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Honokiol, a compound extracted from Magnolia officinalis, has antitumor and antiangiogenic properties in several tumor models in vivo. Among the downstream pathways inhibited by honokiol is nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkappabeta). A prime physiologic stimulus of NFkappabeta is reactive oxygen species. The chemical structure of honokiol suggests that it may be an effective scavenger of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have studied the reactions of honokiol with superoxide and peroxyl radicals in cell-free and cellular systems using electron spin resonance (ESR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Honokiol efficiently scavenged superoxide radicals in xanthine oxidase and cytochrome P-450 cell-free systems with the rate constant 3.2x10(5)M(-1)s(-1), which is similar to reactivity of ascorbic acid but 20-times higher than reactivity of vitamin E analog trolox. Honokiol potently scavenged intracellular superoxide within melanoma cells. In addition, honokiol scavenged peroxyl radicals generated by 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH). The rate constant of the reaction of honokiol with peroxyl radicals (1.4x10(6)M(-1)s(-1)) was calculated from the competition with spin trap 5-(ethoxycarbonyl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (EMPO), and was found close to reactivity of trolox (2.5x10(6)M(-1)s(-1)). Therefore, honokiol is an effective scavenger of both superoxide and peroxyl radicals, which may be important for physiological activity of honokiol.
PURPOSE - Elevated phospholipase D (PLD) activity provides a survival signal in several human cancer cell lines and suppresses apoptosis when cells are subjected to the stress of serum withdrawal. Thus, targeting PLD survival signals has potential to suppress survival in cancer cells that depend on PLD for survival. Honokiol is a compound that suppresses tumor growth in mouse models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of honokiol on PLD survival signals and the Ras dependence of these signals.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - The effect of honokiol upon PLD activity was examined in human cancer cell lines where PLD activity provides a survival signal. The dependence of PLD survival signals on Ras was investigated, as was the effect of honokiol on Ras activation.
RESULTS - We report here that honokiol suppresses PLD activity in human cancer cells where PLD has been shown to suppress apoptosis. PLD activity is commonly elevated in response to the stress of serum withdrawal, and, importantly, the stress-induced increase in PLD activity is selectively suppressed by honokiol. The stress-induced increase in PLD activity was accompanied by increased Ras activation, and the stress-induced increase in PLD activity in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was dependent on a Ras. The PLD activity was also dependent on the GTPases RalA and ADP ribosylation factor. Importantly, honokiol suppressed Ras activation.
CONCLUSION - The data provided here indicate that honokiol may be a valuable therapeutic reagent for targeting a large number of human cancers that depend on Ras and PLD for their survival.
Although the majority of ecological and experimental studies have suggested a potential role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer prevention, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. Part of the inconsistencies may be attributable to the difficulty in measuring intake levels of phytoestrogens. Overnight urine samples from 250 incident breast cancer cases and their individually matched controls were analyzed for urinary excretion rates of isoflavonoids, mammalian lignans, and citrus flavonoids. The study subjects were a subset of the participants in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a large population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai from 1996-1998. To minimize potential influence of treatment on the exposure of interest, urine samples from breast cancer cases were collected before cancer therapy. Urinary excretion of total isoflavonoids and mammalian lignans was substantially lower in breast cancer cases than in controls. The median excretion rate of total isoflavonoids was 13.97 nmol/mg creatinine in cases and 23.09 in controls (P = 0.01), and the median excretion rate of total lignans was 1.77 in cases and 4.16 in controls (P < 0.01). The risk of breast cancer was reduced with increasing excretion of total isoflavonoids (P for trend, 0.04) and total lignans (P for trend, <0.01), with adjusted odds ratios of 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.99) and 0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.64) observed for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total isoflavonoid and lignan excretion, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.50) for women who had a high excretion rate of both total lignans and isoflavonoids compared with those with a low excretion of both groups of phytoestrogens. No association was observed with citrus flavonoids. The results from this study suggest that high intake of certain phytoestrogens may reduce the risk of breast cancer.
Evidence suggests that low serum enterolactone concentration might be an independent risk factor for acute coronary events. Enterolactone is a lignan, which is formed by intestinal bacteria from precursors in plant foods. Due to the biphenolic structure of enterolactone, it could act as an antioxidant and through this contribute to cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a low serum enterolactone concentration is associated with increased in vivo lipid peroxidation, assessed by plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations. We investigated this association in a subset of participants in 'The Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention' (ASAP) study. Out of 256 male participants a subsample of 100 consecutive men from baseline was selected for F2-isoprostane assays. The mean serum enterolactone concentration was 16.6 nmol/l and that of F2-isoprostanes 29.6 ng/l. The correlation coefficient for association between serum enterolactone and F2-isoprostane concentrations was -0.30 (P<0.003). Plasma F2-isoprostane levels decreased linearly across quintiles of serum enterolactone concentration (P=0.008 for a linear trend). In a multivariate model, enterolactone persisted as a significant predictor after adjustment for vitamins and other variables, with the strongest associations with F2-isoprostanes. Our present data suggest that low serum enterolactone concentration is associated with enhanced in vivo lipid peroxidation in men.