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The intestines house a diverse microbiota that must compete for nutrients to survive, but the specific limiting nutrients that control pathogen colonization are not clearly defined. colonization typically requires prior disruption of the microbiota, suggesting that outcompeting commensals for resources is critical to establishing infection (CDI). The immune protein calprotectin (CP) is released into the gut lumen during CDI to chelate zinc (Zn) and other essential nutrient metals. Yet, the impact of Zn limitation on colonization is unknown. To define responses to Zn limitation, we performed RNA sequencing on exposed to CP. In medium containing CP, upregulated genes involved in metal homeostasis and amino acid metabolism. To identify CP-responsive genes important during infection, we measured the abundance of select transcripts in a mouse CDI model relative to expression Gene transcripts involved in selenium (Se)-dependent proline fermentation increased during infection and in response to CP. Increased proline fermentation gene transcription was dependent on CP Zn binding and proline availability, yet proline fermentation was only enhanced when Se was supplemented. CP-deficient mice could not restrain proline fermentation-dependent growth, suggesting that CP-mediated Zn sequestration along with limited Se restricts proline fermentation. Overall, these results highlight how colonization depends on the availability of multiple nutrients whose abundances are dynamically influenced by the host response. infection (CDI) is the leading cause of postantibiotic nosocomial infection. Antibiotic therapy can be successful, yet up to one-third of individuals suffer from recurrent infections. Understanding the mechanisms controlling colonization is paramount in designing novel treatments for primary and recurrent CDI. Here, we found that limiting nutrients control metabolism during CDI and influence overall pathogen fitness. Specifically, the immune protein CP limits Zn availability and increases transcription of genes necessary for proline fermentation. Paradoxically, this leads to reduced proline fermentation. This reduced fermentation is due to limited availability of another nutrient required for proline fermentation, Se. Therefore, CP-mediated Zn limitation combined with low Se levels overall reduce fitness in the intestines. These results emphasize the complexities of how nutrient availability influences colonization and provide insight into critical metabolic processes that drive the pathogen's growth.
Copyright © 2019 Lopez et al.
Calprotectin is a heterodimer of the proteins S100A8 and S100A9, and it is an abundant innate immune protein associated with inflammation. In humans, calprotectin transcription and protein abundance are associated with asthma and disease severity. However, mechanistic studies in experimental asthma models have been inconclusive, identifying both protective and pathogenic effects of calprotectin. To clarify the role of calprotectin in asthma, calprotectin-deficient and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were compared in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. Mice were intranasally challenged with extracts of the clinically relevant allergen, (Alt Ext), or PBS every third day over 9 days. On Day 10, BAL fluid and lung tissue homogenates were harvested and allergic airway inflammation was assessed. Alt Ext challenge induced release of S100A8/S100A9 to the alveolar space and increased protein expression in the alveolar epithelium of WT mice. Compared with WT mice, mice displayed significantly enhanced allergic airway inflammation, including production of IL-13, CCL11, CCL24, serum IgE, eosinophil recruitment, and airway resistance and elastance. In response to Alt Ext, mice accumulated significantly more IL-13IL-5CD4 T-helper type 2 cells. mice also accumulated a significantly lower proportion of CD4 T regulatory (Treg) cells in the lung that had significantly lower expression of CD25. Calprotectin enhanced WT Treg cell suppressive activity . Therefore, this study identifies a role for the innate immune protein, S100A9, in protection from CD4 T-helper type 2 cell hyperinflammation in response to Alt Ext. This protection is mediated, at least in part, by CD4 Treg cell function.
Calprotectin (CP) inhibits bacterial viability through extracellular chelation of transition metals. However, how CP influences general metabolism remains largely unexplored. We show here that CP restricts bioavailable Zn and Fe to the pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, inducing an extensive multi-metal perturbation of cellular physiology. Proteomics reveals severe metal starvation, and a strain lacking the candidate Zn metallochaperone ZigA possesses altered cellular abundance of multiple essential Zn-dependent enzymes and enzymes in de novo flavin biosynthesis. The ΔzigA strain exhibits decreased cellular flavin levels during metal starvation. Flavin mononucleotide provides regulation of this biosynthesis pathway, via a 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase (RibB) fusion protein, RibBX, and authentic RibB. We propose that RibBX ensures flavin sufficiency under CP-induced Fe limitation, allowing flavodoxins to substitute for Fe-ferredoxins as cell reductants. These studies elucidate adaptation to nutritional immunity and define an intersection between metallostasis and cellular metabolism in A. baumannii.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calprotectin is a potent antimicrobial that inhibits the growth of pathogens by tightly binding transition metals such as Mn and Zn, thereby preventing their uptake and utilization by invading microbes. At sites of infection, calprotectin is abundantly released from neutrophils, but calprotectin is also present in non-neutrophil cell types that may be relevant to infections. We show here that in patients infected with the Lyme disease pathogen Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, calprotectin is produced in neutrophil-free regions of the skin, in both epidermal keratinocytes and in immune cells infiltrating the dermis, including CD68 positive macrophages. In culture, B. burgdorferi's growth is inhibited by calprotectin, but surprisingly, the mechanism does not involve the classical withholding of metal nutrients. B. burgdorferi cells exposed to calprotectin cease growth with no reduction in intracellular Mn and no loss in activity of Mn enzymes including the SodA superoxide dismutase. Additionally, there is no obvious loss in intracellular Zn. Rather than metal depletion, we find that calprotectin inhibits B. burgdorferi growth through a mechanism that requires physical association of calprotectin with the bacteria. By comparison, calprotectin inhibited E. coli growth without physically interacting with the microbe, and calprotectin effectively depleted E. coli of intracellular Mn and Zn. Our studies with B. burgdorferi demonstrate that the antimicrobial capacity of calprotectin is complex and extends well beyond simple withholding of metal micronutrients.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - Calprotectin is a heterodimer composed of two myeloid-related proteins, S100A8 and S100A9, that is abundant in neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Faecal levels of calprotectin are used routinely to monitor inflammatory bowel disease activity.
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH - We aimed to assess the role of calprotectin in intestinal inflammation, using the dextran sulfate sodium model of colitis in mice. Calprotectin was administered (50 or 100 μg·day ) by the intrarectal or by i.p. injection (50 μg·day only). The condition of the mice was characterized by morphological and biochemical methods.
KEY RESULTS - Intrarectal calprotectin protected significantly against colitis, as shown by lower levels of macroscopic and microscopic damage, colonic myeloperoxidase activity and decreased expression of TNFα and toll-like receptor 4. IL-17 production by spleen and mesenteric lymph node cells was reduced. Calprotectin had no effect on body weight loss or colonic thickening. There were no effects of calprotectin after i.p. injection. Calprotectin had virtually no effects in control, non-colitic mice. Calprotectin had almost no effect on the colonic microbiota but enhanced barrier function. Treatment of rat IEC18 intestinal epithelial cells in vitro with calprotectin induced output of the chemokines CXL1 and CCL2, involving the receptor for advanced glycation end products- and NFκB.
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS - Calprotectin exerted protective effects in experimental colitis when given by the intrarectal route, by actions that appear to involve effects on the epithelium.
© 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.
The opportunistic fungal pathogen acquires essential metals from the host, yet the host can sequester these micronutrients through a process known as nutritional immunity. How the host withholds metals from has been poorly understood; here we examine the role of calprotectin (CP), a transition metal binding protein. When CP depletes bioavailable Zn from the extracellular environment, strongly upregulates and for Zn import and maintains constant intracellular Zn through numerous cell divisions. We show for the first time that CP can also sequester Cu by binding Cu(II) with subpicomolar affinity. CP blocks fungal acquisition of Cu from serum and induces a Cu starvation stress response involving and superoxide dismutases. These transcriptional changes are mirrored when invades kidneys in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, although the responses to Cu and Zn limitations are temporally distinct. The Cu response progresses throughout 72 h, while the Zn response is short-lived. Notably, these stress responses were attenuated in CP null mice, but only at initial stages of infection. Thus, Zn and Cu pools are dynamic at the host-pathogen interface and CP acts early in infection to restrict metal nutrients from .
Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
Diet, and specifically dietary metals, can modify the risk of infection. However, the mechanisms by which manganese (Mn), a common dietary supplement, alters infection remain unexplored. We report that dietary Mn levels dictate the outcome of systemic infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of bacterial endocarditis. Mice fed a high Mn diet display alterations in Mn levels and localization within infected tissues, and S. aureus virulence and infection of the heart are enhanced. Although the canonical mammalian Mn-sequestering protein calprotectin surrounds staphylococcal heart abscesses, calprotectin is not released into the abscess nidus and does not limit Mn in this organ. Consequently, excess Mn is bioavailable to S. aureus in the heart. Bioavailable Mn is utilized by S. aureus to detoxify reactive oxygen species and protect against neutrophil killing, enhancing fitness within the heart. Therefore, a single dietary modification overwhelms vital host antimicrobial strategies, leading to fatal staphylococcal infection.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Staphylococcus aureus is a devastating mammalian pathogen for which the development of new therapeutic approaches is urgently needed due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. During infection pathogens must overcome the dual threats of host-imposed manganese starvation, termed nutritional immunity, and the oxidative burst of immune cells. These defenses function synergistically, as host-imposed manganese starvation reduces activity of the manganese-dependent enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). S. aureus expresses two SODs, denoted SodA and SodM. While all staphylococci possess SodA, SodM is unique to S. aureus, but the advantage that S. aureus gains by expressing two apparently manganese-dependent SODs is unknown. Surprisingly, loss of both SODs renders S. aureus more sensitive to host-imposed manganese starvation, suggesting a role for these proteins in overcoming nutritional immunity. In this study, we have elucidated the respective contributions of SodA and SodM to resisting oxidative stress and nutritional immunity. These analyses revealed that SodA is important for resisting oxidative stress and for disease development when manganese is abundant, while SodM is important under manganese-deplete conditions. In vitro analysis demonstrated that SodA is strictly manganese-dependent whereas SodM is in fact cambialistic, possessing equal enzymatic activity when loaded with manganese or iron. Cumulatively, these studies provide a mechanistic rationale for the acquisition of a second superoxide dismutase by S. aureus and demonstrate an important contribution of cambialistic SODs to bacterial pathogenesis. Furthermore, they also suggest a new mechanism for resisting manganese starvation, namely populating manganese-utilizing enzymes with iron.
Although currently available data are variable, it appears that the incidence of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has not decreased significantly over the past decade. Pneumoperitoneum and clinical deterioration despite maximal medical therapy remain the most common indications for operative treatment. Robust studies linking outcomes with specific indications for operation are lacking. Promising biomarkers for severe NEC include fecal calprotectin and S100A12; serum fatty acid-binding protein; and urine biomarkers. Recent advances in ultrasonography make this imaging modality more useful in identifying surgical NEC and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being actively studied. Another fairly recent finding is that regionalization of care for infants with NEC likely improves outcomes. The neurodevelopmental outcomes after surgical treatment are known to be poor. A randomized trial near completion will provide robust data regarding neurodevelopmental outcomes after laparotomy versus drainage as the initial operative treatment for severe NEC.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Microorganisms form biofilms containing differentiated cell populations. To determine factors driving differentiation, we herein visualize protein and metal distributions within Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using imaging mass spectrometry. These in vitro experiments reveal correlations between differential protein distribution and metal abundance. Notably, zinc- and manganese-depleted portions of the biofilm repress the production of anti-staphylococcal molecules. Exposure to calprotectin (a host protein known to sequester metal ions at infectious foci) recapitulates responses occurring within metal-deplete portions of the biofilm and promotes interaction between P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Consistent with these results, the presence of calprotectin promotes co-colonization of the murine lung, and polymicrobial communities are found to co-exist in calprotectin-enriched airspaces of a cystic fibrosis lung explant. These findings, which demonstrate that metal fluctuations are a driving force of microbial community structure, have clinical implications because of the frequent occurrence of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus co-infections.