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Purpose This study examined the impact of home use of remote microphone systems (RMSs) on caregiver communication and child vocalizations in families of children with hearing loss. Method We drew on data from a prior study in which Language ENvironmental Analysis recorders were used with 9 families during 2 consecutive weekends-1 that involved using an RMS and 1 that did not. Audio samples from Language ENvironmental Analysis recorders were (a) manually coded to quantify the frequency of verbal repetitions and alert phrases caregivers utilized in communicating to children with hearing loss and (b) automatically analyzed to quantify children's vocalization rate, duration, complexity, and reciprocity when using and not using an RMS. Results When using an RMS at home, caregivers did not repeat or clarify their statements as often as when not using an RMS while communicating with their children with hearing loss. However, no between-condition differences were observed in children's vocal characteristics. Conclusions Results provide further support for home RMS use for children with hearing loss. Specifically, findings lend empirical support to prior parental reports suggesting that RMS use eases caregiver communication in the home setting. Studies exploring RMS use over a longer duration of time might provide further insight into potential long-term effects on children's vocal production.
BACKGROUND - Perinatal hemorrhagic stroke in late preterm and term neonates is understudied. We describe two-month and two-year neurological outcomes in a prospective cohort.
METHODS - Neonates ≥36 weeks' gestation with spontaneous hemorrhagic stroke (parenchymal and intraventricular) presenting at age ≤28 days were enrolled between March 2007 and May 2015 at three tertiary pediatric centers. Hemorrhagic transformation of arterial ischemic stroke or cerebral sinovenous thrombosis was excluded. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) assessed outcomes. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests evaluated change over time.
RESULTS - Twenty-six neonates were included (median age: 1 day, interquartile range [IQR] 0 to 16; median gestational age: 38.3 weeks, IQR 37.0 to 39.0). Hemorrhage was isolated intraventricular in seven (27%), isolated intraparenchymal in six (23%), and a combination in 10 (39%). Three neonates (12%) died during hospitalization; one died later due to cardiac disease. Among 22 survivors, outcomes were assessed at a median of 2.1 months (IQR 1.7 to 3.3) in 96% and 1.9 years (IQR 1.3 to 2.0) in 73%. Median PSOM scores were 0.0 (IQR 0.0 to 1.0) and 0.25 (IQR 0.0 to 1.3), respectively. At two years, 45% of patients had no or nonimpairing deficits (PSOM <1.0), 30% had mild deficits (PSOM 1.0 to 2.0), and 5% had moderate deficits (PSOM 2.5 to 4.5). Over time, 31% worsened and 6% improved. Although total PSOM scores did not change significantly (P = 0.08), language subscores worsened (P = 0.009). No child developed epilepsy.
CONCLUSIONS - Perinatal hemorrhagic stroke survivors had favorable outcomes in early childhood; at two years moderate to severe deficits occurred in 5%. Language deficits may emerge over time, warranting close follow-up.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Purpose Recovery from aphasia is thought to depend on neural plasticity, that is, functional reorganization of surviving brain regions such that they take on new or expanded roles in language processing. To make progress in characterizing the nature of this process, we need feasible, reliable, and valid methods for identifying language regions of the brain in individuals with aphasia. This article reviews 3 recent studies from our lab in which we have developed and validated several novel functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigms for language mapping in aphasia. Method In the 1st study, we investigated the reliability and validity of 4 language mapping paradigms in neurologically normal older adults. In the 2nd study, we developed a novel adaptive semantic matching paradigm and assessed its feasibility, reliability, and validity in individuals with and without aphasia. In the 3rd study, we developed and evaluated 2 additional adaptive paradigms-rhyme judgment and syllable counting-for mapping phonological encoding regions. Results We found that the adaptive semantic matching paradigm could be performed by most individuals with aphasia and yielded reliable and valid maps of core perisylvian language regions in each individual participant. The psychometric properties of this paradigm were superior to those of other commonly used paradigms such as narrative comprehension and picture naming. The adaptive rhyme judgment paradigm was capable of identifying fronto-parietal phonological encoding regions in individual participants. Conclusion Adaptive language mapping paradigms offer a promising approach for future research on the neural basis of recovery from aphasia. Presentation Video https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.10257584.
Purpose We examined associations between vocal communication with canonical syllables and expressive language and then examined 2 potential alternative explanations for such associations. Method Specifically, we tested whether the associations remained when excluding canonical syllables in identifiable words and controlling for the number of communication acts. Participants included 68 preverbal or low verbal children with autism spectrum disorder ( = 35.26 months). Results Vocal communication with canonical syllables and expressive language were concurrently and longitudinally associated with moderate to strong (s = .13-.70) and significant (s < .001) effect sizes. Even when excluding spoken words from the vocal predictor and controlling for the number of communication acts, vocal communication with canonical syllables predicted expressive language. Conclusions The findings provide increased support for measuring vocal communication with canonical syllables and for examining a causal relation between vocal communication with canonical syllables and expressive language in children with ASD who are preverbal or low verbal. In future studies, it may be unnecessary to eliminate identifiable words when measuring vocal communication in this population. Following replication, vocal communication with canonical syllables may be considered when making intervention- planning decisions.
To identify valid measures of vocal development in young children with autism spectrum disorder in the early stages of language learning, we evaluated the convergent validity, divergent validity, and sensitivity to change (across 12 months) of two measures of vocal communication and two measures of vocal complexity through conventional coding of communication samples. Participants included 87 children with autism spectrum disorder (M = 23.42 months at entry). All four vocal variables demonstrated consistent evidence of convergent validity, divergent validity, and sensitivity to change with large effect sizes for convergent validity and sensitivity to change. The results highlight the value of measuring vocal communication and vocal complexity in future studies.
The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is a critical region in reading. According to the interactive account of reading, the vOT is an interface between the lower-level visual regions and higher-level language areas. One prediction of the interactive account is that orthographic activation in vOT should be automatically influenced by semantics and phonology. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a masked priming paradigm with a relatively short duration (150 ms) to examine whether language information automatically influences vOT during Chinese reading. Participants were asked to perform a lexical decision task on target characters. We separately tested the phonological and semantic influence on orthographic processing in vOT. Brain activation analyses showed that the activation of vOT was modulated by semantic information. In addition, a functional connectivity analysis showed stronger connectivity between vOT and the left ventral inferior frontal gyrus was modulated by semantic information. These findings provided converging evidence for the existence of an automatic semantic influence on vOT during reading, supporting the interactive account. Our study did not show a phonological effect either in the activation of or connectivity with vOT. Taken together, these results reflect the unique processes of Chinese reading, which relies more on the mapping between orthography and semantics, as compared to the orthographic to phonology mapping.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW - Aphasia is often characterized in terms of subtype and severity, yet these constructs have limited explanatory power, because aphasia is inherently multifactorial both in its neural substrates and in its symptomatology. The purpose of this review is to survey current and emerging multivariate approaches to understanding aphasia.
RECENT FINDINGS - Techniques such as factor analysis and principal component analysis have been used to define latent underlying factors that can account for performance on batteries of speech and language tests, and for characteristics of spontaneous speech production. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping has been shown to outperform univariate approaches to lesion-symptom mapping for identifying brain regions where damage is associated with specific speech and language deficits. It is increasingly clear that structural damage results in functional changes in wider neural networks, which mediate speech and language outcomes. Multivariate statistical approaches are essential for understanding the complex relationships between the neural substrates of aphasia, and resultant profiles of speech and language function.
Purpose Auditory-perceptual assessment, in which trained listeners rate a large number of perceptual features of speech samples, is the gold standard for the differential diagnosis of motor speech disorders. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying a similar, formalized auditory-perceptual approach to the assessment of language deficits in connected speech samples from individuals with aphasia. Method Twenty-seven common features of connected speech in aphasia were defined, each of which was rated on a 5-point scale. Three experienced researchers evaluated 24 connected speech samples from the AphasiaBank database, and 12 student clinicians evaluated subsets of 8 speech samples each. We calculated interrater reliability for each group of raters and investigated the validity of the auditory-perceptual approach by comparing feature ratings to related quantitative measures derived from transcripts and clinical measures, and by examining patterns of feature co-occurrence. Results Most features were rated with good-to-excellent interrater reliability by researchers and student clinicians. Most features demonstrated strong concurrent validity with respect to quantitative connected speech measures computed from AphasiaBank transcripts and/or clinical aphasia battery subscores. Factor analysis showed that 4 underlying factors, which we labeled Paraphasia, Logopenia, Agrammatism, and Motor Speech, accounted for 79% of the variance in connected speech profiles. Examination of individual patients' factor scores revealed striking diversity among individuals classified with a given aphasia type. Conclusion Auditory-perceptual rating of connected speech in aphasia shows potential to be a comprehensive, efficient, reliable, and valid approach for characterizing connected speech in aphasia.
Purpose The impact of home use of a remote microphone system (RMS) on the caregiver production of, and child access to, child-directed speech (CDS) in families with a young child with hearing loss was investigated. Method We drew upon extant data that were collected via Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) recorders used with 9 families during 2 consecutive weekends (RMS weekend and no-RMS weekend). Audio recordings of primary caregivers and their children with hearing loss obtained while wearing and not wearing an RMS were manually coded to estimate the amount of CDS produced. The proportion of CDS that was likely accessible to children with hearing loss under both conditions was determined. Results Caregivers produced the same amount of CDS when using and when not using the RMS. However, it was concluded that children with hearing loss, on average, could potentially access 12% more CDS if caregivers used an RMS because of their distance from their children when talking to them. Conclusion Given our understanding of typical child language development, findings from this investigation suggest that children with hearing loss could receive auditory, speech, and language benefits from the use of an RMS in the home environment.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate if higher quantity, diversity, and grammatical informativeness of verb phrases in parent follow-in utterances (i.e., utterances that mapped onto child attentional leads) were significantly related to later expressive verb vocabulary in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method We examined these associations in a sample of 31 toddlers with ASD and their parents in a longitudinal correlational study. Key aspects of parents' verb input were measured in 2 video-recorded 15-min parent-child free-play sessions. Child expressive verb vocabulary was measured using parent report. Results An aggregate variable composed of the quantity, diversity, and grammatical informativeness of parent verb input in follow-in utterances across the 2 parent-child sessions strongly and positively predicted later child expressive verb vocabulary, total R = .25, even when early child expressive verb vocabulary was controlled, R change = .17. Parent follow-in utterances without verbs were not significantly related to later child expressive verb vocabulary, R = .001. Conclusions These correlational findings are initial steps toward developing a knowledge base for how strong verb vocabulary skills might be facilitated in children with ASD.