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Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of cellular functions and physiology. Yet functional lincRNAs often have low, context-specific and tissue-specific expression. We hypothesized that many human monocyte and adipose lincRNAs would be absent in current public annotations due to lincRNA tissue specificity, modest sequencing depth in public data, limitations of transcriptome assembly algorithms, and lack of dynamic physiological contexts. Deep RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed in peripheral blood CD14 monocytes (monocytes; average ~247 million reads per sample) and adipose tissue (average ~378 million reads per sample) collected before and after human experimental endotoxemia, an in vivo inflammatory stress, to identify tissue-specific and clinically relevant lincRNAs. Using a stringent filtering pipeline, we identified 109 unannotated lincRNAs in monocytes and 270 unannotated lincRNAs in adipose. Most unannotated lincRNAs are not conserved in rodents and are tissue specific, while many have features of regulated expression and are enriched in transposable elements. Specific subsets have enhancer RNA characteristics or are expressed only during inflammatory stress. A subset of unannotated lincRNAs was validated and replicated for their presence and inflammatory induction in independent human samples and for their monocyte and adipocyte origins. Through interrogation of public genome-wide association data, we also found evidence of specific disease association for selective unannotated lincRNAs. Our findings highlight the critical need to perform deep RNA-Seq in a cell-, tissue-, and context-specific manner to annotate the full repertoire of human lincRNAs for a complete understanding of lincRNA roles in dynamic cell functions and in human disease.
Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Despite the global impact of macrophage activation in vascular disease, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show, with global proteomic analysis of macrophage cell lines treated with either IFNγ or IL-4, that PARP9 and PARP14 regulate macrophage activation. In primary macrophages, PARP9 and PARP14 have opposing roles in macrophage activation. PARP14 silencing induces pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells, whereas it suppresses anti-inflammatory gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in M(IL-4) cells. PARP9 silencing suppresses pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells. PARP14 induces ADP-ribosylation of STAT1, which is suppressed by PARP9. Mutations at these ADP-ribosylation sites lead to increased phosphorylation. Network analysis links PARP9-PARP14 with human coronary artery disease. PARP14 deficiency in haematopoietic cells accelerates the development and inflammatory burden of acute and chronic arterial lesions in mice. These findings suggest that PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation.
Excessive cytokine inflammatory response due to chronic or superphysiological level of microbial infection during pregnancy leads to pregnancy complications such as early pregnancy defects/loss and preterm birth. Bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), long recognized as a potent proinflammatory mediator, has been identified as a risk factor for pregnancy complications. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes have been shown to detoxify LPS by dephosphorylation. In this study, we examined the role of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in mitigating LPS-induced early pregnancy complications in mice. We found that 1) the uterus prior to implantation and implantation sites following embryo implantation produce LPS recognition and dephosphorylation molecules TLR4 and tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) isozyme, respectively; 2) uterine TNAP isozyme dephosphorylates LPS at its sites of production; 3) while LPS administration following embryo implantation elicits proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the embryo implantation sites (EISs) and causes early pregnancy loss, dephosphorylated LPS neither triggers proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the EISs nor induces pregnancy complications; 4) AP isozyme supplementation to accelerate LPS detoxification attenuates LPS-induced pregnancy complications following embryo implantation. These findings suggest that a LPS dephosphorylation strategy using AP isozyme may have a unique therapeutic potential to mitigate LPS- or Gram-negative bacteria-induced pregnancy complications in at-risk women.
The antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by venous or arterial thrombosis and/or recurrent fetal loss in the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. These antibodies cause activation of endothelial and other cell types leading to the release of microparticles with procoagulant and pro-inflammatory properties. The aims of this study were to characterize the levels of endothelial cell, monocyte or platelet derived, and tissue factor-bearing microparticles in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies, to determine the association of circulating microparticles with anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein antibodies, and to define the cellular origin of microparticles that express tissue factor. Microparticle content within citrated blood from 47 patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and 144 healthy controls was analyzed within 2hours of venipuncture. Levels of Annexin-V, CD105 and CD144 (endothelial derived), CD41 (platelet derived) and tissue factor positive microparticles were significantly higher in patients than controls. Though levels of CD14 (monocyte-derived) microparticles in patient plasma were not significantly increased, increased levels of CD14 and tissue factor positive microparticles were observed in patients. Levels of microparticles that stained for CD105 and CD144 showed a positive correlation with IgG (R=0.60, p=0.006) and IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (R=0.58, p=0.006). The elevation of endothelial and platelet derived microparticles in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and their correlation with anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies suggests a chronic state of vascular cell activation in these individuals and an important role for β2-glycoprotein I in development of the pro-thrombotic state associated with antiphospholipid antibodies.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Greater adipose tissue is associated with increased circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the relationship between adiposity and other inflammation biomarkers is not well-characterized.
METHODS - We measured total and regional adipose tissue deposits using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor 1 and 2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble CD14 and hsCRP in a cohort of adults on long-term ART. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, CD4(+) T-cell count, smoking status, protease-inhibitor-use and daily use of either non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin.
RESULTS - The majority (77%) of the 85 study participants were male, median CD4(+) T-cell count was 500 cells/μl (IQR 315-734) and median BMI was 25.1 kg/m(2) (IQR 22.7-28.1). DXA measurements of total fat mass were positively associated with serum hsCRP (β=1.82, P<0.01) and MIP-1α (β=1.36, P<0.01), but negatively associated with soluble CD14 (β=0.90, P<0.01). Results were similar for trunk fat, limb fat and serum leptin level. The positive relationship between DXA measurements and TNF-α receptor 1 approached significance (P≤0.07 for all). There was no consistent relationship between adiposity and serum IL-6, TNF-α receptor 2 or MCP-1 levels.
CONCLUSIONS - Total and regional adiposity was associated with serum hsCRP, but not other inflammatory cytokines shown to predict morbidity and mortality in treated HIV. Greater adiposity is associated with higher MIP-1α and lower soluble CD14 levels, possibly reflecting an important role for cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.
Obesity and chronic, treated HIV infection are both associated with persistent systemic inflammation and a similar constellation of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, but the combined effects of excess adiposity and HIV on circulating proinflammatory cytokines and other biomarkers previously shown to predict disease risk is not well described. We measured inflammation biomarker levels in 158 predominantly virologically suppressed adults on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a range of body mass index (BMI) values from normal to morbidly obese. We assessed the relationship between BMI and each biomarker using multivariable linear regression adjusted for age, sex, race, CD4(+) count, tobacco use, data source, protease inhibitor use, and routine nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or aspirin use. Among normal-weight (n=48) and overweight participants (n=41; BMI <30 kg/m(2)), incremental BMI increases were associated with significantly higher serum highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP; β=2.47, p=0.02) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α receptor 1 levels (β=1.53, p=0.03), and significantly lower CD14 levels (β=0.84, p=0.01), but similar associations were not observed in the obese participants. Among the obese (n=69; BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)), however, higher serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6; β=1.30, p=0.02) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (β=1.77, p<0.01) were associated with higher BMI, a finding not observed among the nonobese. Among all participants, IL-6 and TNF-α receptor 1 levels were most closely associated with hsCRP (p<0.01). Further studies are needed to determine whether higher serum inflammation biomarker levels found in obese HIV-infected individuals on ART reflect an increased likelihood of adverse health outcomes, or if novel markers to estimate mortality and disease risk are needed in this population.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been shown to promote tumor progression, and increased TAM infiltration often correlates with poor prognosis. However, questions remain regarding the phenotype of macrophages within the tumor and their role in mAb-dependent cytotoxicity. This study demonstrates that whereas TAMs have protumor properties, they maintain Fc-dependent anti-tumor function. CD11b(+)CD14(+) TAMs isolated from primary human breast tumors expressed activating FcγRs. To model breast cancer TAMs in vitro, conditioned medium from breast cancer cells was used to drive human peripheral monocyte differentiation into macrophages. Tumor-conditioned macrophages were compared with in vitro derived M1 and M2a macrophages and were found to promote tumor cell invasion and express M2a markers, confirming their protumor potential. However, unlike M2a macrophages, tumor-conditioned macrophages expressed FcγRs and phagocytosed tumor cells in the presence of a tumor Ag-targeting mAb, unmasking an underappreciated tumoricidal capacity of TAMs. In vivo macrophage depletion reduced the efficacy of anti-CD142 against MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth and metastasis in SCID/beige mice, implicating a critical role for macrophages in Fc-dependent cell killing. M-CSF was identified in tumor-conditioned media and shown to be capable of differentiating macrophages with both pro- and anti-tumor properties. These results highlight the plasticity of TAMs, which are capable of promoting tumor progression and invasion while still retaining tumoricidal function in the presence of tumor-targeting mAbs.
Microenvironmental cues instruct infiltrating tumor-associated myeloid cells to drive malignant progression. A subpopulation of tumor-associated myeloid cells coexpressing endothelial and myeloid markers, although rare in peripheral blood, are primarily associated with tumors where they enhance tumor growth and angiogenesis. These biphenotypic vascular leukocytes result from the endothelial differentiation of myeloid progenitors, a process regulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha in vitro. An in vivo increase in tumor-derived TNFalpha expression promoted tumor growth and vascularity of mouse melanoma, lung cancer, and mammary tumors. Notably, tumor growth was accompanied by a significant increase in myeloid/endothelial biphenotypic populations. TNFalpha-associated tumor growth, vascularity, and generation of tumor vascular leukocytes in mouse melanoma tumors were dependent on intact host TNFalpha receptors. Importantly, TNFalpha-expressing tumors did not exhibit increased inflammation over control tumors, suggesting a unique action related to myeloid to endothelial differentiation. Our studies suggest that TNFalpha constitutes a tumor microenvironment signal that biases recruited monocytes toward a proangiogenic/provasculogenic myeloid/endothelial phenotype.
Epidemiologic and animal model data support a role for the prostaglandin pathway in AD pathogenesis. However, unexpected toxicity from protracted use of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) compels investigation of therapeutic targets in this pathway other than COX inhibitors. Previously, we have shown that mice lacking one specific receptor for PGE2, EP2 (EP2-/-), are protected from the indirect neurotoxic effects of cerebral innate immune response mediated by CD14-dependent activation. Here we review data showing that EP2-/- microglia have a highly desirable combination of features: ablated indirect neurotoxicity following exposure to Abeta(1-42) coupled with enhanced phagocytosis of Abeta peptides, both synthetic and those deposited in human brain. These data point to microglial EP2 as a more focused target within the PG pathway for therapy in AD.
Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) induces expression of the gene products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), whereas IFN-alpha/beta can interfere with or suppress class II protein expression. In separate studies, measles virus (MV) was reported to induce IFN-alpha/beta and to up-regulate MHC class II proteins. In an attempt to resolve this paradox, we examined the surface expression of MHC class I and class II proteins in MV-infected peripheral monocytes in the presence and absence of IFN-alpha/beta. Infection of purified monocytes with Edmonston B MV resulted in an apparent increase in cell surface expression of HLA-A, -B, and -C class I proteins, but it had no effect on the expression of HLA-DR class II proteins. MV-infected purified monocytes expressed IFN-alpha/beta, but no measurable IFN-gamma expression was detected in supernatant fluids. Class II protein expression could be enhanced by coculture of purified monocytes with uninfected peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) supernatant. MV infection of PBMCs also did not affect expression of class II proteins, but the expression of HLA-A, -B, and -C class I proteins was increased two- to threefold in most donor cells. A direct role for IFN-alpha/beta suppression of MHC class II protein expression was not evident in monocytes since MV suppressed class II protein expression in the absence of IFN-alpha/beta. Taken together, these data suggest that MV interferes with the expression of peptide-loaded class II complexes, an effect that may potentially alter CD4(+)-T-cell proliferation and the cell-mediated immune responses that they help to regulate.