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BACKGROUND - Breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL) arises from a mechanical insufficiency following cancer therapies. Early BCRL detection and personalized intervention require an improved understanding of the physiological processes that initiate lymphatic impairment. Here, internal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of the tissue microenvironment were paired with clinical measures of tissue structure to test fundamental hypotheses regarding structural tissue and muscle changes after the commonly used therapeutic intervention of manual lymphatic drainage (MLD).
METHODS AND RESULTS - Measurements to identify lymphatic dysfunction in healthy volunteers (n = 29) and patients with BCRL (n = 16) consisted of (1) limb volume, tissue dielectric constant, and bioelectrical impedance (i.e., non-MRI measures); (2) qualitative 3 Tesla diffusion-weighted, T-weighted and T-weighted MRI; and (3) quantitative multi-echo T MRI of the axilla. Measurements were repeated in patients immediately following MLD. Normative control and BCRL T values were quantified and a signed Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test was applied (significance: two-sided p < 0.05). Non-MRI measures yielded significant capacity for discriminating between arms with versus without clinical signs of BCRL, yet yielded no change in response to MLD. Alternatively, a significant increase in deep tissue T on the involved (pre T = 0.0371 ± 0.003 seconds; post T = 0.0389 ± 0.003; p = 0.029) and contralateral (pre T = 0.0365 ± 0.002; post T = 0.0395 ± 0.002; p < 0.01) arms was observed. Trends for larger T increases on the involved side after MLD in patients with stage 2 BCRL relative to earlier stages 0 and 1 BCRL were observed, consistent with tissue composition changes in later stages of BCRL manifesting as breakdown of fibrotic tissue after MLD in the involved arm. Contrast consistent with relocation of fluid to the contralateral quadrant was observed in all stages.
CONCLUSION - Quantitative deep tissue T MRI values yielded significant changes following MLD treatment, whereas non-MRI measurements did not vary. These findings highlight that internal imaging measures of tissue composition may be useful for evaluating how current and emerging therapies impact tissue function.
BACKGROUND - Adjuvant chemotherapy for T3N0 colon cancer is controversial. National guidelines recommend its use in patients with stage II with high-risk features, including lymph node harvest of less than 12, yet this treatment is underused.
OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T3N0 adenocarcinoma with inadequate lymph node harvest is beneficial.
DESIGN - This was a retrospective population-based study of patients with resected T3N0 adenocarcinoma of the colon.
SETTINGS - The National Cancer Database was queried from 2003 to 2012.
PATIENTS - A total of 134,567 patients with T3N0 colon cancer were included in this analysis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - The use of chemotherapy, short-term outcomes, and overall survival was evaluated. Clinicopathologic factors associated with omission of chemotherapy were also analyzed.
RESULTS - Inadequate lymph node harvest was observed in 23.3% of patients, and this rate decreased over the study period from 46.8% in 2003 to 12.5% in 2012 (p < 0.0001). Overall 5-year survival for patients with T3N0 cancer was 66.8%. Inadequate lymph node harvest among these patients was associated with lower overall 5-year survival (58.7% vs 69.8%; p < 0.001). The use of adjuvant chemotherapy among patients with T3N0 cancer after inadequate lymph node harvest was only 16.7%. In a multivariable analysis, factors associated with failure to receive chemotherapy included advanced age (OR = 0.44 (95% CI, 0.43-0.45)), increased comorbidities (OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.66-0.76)), and postoperative readmission (OR = 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67-0.91)). Patients with inadequate lymph node harvest who received adjuvant chemotherapy had improved 5-year survival (chemotherapy, 78.4% vs no chemotherapy, 54.7%; p < 0.001). Even when controlling for all of the significant variables, the administration of chemotherapy remained a predictor of decreased mortality (HR = 0.57 (95% CI, 0.54-0.60); p < 0.001).
LIMITATIONS - This study was limited by its retrospective, population-based design.
CONCLUSIONS - Patients with T3N0 colon cancer with inadequate lymph node harvest who receive adjuvant chemotherapy have increased overall survival. Despite this survival benefit, a fraction of these patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Barriers to chemotherapy are multifactorial.
Successful surgical resection offers the only chance for cure in patients with pancreatic cancer. However, pancreatic resection is feasible in less than 20% of the patients. In this review, the current state of surgical management of pancreatic cancer is discussed. The definition of resectability based on cross-sectional imaging and the technical aspects of surgery, including vascular resection and/or reconstruction, management of aberrant vascular anatomy and extent of lymphadenectomy, are appraised. Furthermore, common pancreatic resection-specific postoperative complications and their management are reviewed.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - There have been conflicting data in studies on the prognostic role of high risk human papillomavirus in penile squamous cell carcinoma. Using P16(ink4a) over expression as a surrogate marker for high risk human papillomavirus, we evaluated high risk human papillomavirus status with respect to various clinical features, including recurrence and overall survival, among others.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - P16(ink4a) over expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry for 119 consecutive patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. Several variables were recorded including age, stage, histological grade, lymph node status, lymphovascular invasion, metastasis and recurrence. Median followup was 30 months.
RESULTS - P16(ink4a) over expression was detected in 49.5% (59 of 119) of samples. There was no significant difference between P16(ink4a) negative and P16(ink4a) positive tumors in terms of stage (p = 0.518), histological grade (p = 0.225), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.388), overall survival (p = 0.156) or lymph node metastasis (p = 0.748). P16(ink4a) negative tumors were more likely to recur overall (p = 0.04), especially if patients had positive lymph nodes at diagnosis (p = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS - These data suggest that P16(ink4a)/high risk human papillomavirus status is associated with recurrence, especially in patients with positive lymph nodes at diagnosis. Thus, patients with P16(ink4a) negative penile cancer, particularly those with lymph node metastases, may warrant closer observation after surgery.
Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Uninsured and underinsured cancer patients often have delayed diagnosis and inferior outcomes. As healthcare reform proceeds in the US, this disparity may gain increasing importance. Our objective was to investigate the impact of health insurance status on the presentation, treatment, and survival among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.
METHODS - A total of 10,692 patients diagnosed with CRC between 2004 and 2008 identified from the Tennessee Cancer Registry were stratified into five groups: Private, Medicare, Military, Medicaid, and uninsured. Multivariable regression models were constructed to test the association of insurance with receipt of recommended adjuvant therapy and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS - Uninsured and Medicaid patients were more often African American (AA) and presented with higher stage tumors (P < 0.001). Medicare patients were less likely to receive recommended adjuvant therapy (OR 0.54). Lack of insurance, Medicaid, and failure to receive recommended adjuvant therapy were independently associated with worse OS.
CONCLUSIONS - Although uninsured and Medicaid patients receive recommended adjuvant therapy comparable to other patients, they present with later stage disease and have a worse OS. Future studies are needed to better explain these disparities especially in the light of changing healthcare climate in the US.
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES - To compare available grading and staging scales that measure external lymphedema in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) and to assess problems and gaps related to these tools.
DESIGN - Cross-sectional.
SETTING - A comprehensive cancer center in Tennessee.
SAMPLE - 103 participants post-HNC treatment.
METHODS - Four scales were used to evaluate study participant external lymphedema status, including the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) Lymphedema Scale (version 3.0), American Cancer Society Lymphedema Scale, Stages of Lymphedema (Földi's Scale), and the CTCAE Fibrosis Scale (version 3.0).
MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES - Occurrence rate, severity of lymphedema, and components and descriptors of each scale.
FINDINGS - The prevalence and severity of external lymphedema differed based on the tools. Each tool had an identified limitation. Current theory postulates a continuum between lymphedema and fibrosis, but only the Földi's Scale adequately reflected that concept.
CONCLUSIONS - None of the available scales clearly captured all the important characteristics of external lymphedema in patients with HNC. A need exists to develop a clearly defined and validated scale of external lymphedema in the HNC population.
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING - Oncology nurses should take an active role in addressing issues related to lymphedema assessment in patients post-HNC treatment; however, new assessment tools need to be developed for clinical use.
KNOWLEDGE TRANSLATION - Early identification and accurate documentation of head and neck lymphedema are critically important to prevent lymphedema progress. However, existing grading criteria failed to capture important characteristics of external head and neck lymphedema. More research efforts need to be made to address this under-recognized issue.
The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Gastric Cancer provide evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for a multidisciplinary approach for the management of patients with gastric cancer. For patients with resectable locoregional cancer, the guidelines recommend gastrectomy with a D1+ or a modified D2 lymph node dissection (performed by experienced surgeons in high-volume centers). Postoperative chemoradiation is the preferred option after complete gastric resection for patients with T3-T4 tumors and node-positive T1-T2 tumors. Postoperative chemotherapy is included as an option after a modified D2 lymph node dissection for this group of patients. Trastuzumab with chemotherapy is recommended as first-line therapy for patients with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic cancer, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and, if needed, by fluorescence in situ hybridization for IHC 2+.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. Adjuvant radiation increases survival in advanced stages, but efficacy in stage I disease is unknown. A retrospective review included all patients treated for stage I MCC during a 15-year period at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Among 42 patients, 26 (62%) had a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (stage IA) and 16 (38%) had clinically negative lymph nodes (stage IB) at the time of resection. Analysis using Cox regression revealed that higher stage and absence of adjuvant radiation are associated with increased disease recurrence (hazard ratio, 6.29; P=0.003 and hazard ratio, 4.69; P=0.013, respectively). Controlling for stage, radiation therapy significantly increased disease-free survival among patients with stage IB disease (P=0.0026) in a log-rank test comparing Kaplan-Meier curves. These findings support adjuvant radiation therapy in stage IB MCC patients with clinically negative lymph nodes who do not undergo sentinel lymph node biopsy.
OBJECTIVE - To determine the number, variability, and distribution of pelvic lymph nodes to better understand the utility of the node count as a surrogate for the dissection extent. Although pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) at radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is critical for disease control and staging, debate regarding the measurement of dissection adequacy remains. Many have proposed minimum node counts, yet an anatomic study assessing the number and variability of lymph nodes in the PLND templates is lacking.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Super-extended PLND was performed on 26 human cadavers, and the lymph nodes within each of 12 dissection zones were enumerated by a single pathologist. We calculated the mean, standard deviation, and range of nodal yield within each dissection region. The super-extended and standard dissection templates were compared using the paired t test.
RESULTS - Super-extended PLND yielded a mean of 28.5 ± 11.5 lymph nodes, with a total node count range of 10-53 nodes. In contrast, the nodal yield within the standard template was 18.3 ± 6.3 nodes, with a range of 8-28 nodes (P <.001). No significant differences were seen in lymph node counts when stratified by age, sex, or cause of death.
CONCLUSION - Using a cadaveric model and a single pathologist to eliminate many of the factors affecting the nodal yield in surgical series, we found substantial interindividual differences, with counts ranging from 10 to 53 nodes. These results have demonstrated the limited utility of lymph node count as a surrogate for the dissection extent and illustrated the challenges associated with implementing a surgical standard for minimum lymph node counts.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.