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Many effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on gene expression, including that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in monocytic cells are mediated by activation of kappa B DNA-binding proteins. However, the specific members of the NF-kappa B/Rel transcription factor family involved in the LPS response, and the mechanisms through which LPS-generated signals are transduced remain unclear. Here we show that LPS induces nuclear expression of c-Rel/p50 heterodimers as well as p50/p65 (NF-kappa B) kappa B DNA-binding complexes in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Nuclear localization of these proteins occurred concomitantly with a rapid decrease in their cytosolic levels and was independent of phorbol ester-sensitive protein kinase C. Within 24 h following LPS stimulation there was a striking increase in the levels of c-Rel, p105, and p50 in the cytosol. The increased levels of these proteins correlated with increases in the amounts of their mRNAs during LPS activation of THP-1 cells. LPS activation of THP-1 cells resulted in phosphorylation of MAD3 (an I kappa B-like protein), a rapid increase in MAD3 mRNA, and an increase in MAD3 protein by 2 h. Thus, LPS activation of human monocytic cells results in nuclear expression of c-Rel/p50 and p50/p65 (NF-kappa B) and induces phosphorylation of MAD3.
Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is the most potent known lymphokine for activating macrophages and has been shown to induce expression of HLA-DR in THP-1 cells, a monocytic tumor cell line which expresses many of the properties of monocytes, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Experiments were designed to examine, by FACS analysis and by measurement of messenger RNA levels, the molecular mechanism regulating the expression of HLA-DR molecules. The expression of HLA-DR molecules induced by IFN-gamma was blocked by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors sphingosine, staurosporine, and H7. H7 when added up to 20 hr after the initial stimulation with IFN-gamma prevented the further expression of HLA-DR. The general kinase inhibitors H8, H9, and HA1004, all less potent PKC inhibitors than H7, did not block the IFN-gamma-induced expression of HLA-DR at the concentrations employed. W7, a calmodulin antagonist, but not a PKC inhibitor, was also unable to prevent the IFN-gamma-induced expression of HLA-DR. Treatment of THP-1 with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a direct activator of PKC, alone or with Ca2+ ionophore A23187, was unable to induce HLA-DR expression. However, pretreatment with PMA for 24 hr prior to IFN-gamma stimulation decreased the IFN-gamma-induced expression of HLA-DR without decreasing IFN-gamma receptor levels. These results suggest that PKC plays a significant role in the IFN-gamma-induced signal transduction pathway leading to the expression of HLA-DR in cells of the mononuclear phagocytic lineage, and that PKC activity is required throughout the course of events leading to the actual expression of HLA-DR.
Nineteen of 71 (26%) cases of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were found to express CD7, a cell surface marker found early during T lineage differentiation. These myeloid leukemias often expressed other lymphoid markers and frequently had rearranged T-cell receptor beta and immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. We propose that in CD7+ AML, the malignant transformation occurred in a CD7+ progenitor cell. CD7+ myeloid leukemic precursors may be capable of limited differentiation with loss of CD7 during the initial phase of the disease, but this capacity may diminish during the course of treatment such that CD7 expression persists.