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Lysophospholipids (LysoPLs) are bioactive lipid species involved in cellular signaling processes and the regulation of cell membrane structure. LysoPLs are metabolized through the action of lysophospholipases, including lysophospholipase A1 (LYPLA1) and lysophospholipase A2 (LYPLA2). A new X-ray crystal structure of LYPLA2 compared with a previously published structure of LYPLA1 demonstrated near-identical folding of the two enzymes; however, LYPLA1 and LYPLA2 have displayed distinct substrate specificities in recombinant enzyme assays. To determine how these in vitro substrate preferences translate into a relevant cellular setting and better understand the enzymes' role in LysoPL metabolism, CRISPR-Cas9 technology was utilized to generate stable KOs of and/or in Neuro2a cells. Using these cellular models in combination with a targeted lipidomics approach, LysoPL levels were quantified and compared between cell lines to determine the effect of losing lysophospholipase activity on lipid metabolism. This work suggests that LYPLA1 and LYPLA2 are each able to account for the loss of the other to maintain lipid homeostasis in cells; however, when both are deleted, LysoPL levels are dramatically increased, causing phenotypic and morphological changes to the cells.
Copyright © 2019 Wepy et al.
Stargardt disease is a juvenile onset retinal degeneration, associated with elevated levels of lipofuscin and its bis-retinoid components, such as N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E). However, the pathogenesis of Stargardt is still poorly understood and targeted treatments are not available. Utilizing high spatial and high mass resolution matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), we determined alterations of lipid profiles specifically localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in Abca4 Stargardt model mice compared to their relevant background strain. Extensive analysis by LC-MS/MS in both positive and negative ion mode was required to accurately confirm the identity of one highly expressed lipid class, bis(monoacylgylercoro)phosphate (BMP) lipids, and to distinguish them from isobaric species. The same BMP lipids were also detected in the RPE of healthy human retina. BMP lipids have been previously associated with the endosomal/lysosomal storage diseases Niemann-Pick and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and have been reported to regulate cholesterol levels in endosomes. These results suggest that perturbations in lipid metabolism associated with late endosomal/lysosomal dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis of Stargardt disease and is evidenced in human retinas.
Huntington's disease is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous pathogenic profile. Studies have shown that disturbance in lipid homeostasis may represent a critical determinant in the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. The recognition of perturbed lipid metabolism is only recently becoming evident in HD. In order to provide more insight into the nature of such a perturbation and into the effect its modulation may have in HD pathology, we investigated the metabolism of Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), one of the most important bioactive lipids, in both animal models and patient samples. Here, we demonstrated that S1P metabolism is significantly disrupted in HD even at early stage of the disease and importantly, we revealed that such a dysfunction represents a common denominator among multiple disease models ranging from cells to humans through mouse models. Interestingly, the in vitro anti-apoptotic and the pro-survival actions seen after modulation of S1P-metabolizing enzymes allows this axis to emerge as a new druggable target and unfolds its promising therapeutic potential for the development of more effective and targeted interventions against this incurable condition.
The endogenous phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) regulates fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, motility, and invasion implicated in homeostatic and pathological conditions. Hence, delineation of the full range of molecular mechanisms by which LPA exerts its broad effects is essential. We report avid binding of LPA to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and mapping of the LPA binding site on this receptor. In vitro, RAGE was required for LPA-mediated signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells and C6 glioma cells, as well as proliferation and migration. In vivo, the administration of soluble RAGE or genetic deletion of RAGE mitigated LPA-stimulated vascular Akt signaling, autotaxin/LPA-driven phosphorylation of Akt and cyclin D1 in the mammary tissue of transgenic mice vulnerable to carcinogenesis, and ovarian tumor implantation and development. These findings identify novel roles for RAGE as a conduit for LPA signaling and suggest targeting LPA-RAGE interaction as a therapeutic strategy to modify the pathological actions of LPA.
Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2W1 is still considered an "orphan" because its physiological function is not characterized. To identify its substrate specificity, the purified recombinant enzyme was incubated with colorectal cancer extracts for untargeted substrate searches using an LC/MS-based metabolomic and isotopic labeling approach. In addition to previously reported fatty acids, oleyl (18:1) lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, lysolecithin) was identified as a substrate for P450 2W1. Other human P450 enzymes tested showed little activity with 18:1 LPC. In addition to the LPCs, P450 2W1 acted on a series of other lysophospholipids, including lysophosphatidylinositol, lysophosphatidylserine, lysophosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, and lysophosphatidic acid but not diacylphospholipids. P450 2W1 utilized sn-1 18:1 LPC as a substrate much more efficiently than the sn-2 isomer; we conclude that the sn-1 isomers of lysophospholipids are preferred substrates. Chiral analysis was performed on the 18:1 epoxidation products and showed enantio-selectivity for formation of (9R,10S) over (9S,10R). [corrected]. The kinetics and position specificities of P450 2W1-catalyzed oxygenation of lysophospholipids (16:0 LPC and 18:1 LPC) and fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:1) were also determined. Epoxidation and hydroxylation of 18:1 LPC are considerably more efficient than for the C18:1 free fatty acid.
Numerous studies in humans link a nonsynonymous genetic polymorphism (I148M) in adiponutrin (ADPN) to various forms of fatty liver disease and liver cirrhosis. Despite its high clinical relevance, the molecular function of ADPN and the mechanism by which I148M variant affects hepatic metabolism are unclear. Here we show that ADPN promotes cellular lipid synthesis by converting lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) into phosphatidic acid. The ADPN-catalyzed LPA acyltransferase (LPAAT) reaction is specific for LPA and long-chain acyl-CoAs. Wild-type mice receiving a high-sucrose diet exhibit substantial upregulation of Adpn in the liver and a concomitant increase in LPAAT activity. In Adpn-deficient mice, this diet-induced increase in hepatic LPAAT activity is reduced. Notably, the I148M variant of human ADPN exhibits increased LPAAT activity leading to increased cellular lipid accumulation. This gain of function provides a plausible biochemical mechanism for the development of liver steatosis in subjects carrying the I148M variant.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that function as master regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression with each miRNA negatively regulating hundreds of genes. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a mitogenic lipid present within the ovarian tumor microenvironment and induces LPA receptor activation and intracellular signaling cascades like ERK/MAPK, leading to enhanced cellular proliferation. Here, we show that in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells, LPA stimulation at concentrations ranging from 1 nmol/L to 20 μmol/L for 30 to 60 minutes increases miR-30c-2*, and this effect is mediated through a combination of receptors because knock down of multiple LPA receptors is required for inhibition. The epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor also increase miR-30c-2* transcript expression, suggesting a broader responsive role for miR-30c-2*. Thus, we investigated the functional role of miR-30c-2* through ectopic expression of synthetic miRNA precursors of mature miRNA or antagomir transfection and observed that microRNA-30c-2* reduces, and the antagomir enhances, cell proliferation and viability in OVCAR-3, cisplatin-insensitive SKOV-3 and chemoresistant HeyA8-MDR cells. Ectopic expression of miR-30c-2* reduces BCL9 mRNA transcript abundance and BCL9 protein. Consistent with this observation, miR-30c-2* ectopic expression also reduced BCL9 luciferase reporter gene expression. In comparison with IOSE cells, all cancer cells examined showed increased BCL9 expression, which is consistent with its role in tumor progression. Taken together, this suggest that growth factor induced proliferation mediates a neutralizing response by significantly increasing miR-30c-2* which reduces BCL9 expression and cell proliferation in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells, likely as a mechanism to regulate signal transduction downstream.
Despite wide margins and high dose irradiation, unresectable malignant glioma (MG) is less responsive to radiation and is uniformly fatal. We previously found that cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA(2)) is a molecular target for radiosensitizing cancer through the vascular endothelium. Autotaxin (ATX) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors are downstream from cPLA(2) and highly expressed in MG. Using the ATX and LPA receptor inhibitor, α-bromomethylene phosphonate LPA (BrP-LPA), we studied ATX and LPA receptors as potential molecular targets for the radiosensitization of tumor vasculature in MG. Treatment of Human Umbilical Endothelial cells (HUVEC) and mouse brain microvascular cells bEND.3 with 5 µmol/L BrP-LPA and 3 Gy irradiation showed decreased clonogenic survival, tubule formation, and migration. Exogenous addition of LPA showed radioprotection that was abrogated in the presence of BrP-LPA. In co-culture experiments using bEND.3 and mouse GL-261 glioma cells, treatment with BrP-LPA reduced Akt phosphorylation in both irradiated cell lines and decreased survival and migration of irradiated GL-261 cells. Using siRNA to knock down LPA receptors LPA1, LPA2 or LPA3 in HUVEC, we demonstrated that knockdown of LPA2 but neither LPA1 nor LPA3 led to increased viability and proliferation. However, knockdown of LPA1 and LPA3 but not LPA2 resulted in complete abrogation of tubule formation implying that LPA1 and LPA3 on endothelial cells are likely targets of BrP-LPA radiosensitizing effect. Using heterotopic tumor models of GL-261, mice treated with BrP-LPA and irradiation showed a tumor growth delay of 6.8 days compared to mice treated with irradiation alone indicating that inhibition of ATX and LPA receptors may significantly improve malignant glioma response to radiation therapy. These findings identify ATX and LPA receptors as molecular targets for the development of radiosensitizers for MG.
BACKGROUND - A critical therapeutic challenge in epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the development of chemoresistance among tumor cells following exposure to first line chemotherapeutics. The molecular and genetic changes that drive the development of chemoresistance are unknown, and this lack of mechanistic insight is a major obstacle in preventing and predicting the occurrence of refractory disease. We have recently shown that Regulators of G-protein Signaling (RGS) proteins negatively regulate signaling by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a growth factor elevated in malignant ascites fluid that triggers oncogenic growth and survival signaling in ovarian cancer cells. The goal of this study was to determine the role of RGS protein expression in ovarian cancer chemoresistance.
RESULTS - In this study, we find that RGS2, RGS5, RGS10 and RGS17 transcripts are expressed at significantly lower levels in cells resistant to chemotherapy compared with parental, chemo-sensitive cells in gene expression datasets of multiple models of chemoresistance. Further, exposure of SKOV-3 cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy causes acute, persistent downregulation of RGS10 and RGS17 transcript expression. Direct inhibition of RGS10 or RGS17 expression using siRNA knock-down significantly reduces chemotherapy-induced cell toxicity. The effects of cisplatin, vincristine, and docetaxel are inhibited following RGS10 and RGS17 knock-down in cell viability assays and phosphatidyl serine externalization assays in SKOV-3 cells and MDR-HeyA8 cells. We further show that AKT activation is higher following RGS10 knock-down and RGS 10 and RGS17 overexpression blocked LPA mediated activation of AKT, suggesting that RGS proteins may blunt AKT survival pathways.
CONCLUSIONS - Taken together, our data suggest that chemotherapy exposure triggers loss of RGS10 and RGS17 expression in ovarian cancer cells, and that loss of expression contributes to the development of chemoresistance, possibly through amplification of endogenous AKT signals. Our results establish RGS10 and RGS17 as novel regulators of cell survival and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer cells and suggest that their reduced expression may be diagnostic of chemoresistance.