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Tumor-associated macrophage and T-cell subsets are implicated in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Macrophages provide essential mechanisms of tumor immune evasion through checkpoint ligand expression and secretion of suppressive cytokines. However, normal and tumor-associated macrophage phenotypes are less well characterized than those of tumor-infiltrating T-cell subsets, and it would be especially valuable to know whether the polarization state of macrophages differs across lymphoma tumor microenvironments. Here, an established mass cytometry panel designed to characterize myeloid-derived suppressor cells and known macrophage maturation and polarization states was applied to characterize B-lymphoma tumors and non-malignant human tissue. High-dimensional single-cell analyses were performed using dimensionality reduction and clustering tools. Phenotypically distinct intra-tumor macrophage subsets were identified based on abnormal marker expression profiles that were associated with lymphoma tumor types. While it had been proposed that measurement of CD163 and CD68 might be sufficient to reveal macrophage subsets in tumors, results here indicated that S100A9, CCR2, CD36, Slan, and CD32 should also be measured to effectively characterize lymphoma-specific tumor macrophages. Additionally, the presence of phenotypically distinct, abnormal macrophage populations was closely linked to the phenotype of intra-tumor T-cell populations, including PD-1 expressing T cells. These results further support the close links between macrophage polarization and T-cell functional state, as well as the rationale for targeting tumor-associated macrophages in cancer immunotherapies.
Kinases downstream of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) represent attractive targets for therapy in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). As clinical responses vary, improved knowledge regarding activation and regulation of BCR signaling in individual patients is needed. Here, using phosphospecific flow cytometry to obtain malignant B-cell signaling profiles from 95 patients representing 4 types of NHL revealed a striking contrast between chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) tumors. Lymphoma cells from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients had high basal phosphorylation levels of most measured signaling nodes, whereas follicular lymphoma cells represented the opposite pattern with no or very low basal levels. MCL showed large interpatient variability in basal levels, and elevated levels for the phosphorylated forms of AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, STAT1, and STAT5 were associated with poor outcome. CLL tumors had elevated basal levels for the phosphorylated forms of BCR-signaling nodes (Src family tyrosine kinase, spleen tyrosine kinase [SYK], phospholipase Cγ), but had low α-BCR-induced signaling. This contrasted MCL tumors, where α-BCR-induced signaling was variable, but significantly potentiated as compared with the other types. Overexpression of CD79B, combined with a gating strategy whereby signaling output was directly quantified per cell as a function of CD79B levels, confirmed a direct relationship between surface CD79B, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgM-induced signaling levels. Furthermore, α-BCR-induced signaling strength was variable across patient samples and correlated with BCR subunit CD79B expression, but was inversely correlated with susceptibility to Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) and SYK inhibitors in MCL. These individual differences in BCR levels and signaling might relate to differences in therapy responses to BCR-pathway inhibitors.
© 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.
BACKGROUND - Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.
METHODS - Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.
RESULTS - GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, hl (2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (ρ = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (ρ = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ρ = 0.51, SE =0.18), and bladder and lung (ρ = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.
CONCLUSION - Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
As the use of lenalidomide expands, the poorly understood phenomenon of lenalidomide-induced thyroid abnormalities will increase. In this study, we compared rates of therapy-induced hypothyroidism in 329 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with conventional chemotherapy (DLBCL-c) or conventional chemotherapy plus lenalidomide (DLBCL-len). We measured serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 12, and interleukin 15 before and after treatment. We found a significantly higher rate of therapy-induced hypothyroidism in the DLBCL-len group (25.8% vs. 1.3%), and we found a statistically significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor α in patients with lenalidomide-induced hypothyroidism.
Copyright © 2015 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The BCL6 transcriptional repressor is required for the development of germinal center (GC) B cells and diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Although BCL6 can recruit multiple corepressors, its transcriptional repression mechanism of action in normal and malignant B cells is unknown. We find that in B cells, BCL6 mostly functions through two independent mechanisms that are collectively essential to GC formation and DLBCL, both mediated through its N-terminal BTB domain. These are (1) the formation of a unique ternary BCOR-SMRT complex at promoters, with each corepressor binding to symmetrical sites on BCL6 homodimers linked to specific epigenetic chromatin features, and (2) the "toggling" of active enhancers to a poised but not erased conformation through SMRT-dependent H3K27 deacetylation, which is mediated by HDAC3 and opposed by p300 histone acetyltransferase. Dynamic toggling of enhancers provides a basis for B cells to undergo rapid transcriptional and phenotypic changes in response to signaling or environmental cues.
Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Early lymphocyte recovery following auto-SCT for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been reported to be associated with improved outcome. The significance of early lymphocyte recovery following a stem cell transplant in NHL subtype diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era remains unclear. Patients who underwent an auto-SCT at our institution for DLBCL during the time period 1998-2008 (n=115) were included in the study. Patient characteristics were well-balanced in both rituximab naïve and rituximab-exposed groups. Prior rituximab therapy did not affect lymphocyte recovery on day 14 or day 28. Lymphocyte recovery on day 14 and day 28 and prior rituximab had no impact on survival after auto-SCT for DLBCL, despite early benefit. Other factors such as age, stage at presentation, number of salvage regimens, mobilization procedure, conditioning regimen, pre-transplant radiation therapy and pre-transplant disease status had no impact on survival. Our data showed that the survival benefit with early lymphocyte recovery and prior rituximab seen in previous reports may be lost with longer follow-up. Prior rituximab therapy does not appear to influence the lymphocyte count at days 14 and 28 following auto-SCT. Our findings suggest that future trials should consider manipulating the immune system as a post transplant intervention to improve long-term outcome.
The development of PTLD is a rare severe adverse event following ASCT. We report on a child with DS who developed PTLD following autologous transplant for relapsed Hodgkin's disease. He was successfully treated with cyclophosphamide, prednisone and rituximab. We also present a comprehensive review of the literature of PTLD in pediatric patients following ASCT.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
ABT-263 is a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-w, which is currently in phase I clinical trials. Previous work has shown that this compound has low nanomolar cell-killing activity in a variety of lymphoma and leukemia cell lines, many of which overexpress Bcl-2 through a variety of mechanisms. Rapamycin is a macrolide antibiotic that inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin complex, leading to cell cycle arrest and inhibition of protein translation. Rapamycin (and its analogues) has shown activity in a variety of tumor cell lines primarily through induction of cell cycle arrest. Activity has also been shown clinically in mantle cell lymphoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma. Here, we show that treatment of the follicular lymphoma lines DoHH-2 and SuDHL-4 with 100 nmol/L rapamycin induces substantial G(0)-G(1) arrest. Addition of as little as 39 nmol/L ABT-263 to the rapamycin regimen induced a 3-fold increase in sub-G(0) cells. Combination of these agents also led to a significant increase in Annexin V staining over ABT-263 alone. In xenograft models of these tumors, rapamycin induced a largely cytostatic response in the DoHH-2 and SuDHL-4 models. Coadministration with ABT-263 induced significant tumor regression, with DoHH-2 and SuDHL-4 tumors showing 100% overall response rates. Apoptosis in these tumors was significantly enhanced by combination therapy as measured by staining with an antibody specific for cleaved caspase-3. These data suggest that combination of ABT-263 and rapamycin or its analogues represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lymphoma.
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive large T- or null-cell lymphoma. Most ALCLs arising in children and young adults express a constitutively active receptor tyrosine kinase, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Anaplastic large cell lymphomas lacking ALK are clinically heterogeneous and their pathogenesis is unknown. This study is the first complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray analysis using RNA extracted from tumor tissue (7 ALK+ ALCLs and 7 ALK- ALCLs) to identify genes differentially expressed or shared between the ALK+ and ALK- tumors. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using the top 11 most statistically significant discriminator cDNAs correctly grouped all ALK+ and ALK- tumors. Hierarchical clustering analysis using the 44 cDNAs with the greatest differential expression between ALK+ and ALK- RNAs grouped 6 of 7 ALK+ ALCLs together and 1 ALK+ ALCL with the ALK- group. In general, ALK+ tumors overexpress genes encoding signal transduction molecules (SYK , LYN , CDC37) and underexpress transcription factor genes (including HOXC6 and HOX A3 ) compared with the ALK- group. Cyclin D3 was overexpressed in the ALK+ group and the cell cycle inhibitor p19INK4D was decreased in the ALK- group, suggesting different mechanisms of promoting G 1 /S transition. Both groups had similar proliferation rates. Genes highly expressed in both ALK- and ALK+ ALCLs included kinases (LCK, protein kinase C, vav2, and NKIAMRE) and antiapoptotic molecules, suggesting possible common pathogenetic mechanisms as well.
Different molecular pathways are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of classic Hodgkin lymphoma as opposed to non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Antiapoptotic mechanisms have been proposed for classic Hodgkin lymphoma, including expression of the cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which plays a critical role in resistance to CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we compare the expression of c-FLIP in the neoplastic cells of classic Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma cases. Sixteen cases of classic Hodgkin lymphoma and 19 cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were reviewed. Of 16 classic Hodgkin lymphoma cases, 13 cases (81%) were c-FLIP-positive, compared with 6 of 19 (32%) nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma cases. Strong cytoplasmic staining was seen in 7 of 13 c-FLIP-positive classic Hodgkin lymphoma cases, in contrast with only 2 of 6 c-FLIP-positive nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma cases. The 2 cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with strong c-FLIP expression were associated with transformation to large B-cell lymphoma. An additional 15 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were studied for c-FLIP expression. All but 1 were c-FLIP-positive. In conclusion, we detected c-FLIP in a significantly lower proportion of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma cases compared with classic Hodgkin lymphoma cases. Therefore, c-FLIP expression may not be the major mechanism of pathogenesis in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. However, strong c-FLIP expression in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with transformation to large B-cell lymphoma in 2 cases. c-FLIP expression is not limited to Hodgkin lymphoma, because the majority of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases tested were strongly c-FLIP-positive.