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Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is closely linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. TNFα activates NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide (O), production extracellularly is required for subsequent signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that is activated by oxidation of associated thioredoxin. The role of ASK1 in Nox1-mediated signaling by TNFα is poorly defined. We hypothesized that ASK1 is required for TNFα receptor endocytosis and subsequent inflammatory TNFα signaling. We employed a knockdown strategy to explore the role of ASK1 in TNFα signaling in VSMCs. siRNA targeting ASK1 had no effect on TNFα-induced extracellular O production. However, siASK1 inhibited receptor endocytosis as well as phosphorylation of two endocytosis-related proteins, dynamin1 and caveolin1. Intracellular O production was subsequently reduced, as were other inflammatory signaling steps including NF-κB activation, IL-6 production, inducible nitric oxide synthase and VCAM expression, and VSMC proliferation. Prolonged exposure to TNFα (24 h) increased tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) subtype 1 and 2 expression, and these effects were also attenuated by siASK1. ASK1 coimmunoprecipitated with both Nox1 and the leucine rich repeat containing 8A anion channel, two essential components of the TNFR1 signaling complex. Activation of ASK1 by autophosphorylation at Thr845 occurs following thioredoxin dissociation, and this requires the presence of Nox1. Thus, Nox1 is part of the multiprotein ASK1 signaling complex. In response to TNFα, ASK1 is activated by Nox1-derived oxidants, and this plays a critical role in translating these ROS into a physiologic response in VSMCs. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) drives dynamin1 and caveolin1 phosphorylation and TNFα receptor endocytosis. ASK1 modulates TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, survival, and proliferation. ASK1 and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) physically associate in a multiprotein signaling complex. Nox1 is required for TNFα-induced ASK1 activation.
The two non-visual subtypes, arrestin-2 and arrestin-3, are ubiquitously expressed and bind hundreds of G protein-coupled receptors. In addition, these arrestins also interact with dozens of non-receptor signaling proteins, including c-Src, ERK and JNK, that regulate cell death and survival. Arrestin-3 facilitates the activation of JNK family kinases, which are important players in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that arrestin-3 is specifically cleaved at Asp366, Asp405 and Asp406 by caspases during the apoptotic cell death. This results in the generation of one main cleavage product, arrestin-3-(1-366). The formation of this fragment occurs in a dose-dependent manner with the increase of fraction of apoptotic cells upon etoposide treatment. In contrast to a caspase-resistant mutant (D366/405/406E) the arrestin-3-(1-366) fragment reduces the apoptosis of etoposide-treated cells. We found that caspase cleavage did not affect the binding of the arrestin-3 to JNK3, but prevented facilitation of its activation, in contrast to the caspase-resistant mutant, which facilitated JNK activation similar to WT arrestin-3, likely due to decreased binding of the upstream kinases ASK1 and MKK4/7. The data suggest that caspase-generated arrestin-3-(1-366) prevents the signaling in the ASK1-MKK4/7-JNK1/2/3 cascade and protects cells, thereby suppressing apoptosis.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a key sensor kinase in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that transduces cellular responses to oxidants and electrophiles. ASK1 is regulated by a large, dynamic multiprotein signalosome complex, potentially including over 90 reported ASK1-interacting proteins. We employed both shotgun and targeted mass spectrometry assays to catalogue the ASK1 protein-protein interactions in HEK-293 cells treated with the prototypical lipid electrophile 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Using both epitope-tagged overexpression and endogenous expression cell systems, we verified most of the previously reported ASK1 protein-protein interactions and identified 14 proteins that exhibited dynamic shifts in association with ASK1 in response to HNE stress. We used precise stable isotope dilution assays to quantify protein stoichiometry in the ASK signalosome complex and identified ASK2 at a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with ASK1 and 14-3-3 proteins (YWHAQ, YWHAB, YWHAH, and YWHAE) collectively at a 0.5:1 ratio with ASK1 as the main components. Several other proteins, including ASK3, PARK7, PRDX1, and USP9X were detected with stoichiometries of 0.1:1 or less. These data support an ASK signalosome comprising a multimeric core complex of ASK1, ASK2, and 14-3-3 proteins, which dynamically engages other binding partners needed to mediate diverse stress-response signaling events. This study further demonstrates the value of combining global and targeted MS approaches to interrogate multiprotein complex composition and dynamics.
© 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Non-visual arrestins scaffold mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of MAPK family. Arrestin-3 has been shown to enhance the activation of JNK3, which is expressed mainly in neurons, heart, and testes, in contrast to ubiquitous JNK1 and JNK2. Although all JNKs are activated by MKK4 and MKK7, both of which bind arrestin-3, the ability of arrestin-3 to facilitate the activation of JNK1 and JNK2 has never been reported. Using purified proteins we found that arrestin-3 directly binds JNK1α1 and JNK2α2, interacting with the latter comparably to JNK3α2. Phosphorylation of purified JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 by MKK4 or MKK7 is increased by arrestin-3. Endogenous arrestin-3 interacted with endogenous JNK1/2 in different cell types. Arrestin-3 also enhanced phosphorylation of endogenous JNK1/2 in intact cells upon expression of upstream kinases ASK1, MKK4, or MKK7. We observed a biphasic effect of arrestin-3 concentrations on phosphorylation of JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, arrestin-3 acts as a scaffold, facilitating JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 phosphorylation by MKK4 and MKK7 via bringing JNKs and their activators together. The data suggest that arrestin-3 modulates the activity of ubiquitous JNK1 and JNK2 in non-neuronal cells, impacting the signaling pathway that regulates their proliferation and survival.
We established a new in vivo arrestin-3-JNK3 interaction assay based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) between JNK3-luciferase and Venus-arrestins. We tested the ability of WT arrestin-3 and its 3A mutant that readily binds β2-adrenergic receptors as well as two mutants impaired in receptor binding, Δ7 and KNC, to directly bind JNK3 and to promote JNK3 phosphorylation in cells. Both receptor binding-deficient mutants interact with JNK3 significantly better than WT and 3A arrestin-3. WT arrestin-3 and Δ7 mutant robustly promoted JNK3 activation, whereas 3A and KNC mutants did not. Thus, receptor binding, JNK3 interaction, and JNK3 activation are three distinct arrestin functions. We found that the KNC mutant, which tightly binds ASK1, MKK4, and JNK3 without facilitating JNK3 phosphorylation, has a dominant-negative effect, competitively decreasing JNK activation by WT arrestin-3. Thus, KNC is a silent scaffold, a novel type of molecular tool for the suppression of MAPK signaling in living cells.
Arrestins bind active phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors, blocking G protein activation and channeling the signaling to G protein-independent pathways. Free arrestin-3 and receptor-bound arrestin-3 scaffold the ASK1-MKK4-JNK3 module, promoting JNK3 phosphorylation, whereas highly homologous arrestin-2 does not. Here, we used arrestin-2/3 chimeras and mutants to identify key residues of arrestin-3 responsible for its ability to facilitate JNK3 activation. Our data demonstrate that both arrestin domains are involved in JNK3 activation, with the C-terminal domain being more important than the N-terminal domain. We found that Val-343 is the key contributor to this function, whereas Leu-278, Ser-280, His-350, Asp-351, His-352, and Ile-353 play supporting roles. We also show that the arrestin-3-specific difference in the arrangement of the β-strands in the C-terminal domain that underlies its lower selectivity for active phosphoreceptors does not play an appreciable role in its ability to enhance JNK3 activation. Importantly, the strength of the binding of ASK1 or JNK3, as revealed by the efficiency of co-immunoprecipitation, does not correlate with the ability of arrestin proteins to promote ASK1-dependent JNK3 phosphorylation. Thus, multiple residues on the non-receptor-binding side of arrestin-3 are crucial for JNK3 activation, and this function and the receptor-binding characteristics of arrestin can be manipulated independently by targeted mutagenesis.