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Although currently available data are variable, it appears that the incidence of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has not decreased significantly over the past decade. Pneumoperitoneum and clinical deterioration despite maximal medical therapy remain the most common indications for operative treatment. Robust studies linking outcomes with specific indications for operation are lacking. Promising biomarkers for severe NEC include fecal calprotectin and S100A12; serum fatty acid-binding protein; and urine biomarkers. Recent advances in ultrasonography make this imaging modality more useful in identifying surgical NEC and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being actively studied. Another fairly recent finding is that regionalization of care for infants with NEC likely improves outcomes. The neurodevelopmental outcomes after surgical treatment are known to be poor. A randomized trial near completion will provide robust data regarding neurodevelopmental outcomes after laparotomy versus drainage as the initial operative treatment for severe NEC.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Laparoscopic left pancreatectomy (LLP) is associated with favorable outcomes compared with open left pancreatectomy (OLP). However, it is unclear if the risk factors associated with operative morbidity differ between these two techniques. Guidelines for determining which patients should undergo OLP versus LLP do not exist.
METHODS - A multi-institutional analysis of OLP and LLP performed in 9 academic medical centers was undertaken. LLP cases were defined in an intent-to-treat manner. Perioperative variables were analyzed to identify factors associated with complications and pancreatic fistulae after OLP and LLP. In addition, complication and fistula rates for patients undergoing OLP and LLP were compared in matched cohorts to determine if one approach resulted in superior outcomes over the other.
RESULTS - Six hundred and ninety-three left pancreatectomy cases (439 OLP, 254 LLP) were analyzed. OLP and LLP cases were similar with respect to patient age and American Society of Anesthesiologists score. Body mass index (BMI) was higher in patients undergoing LLP. OLP was more often performed for adenocarcinoma and larger tumors, resulted in longer resected specimen lengths, and more commonly involved concomitant splenectomy. Estimated blood loss was higher and operative times were longer during OLP. On multivariate analysis, variables associated with major complications and clinically significant fistulae differed between OLP and LLP. Patients with body mass index ≤27, without adenocarcinoma, and with pancreatic specimen length ≤8.5 cm had significantly higher rates of significant fistulae after OLP than after LLP; in contrast, no preoperatively evaluable variables were associated with a higher likelihood of significant fistula after LLP versus OLP.
CONCLUSIONS - Risk factors for complications and pancreatic fistulae after left pancreatectomy differ when open versus laparoscopic techniques are employed. Preoperative characteristics may identify cohorts of patients who will benefit more from LLP, and no patient cohorts had higher postoperative complication rates after LLP than OLP. These observations suggest that LLP may be the operative procedure of choice for most patients with left-sided pancreatic lesions; a more definitive prospective and randomized comparison may be warranted.
@ 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Traditional staged closure of the damage control abdomen frequently results in a ventral hernia, need for delayed abdominal wall reconstruction, and risk of multiple complications. We examined the potential benefits in children of early fascial closure of the damage control abdomen using human acellular dermal matrix (HADM). We reviewed our experience with five consecutive children sustaining intra-abdominal catastrophe and managed with damage control celiotomy. To accomplish early definitive abdominal closure, HADM was sewn in place as a fascial substitute; the skin and subcutaneous layers were approximated over silicone drains. The five patients ranged in age from 1 month to 19 years at the time of presentation. Intra-abdominal catastrophes included complex bowel injuries after blunt trauma in two children, necrotizing pancreatitis and gastric perforation in one teenager, necrotizing enterocolitis in one premature infant, and perforated typhlitis in one adolescent. All damage control wounds were dirty. Time range from initial celiotomy to definitive abdominal closure was 6 to 9 days. After definitive closure, one child developed a superficial wound infection. No patient developed a ventral hernia. After damage control celiotomy in children, early abdominal wall closure using HADM may minimize comq plications associated with delayed closure techniques and the need for additional procedures.
PURPOSE - The potential benefits of laparoscopic pyeloplasty may recede in younger age groups. We used a multi-institutional database to address the effect of laparoscopic approach on length of stay and postoperative parenteral narcotic use in specific pediatric age groups.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - We performed a retrospective study of 5,261 children with an ICD-9 procedure code for correction of ureteropelvic junction obstruction from the Pediatric Health Information System, a database of freestanding pediatric hospitals. Discharge dates from January 1, 2002 to June 30, 2007 were included. Laparoscopic cases were identified by ICD-9 procedure codes and hospital equipment charges. We used multivariate linear regression to investigate the effect of laparoscopic approach on length of stay and parenteral narcotic use in several age categories, including infant (1 month to less than 2 years old), preschool (2 to less than 6 years), grade school (6 to less than 10 years), preadolescent (10 to less than 13 years) and adolescent (13 to less than 19 years).
RESULTS - Laparoscopic approach decreased length of stay and number of parenteral narcotic pharmacy charges in the preadolescent (p = 0.03 and p = 0.005, respectively) and adolescent (p = 0.03 and p = 0.006, respectively) groups but not in any of the younger groups.
CONCLUSIONS - Laparoscopic approach was associated with a shorter hospital stay and decreased parenteral narcotic use in patients older than 10 years. Evolving technique may reveal less morbidity in younger patients. Future comparisons to open pyeloplasty should address specific pediatric age groups and outpatient convalescence.
OBJECTIVE - To review systematically all prospective, randomized trials published in English quantifying the success of reclosure of the disrupted laparotomy wound.
DATA SOURCES - The MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases were searched from 1966 to 2004. References were hand-searched and their authors contacted to identify all published and unpublished eligible studies.
METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION - We included all prospective, randomized trials measuring successful reclosure of disrupted laparotomy wounds in human subjects. Studies with fascial disruption, subfascial abscess, or ongoing contamination were excluded. Of over 2,098 potentially relevant articles, 8 were included, incorporating 348 patients.
TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS - Two authors determined study inclusion. One investigator abstracted data, and a second checked for accuracy. The main outcome was successful healing after wound reclosure. Timing of reclosure, utility of antibiotics, and reclosure techniques were also analyzed. Successful healing after reclosure ranged between 81% and 100%. Failed healing included both superficial wound separation and reaccumulation of abscess. No serious morbidity or mortality was reported. Compared with healing by secondary intention, reclosure resulted in faster healing times (16-23 days versus 61-72 days), and in the one study that evaluated it, 6.4 fewer office visits. The optimal timing and technique for reclosure and the utility of antibiotics were inconclusive.
CONCLUSION - Reclosure of disrupted laparotomy wounds was successful in over 80% of patients. Failed reclosure resulted in no life-threatening complications. Reclosure of disrupted laparotomy wounds is safe and decreases healing times.
Mesenteric inflammatory veno-occlusive disease (MIVOD) is a rare cause of mesenteric ischemia that is diagnosed by histologic examination of the operative specimen. Recurrence of symptoms occurs, but further resection of ischemic intestine is seldom required. We describe the case of MIVOD in a young patient with clinical findings of ischemic colitis. The patient experienced complete resolution of the process, thus confirming the relatively benign course of this disease following resection. This report substantiates resolution of the inflammatory process after resection, colostomy, and reanastomosis. We review the literature and make conclusions regarding the clinical management of this disease.
BACKGROUND - Actinomycotic pelvic infection usually occurs in the presence of an intrauterine device. It can result in pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscess, and retroperitoneal fibrosis.
CASE - A 35-year-old multipara who had never used an intrauterine device presented with a 5-month history of progressively worsening, colicky, right-sided abdominal pain, dysuria, weight loss, and constipation. She was found to have retroperitoneal fibrosis. The diagnosis of actinomycotic pelvic infection was made at laparotomy.
CONCLUSION - Actinomycosis may be considered in the differential diagnosis of women with retroperitoneal fibrosis, even when there is no history of an intrauterine device.
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION - To review our management experience with uterine mixed mullerian tumors (MMTs) in order to evaluate potential prognostic indicators, and assess the efficacy of various treatment modalities.
METHODS - A retrospective, clinicopathologic evaluation of 43 patients presenting for treatment of uterine MMTs between 1982 and 1992 was conducted. Diagnostic criteria for inclusion was the presence of both a malignant glandular or squamous epithelial component, and a homologous or heterologous stromal component.
RESULTS - Overall 2- and 5-year cancer related Kaplan-Meier survival estimates with 95% confidence intervals were 44 (.28, .59) and 26% [.12, .39], respectively. Survivals were 83 [.62, .99] and 58% [.31, .85] when disease was confined to the uterus, and 22 [.03, .41] and 7% [.01, .20] when disease extended beyond the uterus. Clinical staging was often inaccurate, with 29% of clinical stage I or II disease being upstaged at laparotomy. A significant survival advantage was found in patients with stage I or II disease treated with surgery plus pelvic irradiation (p = 0.001), as compared to those treated with surgery alone. The prognosis after disease recurrence was poor, irrespective of secondary therapy, with a median survival of 11 months.
CONCLUSIONS - A therapeutic advantage may be gained from postoperative pelvic irradiation in the treatment of surgical stage I or II uterine MMT.
BACKGROUND - The optimal management of patients with renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus remains unresolved. Traditional approaches have included resection with or without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Chemotherapy has played a minor role except for biotherapeutic agents used for metastatic disease.
METHODS - From January 1989 to January 1996, 37 patients with renal cell carcinoma and inferior vena cava tumor thrombus underwent surgical resection. The 27 men and 10 women had a median age of 57 years (range, 29 to 78 years). Thirty-six patients presented with symptoms; 21 had hematuria. Distant metastases were present in 12 patients. Tumor thrombi extended to the infrahepatic inferior vena cava (n = 16), the intrahepatic inferior vena cava (n = 16), the suprahepatic inferior vena cava (n = 3), and into the right atrium (n = 2). All tumors were resected by inferior vena cava isolation and, when necessary, extended hepatic mobilization and Pringle maneuver, with primary or patch closure of the vena cavotomy. Cardiopulmonary bypass was necessary in only 2 patients with intraatrial thrombus.
RESULTS - Complications occurred in 11 patients, and 1 patient died 2 days postoperatively of a myocardial infarction (mortality, 2.7%). Twenty patients are alive; overall 2- and 5-year survival rates were 61.7% and 33.6%, respectively. For patients without lymph node or distant metastases (stage IIIa), 2- and 5-year survival rates were 74% and 45%, respectively. The presence of distant metastatic disease (stage IV) at the time of operation did not have a significant adverse effect on survival, as reflected by 2- and 5-year survival rates of 62.5% and 31.3%, respectively. Lymph node metastases (stage IIIc) adversely affected survival as there were no long-term survivors.
CONCLUSIONS - Resection of an intracaval tumor thrombus arising from renal cell carcinoma can be performed safely and can result in prolonged survival even in the presence of metastatic disease. In our experience, extracorporeal circulatory support was required only when the tumor thrombus extended into the heart.