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Specialized DNA polymerases participate in replication stress responses and in DNA repair pathways that function as barriers against cellular senescence and genomic instability. These events can be co-opted by tumor cells as a mechanism to survive chemotherapeutic and ionizing radiation treatments and as such, represent potential targets for adjuvant therapies. Previously, a high-throughput screen of ∼16,000 compounds identified several first generation proof-of-principle inhibitors of human DNA polymerase kappa (hpol κ). The indole-derived inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), MK886, was one of the most potent inhibitors of hpol κ discovered in that screen. However, the specificity and mechanism of inhibition remained largely undefined. In the current study, the specificity of MK886 against human Y-family DNA polymerases and a model B-family DNA polymerase was investigated. MK886 was found to inhibit the activity of all DNA polymerases tested with similar IC(50) values, the exception being a 6- to 8-fold increase in the potency of inhibition against human DNA polymerase iota (hpol ι), a highly error-prone enzyme that uses Hoogsteen base-pairing modes during catalysis. The specificity against hpol ι was partially abrogated by inclusion of the recently annotated 25 a.a. N-terminal extension. On the basis of Michaelis-Menten kinetic analyses and DNA binding assays, the mechanism of inhibition by MK886 appears to be mixed. In silico docking studies were used to produce a series of models for MK886 binding to Y-family members. The docking results indicate that two binding pockets are conserved between Y-family polymerases, while a third pocket near the thumb domain appears to be unique to hpol ι. Overall, these results provide insight into the general mechanism of DNA polymerase inhibition by MK886.
Cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) overproduction is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), but its mechanism is poorly understood. Because adherent platelets can convert the leukocyte-derived precursor leukotriene (LT)A(4) to LTC(4), the parent cysLT, through the terminal enzyme LTC(4) synthase, we investigated the contribution of platelet-dependent transcellular cysLT production in AERD. Nasal polyps from subjects with AERD contained many extravascular platelets that colocalized with leukocytes, and the percentages of circulating neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes with adherent platelets were markedly higher in the blood of subjects with AERD than in aspirin-tolerant controls. Platelet-adherent subsets of leukocytes had higher expression of several adhesion markers than did platelet nonadherent subsets. Adherent platelets contributed more than half of the total LTC(4) synthase activity of peripheral blood granulocytes, and they accounted for the higher level of LTC(4) generation by activated granulocytes from subjects with AERD compared with aspirin-tolerant controls. Urinary LTE(4) levels, a measure of systemic cysLT production, correlated strongly with percentages of circulating platelet-adherent granulocytes. Because platelet adherence to leukocytes allows for both firm adhesion to endothelial cells and augmented transcellular conversion of leukotrienes, a disturbance in platelet-leukocyte interactions may be partly responsible for the respiratory tissue inflammation and the overproduction of cysLTs that characterize AERD.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by recurrent episodes of vaso-occlusion, resulting in tissue ischemia and end-organ damage. Inflammation is critical to the pathogenesis of vaso-occlusion and has been associated with SCD-related morbidity and mortality. Despite the impact of inflammation, no directed anti-inflammatory therapies for the treatment or prevention of vaso-occlusive events currently exist. Among individuals with SCD, asthma is a comorbid inflammatory condition that increases the risk of pain episodes, acute chest syndrome and death. Inflammation associated with asthma could augment the proinflammatory state of SCD, increasing episodes of vaso-occlusion. Leukotrienes are inflammatory mediators that play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of asthma and have been associated with SCD-related morbidity. Targeting inflammatory mediators, such as leukotrienes, is a promising approach for the development of novel therapies for the treatment of SCD. This review will examine the relationship between inflammation and vaso-occlusion, with particular focus on the leukotriene pathway.
A physician diagnosis of asthma in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) has been associated with increased rates of pain and acute chest syndrome (ACS) episodes and premature death. Despite the clinical significance of a doctor's diagnosis of asthma in individuals with SCD, the criteria for a physician diagnosis of asthma are not well defined. Many features of asthma are common in individuals with SCD, including symptoms of wheezing, obstructive lung disease and airway hyper-responsiveness. However, it is not clear if these signs and symptoms of asthma reflect a physician diagnosis of asthma, or if these asthma features are related to SCD. Further complicating the diagnosis of asthma in children with SCD is the significant overlap in clinical manifestations between an asthma exacerbation and an ACS episode. Evidence supporting the concept that asthma and SCD are separate co-morbid conditions includes a similar prevalence of asthma between children with SCD and those in the general population and the observation that asthma is inherited in a familial pattern in the families of children with SCD. In contrast, there is significant evidence that asthma-like features may be associated with SCD without a diagnosis of asthma, including a higher than expected prevalence of airway hyper-responsiveness and obstructive lung disease. Regardless of whether SCD and asthma are distinct or overlapping co-morbid conditions, we recommend a systematic and complete evaluation of asthma when the diagnosis is suspected or when patients have multiple episodes of pain or ACS.
Monohydroxy-gamma-linolenates and arachidonates were oxidized in the presence of alpha-tocopherol and free radical initiators at 37 degrees C. The dihydroxylinolenate products were analyzed and identified by use of a combination of liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and NMR techniques. A mechanism for the formation of the dihydroxylinolenates is proposed based on product analysis of oxidations using varied concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. The mechanism for monohydroxyarachidonate oxidation is the same as that of monohydroxylinolenates. However, arachidonate diol analysis is more complicated because of the formation of additional regioisomers that are a result of the parent arachidonate possessing multiple bisallylic hydrogens.
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) play an important role in cell signaling in addition to their role in microbial killing. We have shown previously that exogenous ROI regulate activity of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in alveolar macrophages (AM). Here, we examined the role of endogenous ROI, specifically generated by NADPH oxidase, in the regulation of leukotriene (LT) synthetic capacity in AM, which from NADPH oxidase knockout (KO) mice, was significantly less than that from wild-type (WT) AM. The decrease in LT synthesis could not be explained by reduced release of the substrate for 5-LO, arachidonic acid. However, the expression of 5-LO was reduced approximately 50% in AM from NADPH oxidase KO mice compared with WT mice. Reduced 5-LO expression could be reproduced by treating WT AM with ROI scavengers and with selective pharmacologic inhibitors of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, conditioned media from WT AM augmented 5-LO metabolism in AM from NADPH oxidase KO mice. This decrease in 5-LO expression in NADPH oxidase KO cells was associated with decreased expression of the transcription factors, specificity protein-1 and early growth response-1, both of which are known to regulate 5-LO mRNA expression. These data reveal a previously unrecognized influence of endogenous ROI generated by NADPH oxidase on expression of the key LT biosynthetic protein, 5-LO. In view of the antimicrobial actions of LT, a reduction in LT synthetic capacity by AM from NADPH oxidase KO mice may contribute to the susceptibility of these animals to infection.
As befalls many mediators that act upon the human stage, leukotrienes have become identified with their most powerful roles as villains of the immune system. They are well known for their leading roles in allergic diseases, including asthma. They also have gained recognition for their dramatic role as promoters of inflammation. As new roles for these lipid messengers are sought, it is becoming apparent that the leukotrienes have been typecast as bad guys of the immune system. As examples, their more recent roles have been in atherosclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis and cancer. However, upon further evaluation, we can begin to see their versatility. Thus, leukotrienes stimulate innate immunity against pathogens. In addition, they promote the expression of mediators, receptors and other molecules that are important for immune defense. In these lesser known roles, they lead the fight against bacterial, fungal and viral infection. This review is intended to shed light on the leukotrienes, where they come from and what we really know about them.
Leukotrienes (LTs) are known to be produced by macrophages when challenged with Leishmania, but it is not known whether these lipid mediators play a role in host defense against this important protozoan parasite. In this study, we investigated the involvement of LTs in the in vitro and in vivo response to Leishmania amazonensis infection in susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (C3H/HePAS) mice. Pharmacologic or genetic deficiency of LTs resulted in impaired leishmanicidal activity of peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In contrast, addition of LTB4 increased leishmanicidal activity and this effect was dependent on the BLT1 receptor. LTB4 augmented NO production in response to L. amazonensis challenge, and studies with a NO synthesis inhibitor revealed that NO was critical for the enhancement of macrophage leishmanicidal activity. Interestingly, macrophages from resistant mice produced higher levels of LTB4 upon L. amazonensis challenge than did those from susceptible mice. In vivo infection severity, as assessed by footpad swelling following s.c. promastigote inoculation, was increased when endogenous LT synthesis was abrogated either pharmacologically or genetically. Taken together, these results for the first time reveal an important role for LTB4 in the protective response to L. amazonensis, identify relevant leishmanicidal mechanisms, and suggest that genetic variation in LTB4 synthesis might influence resistance and susceptibility patterns to infection.
Recent findings associate the control of stereochemistry in lipoxygenase (LOX) catalysis with a conserved active site alanine for S configuration hydroperoxide products, or a corresponding glycine for R stereoconfiguration. To further elucidate the mechanistic basis for this stereocontrol we compared the stereoselectivity of the initiating hydrogen abstraction in soybean LOX-1 and an Ala542Gly mutant that converts linoleic acid to both 13S and 9R configuration hydroperoxide products. Using 11R-(3)H- and 11S-(3)H-labeled linoleic acid substrates to examine the initial hydrogen abstraction, we found that all the primary hydroperoxide products were formed with an identical and highly stereoselective pro-S hydrogen abstraction from C-11 of the substrate (97-99% pro-S-selective). This strongly suggests that 9R and 13S oxygenations occur with the same binding orientation of substrate in the active site, and as the equivalent 9R and 13S products were formed from a bulky ester derivative (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine), one can infer that the orientation is tail-first. Both the EPR spectrum and the reaction kinetics were altered by the R product-inducing Ala-Gly mutation, indicating a substantial influence of this Ala-Gly substitution extending to the environment of the active site iron. To examine also the reversed orientation of substrate binding, we studied oxygenation of the 15S-hydroperoxide of arachidonic acid by the Ala542Gly mutant soybean LOX-1. In addition to the usual 5S, 15S- and 8S, 15S-dihydroperoxides, a new product was formed and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography, UV, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and NMR as 9R, 15S-dihydroperoxyeicosa-5Z,7E,11Z,13E-tetraenoic acid, the R configuration "partner" of the normal 5S,15S product. This provides evidence that both tail-first and carboxylate end-first binding of substrate can be associated with S or R partnerships in product formation in the same active site.
Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators that participate in inflammatory diseases and innate immune function. We sought to investigate the importance of LTs in regulating the microbicidal activity of alveolar macrophages (AMs) and the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs. The role of LTs in enhancing AM microbicidal activity was evaluated pharmacologically and genetically using in vitro challenge with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Exogenous LTs increased AM microbicidal activity in a dose- and receptor-dependent manner, and endogenous production of LTs was necessary for optimal killing. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was more potent than cysteinyl LTs. An important role for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase in LT-induced microbicidal activity was indicated by the fact that bacterial killing was abrogated by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 10 microM) and in AMs derived from gp91phox-deficient mice. By contrast, LT-induced microbicidal activity was independent of the generation of nitric oxide. LTs increased H2O2 production, and LTB4 was again the more potent agonist. Both classes of LTs elicited translocation of p47phox to the cell membrane, and LTB4 induced phosphorylation of p47phox in a manner dependent on protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) activity. In addition, the enhancement of microbicidal activity by LTs was also dependent on PKC-delta activity. Our results demonstrate that LTs, especially LTB4, enhanceAM microbicidal activity through the PKC-delta-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase.