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BACKGROUND - The COPD assessment test (CAT) score is a key component of the multifactorial assessment of COPD in the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines of 2014. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the differences among COPD categories in terms of clinical parameters such as pulmonary function or radiological findings. Thus, our aims in this study were to evaluate the associations between CAT scores and pulmonary clinical parameters, and to investigate factors that could discriminate between a "less symptomatic group" (categories A and C) and a "more symptomatic group" (categories B and D) among stable COPD patients.
METHODS - We enrolled 200 outpatients at Chiba University Hospital. Study subjects were assessed by CAT, pulmonary function testing, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). We assessed possible correlations between these indices.
RESULTS - CAT scores were negatively correlated with percentage of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second predicted value (FEV1 %predicted) and percentage of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide per liter of lung volume predicted value (DLCO/VA [%predicted]) results and positively correlated with low attenuation volume percentage (LAV%) and residual volume to total lung capacity ratios (RV/TLC). In the "more symptomatic group" (category B or D), the mean DLCO/VA (%predicted) was significantly lower and the mean LAV% and RV/TLC was significantly higher than those in the "less symptomatic group" (category A or C), respectively. Interestingly, those in category B had higher mean LAV% compared to those in category C.
CONCLUSION - CAT scores were significantly correlated with pulmonary function parameters and emphysematous changes on MDCT. The new GOLD classification system would be a step toward a phenotypic approach, especially taking into account the degree of emphysema and hyperinflation.
BACKGROUND - Low lung function is known to predict mortality in the general population, but the prognostic significance of emphysema on computed tomography (CT) in persons without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is uncertain.
OBJECTIVE - To determine whether greater emphysema-like lung on CT is associated with all-cause mortality among persons in the general population without airflow obstruction or COPD.
DESIGN - Prospective cohort study.
SETTING - Population-based, multiethnic sample from 6 U.S. communities.
PARTICIPANTS - 2965 participants aged 45 to 84 years without airflow obstruction on spirometry.
MEASUREMENTS - Emphysema-like lung was defined as the number of lung voxels with attenuation less than -950 Hounsfield units on cardiac CT and was adjusted for the number of total imaged lung voxels.
RESULTS - Among 2965 participants, 50.9% of whom had never smoked, there were 186 deaths over a median of 6.2 years. Greater emphysema-like lung was independently associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio per one-half interquartile range, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.04 to 1.24]; P=0.004) after adjustment for potential confounders, including cardiovascular risk factors and FEV1. Generalized additive models supported a linear association between emphysema-like lung and mortality without evidence for a threshold. The association was of greatest magnitude among smokers, although multiplicative interaction terms did not support effect modification by smoking status.
LIMITATIONS - Cardiac CT scans did not include lung apices. The number of deaths was limited among subgroup analyses.
CONCLUSION - Emphysema-like lung on CT was associated with all-cause mortality among persons without airflow obstruction or COPD in a general population sample, particularly among smokers. Recognition of the independent prognostic significance of emphysema on CT among patients without COPD on spirometry is warranted.
PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
RATIONALE - Computed tomography (CT)-based lung density is used to quantitate the percentage of emphysema-like lung (hereafter referred to as percent emphysema), but information on its distribution among healthy nonsmokers is limited.
OBJECTIVES - We evaluated percent emphysema and total lung volume on CT scans of healthy never-smokers in a multiethnic, population-based study.
METHODS - The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study investigators acquired full-lung CT scans of 3,137 participants (ages 54-93 yr) between 2010-12. The CT scans were taken at full inspiration following the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) protocol. "Healthy never-smokers" were defined as participants without a history of tobacco smoking or respiratory symptoms and disease. "Percent emphysema" was defined as the percentage of lung voxels below -950 Hounsfield units. "Total lung volume" was defined by the volume of lung voxels.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - Among 854 healthy never-smokers, the median percent emphysema visualized on full-lung scans was 1.1% (interquartile range, 0.5-2.5%). The percent emphysema values were 1.2 percentage points higher among men compared with women and 0.7, 1.2, and 1.2 percentage points lower among African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians compared with whites, respectively (P < 0.001). Percent emphysema was positively related to age and height and inversely related to body mass index. The findings were similar for total lung volume on CT scans and for percent emphysema defined at -910 Hounsfield units and measured on cardiac scans. Reference equations to account for these differences are presented for never, former and current smokers.
CONCLUSIONS - Similar to lung function, percent emphysema varies substantially by demographic factors and body size among healthy never-smokers. The presented reference equations will assist in defining abnormal values for percent emphysema and total lung volume on CT scans, although validation is pending.
The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to estimate percentage of fat mass (%FM) in African American children. %FM was determined in 21 boys and 13 girls (11.0 +/- 1.4 y, 18.6 +/- 4.2 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SD]) by ADP (using six published densitometric equations) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Measures were done within 2 h of one another, in random order. Regardless of equation, %FM(ADP) was significantly correlated with %FM(DXA) (R(2) = 0.67-0.71, all p < 0.001). %FM(ADP) using the equation of Siri (%FM(ADP-Siri) 20.3 +/- 9.0) agreed most closely with %FM(DXA) (20.0 +/- 10.2, difference p = 0.729). Together, surface area artifact and bone mineral content per unit of bone-free fat-free mass accounted for 29% of the variance in the residual between methods. The correlation between %FM(ADP-Siri) and %FM(DXA) was not significant for those <35 kg (n = 10; R(2) = 0.084, p = 0.417). There was a trend toward %FM(ADP-Siri) underestimating %FM(DXA) in girls (-1.46 +/- 3.0%FM; p = 0.103) but not in boys (1.43 +/- 6.4%FM; p = 0.315). Predicted lung volume was 40.1% higher than measured lung volume (p < 0.001). %FM(ADP-Siri) determined using predicted lung volume was 23.5 +/- 8.9, higher than that using measured lung volume (p < 0.001) and higher than %FM(DXA) (p = 0.001). We conclude that in 9- to 14-y-old African American children and provided lung volume is measured, %FM using ADP with Siri's equation approximates that obtained by DXA. Body composition results determined by ADP in children <35 kg should be interpreted with caution.
Forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximal exercise response were measured in two populations of Peruvian males (age, 18-35 years) at 4,338 m who differed by the environment in which they were born and raised, i.e., high altitude (Cerro de Pasco, Peru, BHA, n = 39) and sea level (Lima, Peru, BSL, n = 32). BSL subjects were transported from sea level to 4,338 m, and were evaluated within 24 hr of exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Individual admixture level (ADMIX, % Spanish ancestry) was estimated for each subject, using 22 ancestry-informative genetic markers and also by skin reflectance measurement (MEL). Birthplace accounted for the approximately 10% larger FVC (P < 0.001), approximately 15% higher maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max, ml.min(-1).kg(-1)) (P < 0.001), and approximately 5% higher arterial oxygen saturation during exercise (SpO(2)) (P < 0.001) of BHA subjects. ADMIX was low in both study groups, averaging 9.5 +/- 2.6% and 2.1 +/- 0.3% in BSL and BHA subjects, respectively. Mean underarm MEL was significantly higher in the BSL group (P < 0.001), despite higher ADMIX. ADMIX was not associated with any study phenotype, but study power was not sufficient to evaluate hypotheses of genetic adaptation via the ADMIX variable. MEL and FVC were positively correlated in the BHA (P = 0.035) but not BSL (P = 0.335) subjects. However, MEL and ADMIX were not correlated across the entire study sample (P = 0.282). In summary, results from this study emphasize the importance of developmental adaptation to high altitude. While the MEL-FVC correlation may reflect genetic adaptation to high altitude, study results suggest that alternate (environmental) explanations be considered.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The mechanics of gas flow in endotracheal (ET) tubes have been evaluated extensively in vitro under static and dynamic conditions. Previous bedside determinations of respiratory system mechanics in patients with acute respiratory failure have been based on assumptions derived from in vitro measurements without direct measurement of in vivo ET tube resistance (RET). We hypothesized that the RET measured in vivo would be greater than those values obtained in vitro when peak flow rates and ET tube size were held constant. We measured airflow, volume (pneumotachograph), esophageal pressure (nasogastric-esophageal balloon), and airway pressure (airway catheter) in 10 patients intubated with no. 8.0 orotracheal tubes. We also studied the static and dynamic flow-pressure relationships for five different sizes of ET tubes in vitro (artificial lung) (6.0, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 8.5). The static and dynamic values of RET and the Rohrer coefficients of linear and nonlinear resistance (K1 and K2) were similar to values previously reported in the literature. Although there was considerable individual variation, values of RET measured in vivo were generally higher than those derived from in vitro measurements at both peak flow rates tested, perhaps because of secretions, head or neck position, tube deformation, or increased turbulence. We conclude that ET tubes contribute significantly to total airflow resistance and that RET is often significantly greater than indicated by in vitro studies. Estimates of work of breathing in critically ill patients must take into consideration the contribution of in vivo RET on total pulmonary system resistance.