting toward the idea that collective migration is likely one of the primary modes of migration during metastasis of many solid tumors. Not surprisingly, the mechanics of collective migration differ significantly from single cell movements. As such, techniques must be developed that enable in-depth analysis of collective migration, and those for examining single cell migration should be adopted and modified to study collective migration to allow for accurate comparison of the two. In this review, we will describe engineering approaches for studying metastatic migration, both single cell and collective, and how these approaches have yielded significant insight into the mechanics governing each process.
Dysregulation of vascular stiffness and cellular metabolism occurs early in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the mechanisms by which biophysical properties of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) relate to metabolic processes important in PH remain undefined. In this work, we examined cultured pulmonary vascular cells and various types of PH-diseased lung tissue and determined that ECM stiffening resulted in mechanoactivation of the transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ (WWTR1). YAP/TAZ activation modulated metabolic enzymes, including glutaminase (GLS1), to coordinate glutaminolysis and glycolysis. Glutaminolysis, an anaplerotic pathway, replenished aspartate for anabolic biosynthesis, which was critical for sustaining proliferation and migration within stiff ECM. In vitro, GLS1 inhibition blocked aspartate production and reprogrammed cellular proliferation pathways, while application of aspartate restored proliferation. In the monocrotaline rat model of PH, pharmacologic modulation of pulmonary vascular stiffness and YAP-dependent mechanotransduction altered glutaminolysis, pulmonary vascular proliferation, and manifestations of PH. Additionally, pharmacologic targeting of GLS1 in this model ameliorated disease progression. Notably, evaluation of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected nonhuman primates and HIV-infected subjects revealed a correlation between YAP/TAZ-GLS activation and PH. These results indicate that ECM stiffening sustains vascular cell growth and migration through YAP/TAZ-dependent glutaminolysis and anaplerosis, and thereby link mechanical stimuli to dysregulated vascular metabolism. Furthermore, this study identifies potential metabolic drug targets for therapeutic development in PH.
Mechanical rigidity in the tumor microenvironment is associated with a high risk of tumor formation and aggressiveness. Adhesion-based signaling driven by a rigid microenvironment is thought to facilitate invasion and migration of cancer cells away from primary tumors. Proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component of this process and is mediated by subcellular actin-rich structures known as invadopodia. Both ECM rigidity and cellular traction stresses promote invadopodia formation and activity, suggesting a role for these structures in mechanosensing. The presence and activity of mechanosensitive adhesive and signaling components at invadopodia further indicates the potential for these structures to utilize myosin-dependent forces to probe and remodel their ECM environments. Here, we provide a brief review of the role of adhesion-based mechanical signaling in controlling invadopodia and invasive cancer behavior.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is the primary scaffolding protein of caveolae, flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane thought to function in endocytosis, mechanotransduction, signaling and lipid homeostasis. A significant amount of our current knowledge about caveolins and caveolae is derived from studies of transiently overexpressed, C-terminally tagged caveolin proteins. However, how different tags affect the behavior of ectopically expressed Cav1 is still largely unknown. To address this question, we performed a comparative analysis of the subcellular distribution, oligomerization state and detergent resistance of transiently overexpressed Cav1 labeled with three different C-terminal tags (EGFP, mCherry and myc). We show that addition of fluorescent protein tags enhances the aggregation and/or degradation of both wild-type Cav1 and an oligomerization defective P132L mutant. Strikingly, complexes formed by overexpressed Cav1 fusion proteins excluded endogenous Cav1 and Cav2, and the properties of native caveolins were largely preserved even when abnormal aggregates were present in cells. These findings suggest that differences in tagging strategies may be a source of variation in previously published studies of Cav1 and that overexpressed Cav1 may exert functional effects outside of caveolae. They also highlight the need for a critical re-evaluation of current knowledge based on transient overexpression of tagged Cav1.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lowe syndrome is a rare X-linked congenital disease that presents with congenital cataracts and glaucoma, as well as renal and cerebral dysfunction. OCRL, an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, is mutated in Lowe syndrome. We previously showed that OCRL is involved in vesicular trafficking to the primary cilium. Primary cilia are sensory organelles on the surface of eukaryotic cells that mediate mechanotransduction in the kidney, brain, and bone. However, their potential role in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the eye, which regulates intraocular pressure, is unknown. Here, we show that TM cells, which are defective in glaucoma, have primary cilia that are critical for response to pressure changes. Primary cilia in TM cells shorten in response to fluid flow and elevated hydrostatic pressure, and promote increased transcription of TNF-α, TGF-β, and GLI1 genes. Furthermore, OCRL is found to be required for primary cilia to respond to pressure stimulation. The interaction of OCRL with transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a ciliary mechanosensory channel, suggests that OCRL may act through regulation of this channel. A novel disease-causing OCRL allele prevents TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling. In addition, TRPV4 agonist GSK 1016790A treatment reduced intraocular pressure in mice; TRPV4 knockout animals exhibited elevated intraocular pressure and shortened cilia. Thus, mechanotransduction by primary cilia in TM cells is implicated in how the eye senses pressure changes and highlights OCRL and TRPV4 as attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of glaucoma. Implications of OCRL and TRPV4 in primary cilia function may also shed light on mechanosensation in other organ systems.