The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE - Escherichia coli is a common pathogen to cause clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows. A total of 57 E. coli isolates from raw milk from cows were characterized genetically and biochemically.
METHODS - Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, the mechanism for fluoroquinolone resistance, and variations in virulence genes and genomes of these E. coli isolates were investigated by the antimicrobial susceptibility test, simplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
RESULTS - All E. coli isolates were resistant to cloxacillin (100%) and to a lesser extent (50%) to tetracycline, neomycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime (CTX), and ceftazidime (CAZ). Nearly 70% of the isolates were resistant to at least two antimicrobials and 28.1% carried AmpA and AmpC genes simultaneously. The predominant bla gene was bla, followed by bla, bla, bla, and bla Among the six (10.5%) ESBL-producing E. coli carrying bla, bla, or bla, two isolates 31 of ST410 in the ST23 complex and 58 of ST167 in the ST10 complex were also resistant to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and levofloxacin, with mutations at codon 83 from serine to leucine and codon 87 from aspartic acid to asparagine in GyrA and at codon 80 from serine to isoleucine in ParC. These isolates were genetically diverse in pulsotype analysis, lacked toxin genes of human pathogenic E. coli and carried mostly the prevalent virulence genes fimH, papGII, and α-hemolysin.
CONCLUSION - Lacking virulence genes examined, genetic diverse E. coli isolates are unrelated to human pathogenic E. coli. Enhancing sanitation in milk processing and transportation is needed to eliminate multidrug-resistant (MDR), fluoroquinolone-resistant, and ESBL-producing E. coli isolates.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Animal models of human disease are necessary in order to rigorously study stages of disease progression and associated mechanisms, and ultimately, as pre-clinical models to test interventions. In these methods, we describe a technique in which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is injected into the lactating mouse mammary gland via the nipple, effectively modeling mastitis, or inflammation, of the gland. This simulated infection results in increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, as visualized through bioluminescent imaging of an NF-κB luciferase reporter mouse. Our ultimate goal in developing these methods was to study the inflammation associated with mastitis in the lactating gland, which often includes redness, swelling, and immune cell infiltration. Therefore, we were keenly aware that incision or any type of wounding of the skin, the nipple, or the gland in order to introduce the LPS could not be utilized in our methods since the approach would likely confound the read-out of inflammation. We also desired a straight-forward method that did not require specially made hand-drawn pipettes or the use of micromanipulators to hold these specialized tools in place. Thus, we determined to use a commercially available insulin syringe and to inject the agent into the mammary duct of an intact nipple. This method was successful and allowed us to study the inflammation associated with LPS injection without any additional effects overlaid by the process of injection. In addition, this method also utilized an NF-κB luciferase reporter transgenic mouse and bioluminescent imaging technology to visually and quantitatively show increased NF-κB signaling within the LPS-injected gland. These methods are of interest to researchers of many disciplines who wish to model disease within the lactating mammary gland, as ultimately, the technique described here could be utilized for injection of a number of substances, and is not limited to only LPS.
We investigated whether nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), which exhibits a regulated pattern of activity during murine mammary gland development, plays an important role during lactation and involution, when milk production ceases and the gland undergoes apoptosis and re-modeling. We generated a doxycycline inducible transgenic mouse model to activate NF-kappaB specifically in the mammary epithelium through expression of a constitutively active form of IKK2, the upstream kinase in the classical NF-kappaB signaling cascade. We found that activation of NF-kappaB during involution resulted in a more rapid reduction in milk levels and increased cleavage of caspase-3, an indicator of apoptosis. We also found that activation of NF-kappaB during lactation with no additional involution signals had a similar effect. The observation that NF-kappaB is a key regulator of milk production led us to investigate the role of NF-kappaB during mastitis, an infection of the mammary gland in which milk loss is observed. Mammary gland injection of E. coli LPS resulted in activation of NF-kappaB and milk loss during lactation. This milk loss was decreased by selective inhibition of NF-kappaB in mammary epithelium. Together, our data reveal that activation of NF-kappaB leads to milk clearance in the lactating mammary gland. Therefore, targeting of NF-kappaB signaling may prove therapeutic during mastitis in humans and could be beneficial for the dairy industry, where such infections have a major economic impact.