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Akt Signaling in Macrophage Polarization, Survival, and Atherosclerosis.
Linton MF, Moslehi JJ, Babaev VR
(2019) Int J Mol Sci 20:
MeSH Terms: Animals, Apoptosis, Atherosclerosis, Blood Cells, Cell Survival, Humans, Macrophage Activation, Macrophages, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Protein Isoforms, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added November 12, 2019
The PI3K/Akt pathway plays a crucial role in the survival, proliferation, and migration of macrophages, which may impact the development of atherosclerosis. Changes in Akt isoforms or modulation of the Akt activity levels in macrophages significantly affect their polarization phenotype and consequently atherosclerosis in mice. Moreover, the activity levels of Akt signaling determine the viability of monocytes/macrophages and their resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli in atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, elimination of pro-apoptotic factors as well as factors that antagonize or suppress Akt signaling in macrophages increases cell viability, protecting them from apoptosis, and this markedly accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. In contrast, inhibition of Akt signaling by the ablation of Rictor in myeloid cells, which disrupts mTORC2 assembly, significantly decreases the viability and proliferation of blood monocytes and macrophages with the suppression of atherosclerosis. In addition, monocytes and macrophages exhibit a threshold effect for Akt protein levels in their ability to survive. Ablation of two Akt isoforms, preserving only a single Akt isoform in myeloid cells, markedly compromises monocyte and macrophage viability, inducing monocytopenia and diminishing early atherosclerosis. These recent advances in our understanding of Akt signaling in macrophages in atherosclerosis may have significant relevance in the burgeoning field of cardio-oncology, where PI3K/Akt inhibitors being tested in cancer patients can have significant cardiovascular and metabolic ramifications.
0 Communities
1 Members
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12 MeSH Terms
The role of polyamines in the regulation of macrophage polarization and function.
Latour YL, Gobert AP, Wilson KT
(2020) Amino Acids 52: 151-160
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Polarity, Humans, Macrophage Activation, Macrophages, Polyamines, Transcription, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added August 6, 2020
Naturally occurring polyamines are ubiquitously distributed and play important roles in cell development, amino acid and protein synthesis, oxidative DNA damage, proliferation, and cellular differentiation. Macrophages are essential in the innate immune response, and contribute to tissue remodeling. Naïve macrophages have two major potential fates: polarization to (1) the classical pro-inflammatory M1 defense response to bacterial pathogens and tumor cells, and (2) the alternatively activated M2 response, induced in the presence of parasites and wounding, and also implicated in the development of tumor-associated macrophages. ODC, the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, leads to an increase in putrescine levels, which impairs M1 gene transcription. Additionally, spermidine and spermine can regulate translation of pro-inflammatory mediators in activated macrophages. In this review, we focus on polyamines in macrophage activation patterns in the context of gastrointestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. We seek to clarify mechanisms of innate immune regulation by polyamine metabolism and potential novel therapeutic targets.
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1 Members
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7 MeSH Terms
Ornithine Decarboxylase in Macrophages Exacerbates Colitis and Promotes Colitis-Associated Colon Carcinogenesis by Impairing M1 Immune Responses.
Singh K, Coburn LA, Asim M, Barry DP, Allaman MM, Shi C, Washington MK, Luis PB, Schneider C, Delgado AG, Piazuelo MB, Cleveland JL, Gobert AP, Wilson KT
(2018) Cancer Res 78: 4303-4315
MeSH Terms: Animals, Azoxymethane, Carcinogenesis, Colitis, Ulcerative, Colon, Colonic Neoplasms, Cytokines, Dextran Sulfate, Inflammation, Macrophage Activation, Macrophages, Male, Mice, Ornithine Decarboxylase, Transcription, Genetic, Up-Regulation
Show Abstract · Added June 15, 2018
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis and restricts M1 macrophage activation in gastrointestinal (GI) infections. However, the role of macrophage ODC in colonic epithelial-driven inflammation is unknown. Here, we investigate cell-specific effects of ODC in colitis and colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). Human colonic macrophages expressed increased ODC levels in active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, colitis-associated dysplasia, and CAC. Mice lacking in myeloid cells ( mice) that were treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) exhibited improved survival, body weight, and colon length and reduced histologic injury versus control mice. In contrast, GI epithelial-specific knockout had no effect on clinical parameters. Despite reduced histologic damage, colitis tissues of mice had increased levels of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and enhanced expression of M1, but not M2 markers. In the azoxymethane-DSS model of CAC, mice had reduced tumor number, burden, and high-grade dysplasia. Tumors from mice had increased M1, but not M2 macrophages. Increased levels of histone 3, lysine 9 acetylation, a marker of open chromatin, were manifest in tumor macrophages of mice, consistent with our findings that macrophage ODC affects histone modifications that upregulate M1 gene transcription during GI infections. These findings support the concept that macrophage ODC augments epithelial injury-associated colitis and CAC by impairing the M1 responses that stimulate epithelial repair, antimicrobial defense, and antitumoral immunity. They also suggest that macrophage ODC is an important target for colon cancer chemoprevention. Ornithine decarboxylase contributes to the pathogenesis of colitis and associated carcinogenesis by impairing M1 macrophage responses needed for antitumoral immunity; targeting ODC in macrophages may represent a new strategy for chemoprevention. .
©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.
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2 Members
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16 MeSH Terms
EGFR-mediated macrophage activation promotes colitis-associated tumorigenesis.
Hardbower DM, Coburn LA, Asim M, Singh K, Sierra JC, Barry DP, Gobert AP, Piazuelo MB, Washington MK, Wilson KT
(2017) Oncogene 36: 3807-3819
MeSH Terms: Animals, Carcinogenesis, Colitis, Colon, Colonic Neoplasms, Dextran Sulfate, ErbB Receptors, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Macrophage Activation, Macrophages, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Precancerous Conditions, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added March 12, 2017
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is a known mediator of colorectal carcinogenesis. Studies have focused on the role of EGFR signaling in epithelial cells, although the exact nature of the role of EGFR in colorectal carcinogenesis remains a topic of debate. Here, we present evidence that EGFR signaling in myeloid cells, specifically macrophages, is critical for colon tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate (AOM-DSS) model of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). In a human tissue microarray, colonic macrophages demonstrated robust EGFR activation in the pre-cancerous stages of colitis and dysplasia. Utilizing the AOM-DSS model, mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of Egfr had significantly decreased tumor multiplicity and burden, protection from high-grade dysplasia and significantly reduced colitis. Intriguingly, mice with gastrointestinal epithelial cell-specific Egfr deletion demonstrated no differences in tumorigenesis in the AOM-DSS model. The alterations in tumorigenesis in myeloid-specific Egfr knockout mice were accompanied by decreased macrophage, neutrophil and T-cell infiltration. Pro-tumorigenic M2 macrophage activation was diminished in myeloid-specific Egfr-deficient mice, as marked by decreased Arg1 and Il10 mRNA expression and decreased interleukin (IL)-4, IL10 and IL-13 protein levels. Surprisingly, diminished M1 macrophage activation was also detectable, as marked by significantly reduced Nos2 and Il1b mRNA levels and decreased interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β protein levels. The alterations in M1 and M2 macrophage activation were confirmed in bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice with the myeloid-specific Egfr knockout. The combined effect of restrained M1 and M2 macrophage activation resulted in decreased production of pro-angiogenic factors, CXCL1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and reduced CD31 blood vessels, which likely contributed to protection from tumorigenesis. These data reveal that EGFR signaling in macrophages, but not in colonic epithelial cells, has a significant role in CAC. EGFR signaling in macrophages may prove to be an effective biomarker of CAC or target for chemoprevention in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
0 Communities
3 Members
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17 MeSH Terms
Ornithine decarboxylase regulates M1 macrophage activation and mucosal inflammation via histone modifications.
Hardbower DM, Asim M, Luis PB, Singh K, Barry DP, Yang C, Steeves MA, Cleveland JL, Schneider C, Piazuelo MB, Gobert AP, Wilson KT
(2017) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114: E751-E760
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Line, Citrobacter rodentium, Colitis, Colon, Cytokines, Enterobacteriaceae Infections, Gastric Mucosa, Gastritis, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Histones, Humans, Macrophage Activation, Macrophages, Male, Mice, NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein, Ornithine Decarboxylase, Putrescine
Show Abstract · Added January 19, 2017
Macrophage activation is a critical step in host responses during bacterial infections. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine metabolism, has been well studied in epithelial cells and is known to have essential roles in many different cellular functions. However, its role in regulating macrophage function during bacterial infections is not well characterized. We demonstrate that macrophage-derived ODC is a critical regulator of M1 macrophage activation during both Helicobacter pylori and Citrobacter rodentium infection. Myeloid-specific Odc deletion significantly increased gastric and colonic inflammation, respectively, and enhanced M1 activation. Add-back of putrescine, the product of ODC, reversed the increased macrophage activation, indicating that ODC and putrescine are regulators of macrophage function. Odc-deficient macrophages had increased histone 3, lysine 4 (H3K4) monomethylation, and H3K9 acetylation, accompanied by decreased H3K9 di/trimethylation both in vivo and ex vivo in primary macrophages. These alterations in chromatin structure directly resulted in up-regulated gene transcription, especially M1 gene expression. Thus, ODC in macrophages tempers antimicrobial, M1 macrophage responses during bacterial infections through histone modifications and altered euchromatin formation, leading to the persistence and pathogenesis of these organisms.
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20 MeSH Terms
PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation via STAT1 ADP-ribosylation.
Iwata H, Goettsch C, Sharma A, Ricchiuto P, Goh WW, Halu A, Yamada I, Yoshida H, Hara T, Wei M, Inoue N, Fukuda D, Mojcher A, Mattson PC, Barabási AL, Boothby M, Aikawa E, Singh SA, Aikawa M
(2016) Nat Commun 7: 12849
MeSH Terms: ADP-Ribosylation, Animals, Apoptosis, Atherosclerosis, Cell Survival, Coronary Artery Disease, Female, Humans, Inflammation, Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-4, Lipopolysaccharide Receptors, Macrophage Activation, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Neoplasm Proteins, Phosphorylation, Plaque, Atherosclerotic, Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases, RAW 264.7 Cells, RNA Interference, Ribose, STAT1 Transcription Factor, THP-1 Cells
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
Despite the global impact of macrophage activation in vascular disease, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show, with global proteomic analysis of macrophage cell lines treated with either IFNγ or IL-4, that PARP9 and PARP14 regulate macrophage activation. In primary macrophages, PARP9 and PARP14 have opposing roles in macrophage activation. PARP14 silencing induces pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells, whereas it suppresses anti-inflammatory gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in M(IL-4) cells. PARP9 silencing suppresses pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells. PARP14 induces ADP-ribosylation of STAT1, which is suppressed by PARP9. Mutations at these ADP-ribosylation sites lead to increased phosphorylation. Network analysis links PARP9-PARP14 with human coronary artery disease. PARP14 deficiency in haematopoietic cells accelerates the development and inflammatory burden of acute and chronic arterial lesions in mice. These findings suggest that PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation.
0 Communities
1 Members
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25 MeSH Terms
CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) deficiency alters adipose tissue leukocyte populations in mice.
Orr JS, Kennedy AJ, Hill AA, Anderson-Baucum EK, Hubler MJ, Hasty AH
(2016) Physiol Rep 4:
MeSH Terms: Adipose Tissue, Animals, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Diet, High-Fat, Fatty Liver, Interleukins, Macrophage Activation, Macrophages, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Obesity, Receptors, CCR7, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
The mechanism by which macrophages and other immune cells accumulate in adipose tissue (AT) has been an area of intense investigation over the past decade. Several different chemokines and their cognate receptors have been studied for their role as chemoattractants in promoting recruitment of immune cells to AT However, it is also possible that chemoattractants known to promote clearance of immune cells from tissues to regional lymph nodes might be a critical component to overall AT immune homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated whether CCR7 influences AT macrophage (ATM) or T-cell (ATT) accumulation. CCR7 and littermate wild-type (WT) mice were placed on low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. CCR7 deficiency did not impact HFD-induced weight gain, hepatic steatosis, or glucose intolerance. Although lean CCR7 mice had an increased proportion of alternatively activated ATMs, there were no differences in ATM accumulation or polarization between HFD-fed CCR7 mice and their WT counterparts. However, CCR7 deficiency did lead to the preferential accumulation of CD8 ATT cells, which was further exacerbated by HFD feeding. Finally, expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, such as Tnf, Il6, Il1β, Ccl2, and Ccl3, was equally elevated in AT by HFD feeding in CCR7 and WT mice, while Ifng and Il18 were elevated by HFD feeding in CCR7 but not in WT mice. Together, these data suggest that CCR7 plays a role in CD8ATT cell egress, but does not influence ATM accumulation or the metabolic impact of diet-induced obesity.
© 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
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1 Members
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13 MeSH Terms
EGFR regulates macrophage activation and function in bacterial infection.
Hardbower DM, Singh K, Asim M, Verriere TG, Olivares-Villagómez D, Barry DP, Allaman MM, Washington MK, Peek RM, Piazuelo MB, Wilson KT
(2016) J Clin Invest 126: 3296-312
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bacterial Infections, Chemokines, Citrobacter rodentium, Cytokines, Disease Progression, ErbB Receptors, Female, Gastric Mucosa, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Humans, Inflammation, Macrophage Activation, Macrophages, Male, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, NF-kappa B, Phosphorylation, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added August 3, 2016
EGFR signaling regulates macrophage function, but its role in bacterial infection has not been investigated. Here, we assessed the role of macrophage EGFR signaling during infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that causes persistent inflammation and gastric cancer. EGFR was phosphorylated in murine and human macrophages during H. pylori infection. In human gastric tissues, elevated levels of phosphorylated EGFR were observed throughout the histologic cascade from gastritis to carcinoma. Deleting Egfr in myeloid cells attenuated gastritis and increased H. pylori burden in infected mice. EGFR deficiency also led to a global defect in macrophage activation that was associated with decreased cytokine, chemokine, and NO production. We observed similar alterations in macrophage activation and disease phenotype in the Citrobacter rodentium model of murine infectious colitis. Mechanistically, EGFR signaling activated NF-κB and MAPK1/3 pathways to induce cytokine production and macrophage activation. Although deletion of Egfr had no effect on DC function, EGFR-deficient macrophages displayed impaired Th1 and Th17 adaptive immune responses to H. pylori, which contributed to decreased chronic inflammation in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that EGFR signaling is central to macrophage function in response to enteric bacterial pathogens and is a potential therapeutic target for infection-induced inflammation and associated carcinogenesis.
0 Communities
2 Members
0 Resources
21 MeSH Terms
TRPM2 ion channels regulate macrophage polarization and gastric inflammation during Helicobacter pylori infection.
Beceiro S, Radin JN, Chatuvedi R, Piazuelo MB, Horvarth DJ, Cortado H, Gu Y, Dixon B, Gu C, Lange I, Koomoa DL, Wilson KT, Algood HM, Partida-Sánchez S
(2017) Mucosal Immunol 10: 493-507
MeSH Terms: Animals, Calcium Signaling, Cell Differentiation, Cells, Cultured, Cytokines, Gastritis, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Inflammation Mediators, Macrophage Activation, Macrophages, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, NADP, Oxidative Stress, Reactive Oxygen Species, TRPM Cation Channels
Show Abstract · Added July 30, 2016
Calcium signaling in phagocytes is essential for cellular activation, migration, and the potential resolution of infection or inflammation. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-oxidase activity in macrophages has been linked to altered intracellular calcium concentrations. Because of its role as an oxidative stress sensor in phagocytes, we investigated the function of the cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) in macrophages during oxidative stress responses induced by Helicobacter pylori infection. We show that Trpm2/ mice, when chronically infected with H. pylori, exhibit increased gastric inflammation and decreased bacterial colonization compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The absence of TRPM2 triggers greater macrophage production of inflammatory mediators and promotes classically activated macrophage M1 polarization in response to H. pylori. TRPM2-deficient macrophages upon H. pylori stimulation are unable to control intracellular calcium levels, which results in calcium overloading. Furthermore, increased intracellular calcium in TRPM2/ macrophages enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase and NADPH-oxidase activities, compared with WT macrophages. Our data suggest that augmented production of ROS and inflammatory cytokines with TRPM2 deletion regulates oxidative stress in macrophages and consequently decreases H. pylori gastric colonization while increasing inflammation in the gastric mucosa.
0 Communities
2 Members
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18 MeSH Terms
Adipocyte-specific CD1d-deficiency mitigates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.
Satoh M, Hoshino M, Fujita K, Iizuka M, Fujii S, Clingan CS, Van Kaer L, Iwabuchi K
(2016) Sci Rep 6: 28473
MeSH Terms: 3T3-L1 Cells, Adipocytes, Adiponectin, Animals, Antigen Presentation, Antigens, CD1d, B7-1 Antigen, Diet, High-Fat, Disease Models, Animal, Disease Progression, Galactosylceramides, Insulin Resistance, Interferon-gamma, Lymphocyte Activation, Macrophage Activation, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mice, Transgenic, Natural Killer T-Cells, Obesity
Show Abstract · Added July 30, 2016
It has been shown that CD1d expression and glycolipid-reactive, CD1d-restricted NKT cells exacerbate the development of obesity and insulin resistance in mice. However, the relevant CD1d-expressing cells that influence the effects of NKT cells on the progression of obesity remain incompletely defined. In this study, we have demonstrated that 3T3-L1 adipocytes can present endogenous ligands to NKT cells, leading to IFN-γ production, which in turn, stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes to enhance expression of CD1d and CCL2, and decrease expression of adiponectin. Furthermore, adipocyte-specific CD1d deletion decreased the size of the visceral adipose tissue mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Accordingly, NKT cells were less activated, IFN-γ production was significantly reduced, and levels of adiponectin were increased in these animals as compared with control mice on HFD. Importantly, macrophage recruitment into the adipose tissue of adipocyte-specific CD1d-deficient mice was significantly blunted. These findings indicate that interactions between NKT cells and CD1d-expressing adipocytes producing endogenous NKT cell ligands play a critical role in the induction of inflammation and functional modulation of adipose tissue that leads to obesity.
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21 MeSH Terms