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BACKGROUND - Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality.
METHODS - We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2009) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009), two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40-70 years and 61,500 men aged 40-74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS - Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively) and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively) mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09). Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13) and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86) in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88) and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) mortality.
CONCLUSIONS - Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.
BACKGROUND - Since 1989 when the first 146 HIV positives in China were identified, Dehong Prefecture had been one of the areas hardest-hit by HIV in China. The local and national governments have put substantial financial resources into tackling the HIV epidemic in Dehong from 2004. The objective of this study was to track dynamic changes in HIV-1 prevalence and incidence among five focal populations in Dehong and to assess the impact of HIV prevention and control efforts.
METHODS - Consecutive cross-sectional surveys conducted in five focal populations between 2004 and 2008. Specimens seropositive for HIV were tested with the BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay to identify recent seroconversions (median, 155 days) using normalized optical density of 0.8 and adjustments.
RESULTS - From 2004 to 2008, estimated annual HIV incidence among injecting drug users (IDUs) decreased significantly [from 15.0% (95% CI = 11.4%-18.5%) in 2004 to 4.3% (95% CI = 2.4%-6.2%) in 2008; trend test P < 0.0001]. The incidence among other focal populations, such as HIV discordant couples (varying from 5.5% to 4.7%), female sex workers (varying from 1.4% to 1.3%), pregnant women (0.1%), and pre-marital couples (0.2 to 0.1%) remained stable. Overall, the proportion of recent HIV-1 infections was higher among females than males (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS - The HIV epidemic in Dehong continued to expand during a five-year period but at a slowing rate among IDUs, and HIV incidence remains high among IDUs and discordant couples. Intensive prevention measures should target sub-groups at highest risk to further slow the epidemic and control the migration of HIV to other areas of China, and multivariate analysis is needed to explore which measures are more effective for different populations.
AIM - This paper is a report of a study examining the relationships among number of roles, role quality, role stress, role balance, and psychological well-being in women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis.
BACKGROUND - A substantial literature exists examining multiple roles in healthy women. However, less is known about multiple roles and well-being in women with a chronic illness such as rheumatoid arthritis.
METHODS - A questionnaire study was conducted in 2003 examining four role-related constructs (number of roles, quality of roles, role stress, and role balance) and psychological well-being in healthy women (n = 47) and women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 50). Correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses were calculated to determine the nature of the relationships among the variables.
FINDINGS - The two groups were similar in demographics except for employment, with fewer women with rheumatoid arthritis employed. The two groups differed statistically significantly on psychological well-being. Women with rheumatoid arthritis had a lower mean psychological well-being score than healthy women. Regression analyses revealed that role stress was the only unique predictor of psychological well-being in healthy women, while role balance was the sole unique predictor among women with rheumatoid arthritis.
CONCLUSION - Women with rheumatoid arthritis experienced lower levels of well-being than their healthy counterparts. Examination of the relationships among the variables can facilitate the development of interventions to improve these women's mental health. Nurses are in a position to assess the psychosocial needs of women with rheumatoid arthritis and assist those experiencing role stress and role imbalance.
Evidence from studies in rodents suggests that mate selection is influenced by major-histocompatibility-complex haplotypes, with preferences for dissimilar partners. This study was initiated to determine whether avoidance of a mate with the same HLA haplotype as one's own might be occurring in the Hutterites, a North American reproductive isolate of European ancestry, notable for their large sibships, communal lifestyle, and limited number of five-locus HLA haplotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ). HLA haplotypes were known for 411 Hutterite couples. The number of couples expected to match for a haplotype was calculated in two ways: first, from population genotype frequencies, with account being taken of the nonrandom mating pattern with respect to colony lineages, and, second, from computer simulations using conservative founder assumptions and the exact genealogy of the 411 couples. We observed fewer matches for HLA haplotypes between spouses than expected (first method, P = .005; second method, P = .020-.067). Among couples who did match for a haplotype, the matched haplotype was inherited from the mother in 29 cases and from the father in 50 cases (P = .018). These results are consistent with the conclusion that Hutterite mate choice is influenced by HLA haplotypes, with an avoidance of spouses with haplotypes that are the same as one's own.