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IMPORTANCE - The PIK3CA mutation is one of the most common mutations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Through this research we attempt to elicit the role of oncogene dependence and effects of targeted therapy on this PIK3CA mutation.
OBJECTIVES - (1) To determine the role of oncogene dependence on PIK3CA-one of the more common and targetable oncogenes in HNSCC, and (2) to evaluate the consequence of this oncogene on the effectiveness of newly developed targeted therapies.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS - This was a cell culture-based, in vitro study performed at an academic research laboratory assessing the viability of PIK3CA-mutated head and neck cell lines when treated with targeted therapy.
EXPOSURES - PIK3CA-mutated head and neck cell lines were treated with 17-AAG, GDC-0941, trametinib, and BEZ-235.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES - Assessment of cell viability of HNSCC cell lines characterized for PIK3CA mutations or SCC25 cells engineered to express the PIK3CA hotspot mutations E545K or H1047R.
RESULTS - Surprisingly, in engineered cell lines, the hotspot E545K and H1047R mutations conferred increased, rather than reduced, IC50 assay measurements when treated with the respective HSP90, PI3K, and MEK inhibitors, 17-AAG, GDC-0941, and trametinib, compared with the SCC25 control cell lines. When treated with BEZ-235, H1047R-expressing cell lines showed increased sensitivity to inhibition compared with control, whereas those expressing E545K showed slightly increased sensitivity of unclear significance.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE - (1) The PIK3CA mutations within our engineered cell model did not lead to enhanced oncogene-dependent cell death when treated with direct inhibition of the PI3K enzyme yet did show increased sensitivity compared with control with dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition. (2) Oncogene addiction to PIK3CA hotspot mutations, if it occurs, is likely to evolve in vivo in the context of additional molecular changes that remain to be identified. Additional study is required to develop new model systems and approaches to determine the role of targeted therapy in the treatment of PI3K-overactive HNSCC tumors.
Hsp90 is widely overexpressed in cancer cells and believed to be essential for the maintenance of malignant phenotypes. Targeting Hsp90 by small molecules has shown promise in solid and hematologic malignancies, which likely involves degradation of client oncoproteins in a cell-type-specific manner. In this study, we found that structurally unrelated Hsp90 inhibitors induce DNA damage and apoptosis via p53-dependent induction of PUMA, which indirectly triggers Bax activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in colon cancer cells. Deficiency in PUMA, BAX, or p53, at lesser extent, abrogated 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction, and enhanced clonogenic cell survival. Furthermore, suppression of p53-dependent p21 induction or enhanced p53 activation synergized with 17-AAG to induce PUMA-dependent apoptosis. Finally, PUMA was found to mediate apoptotic and therapeutic responses to the 17-AAG analog 17-DMAG in xenografts. These results show an important role of the p53/PUMA/Bax axis in Hsp90 inhibitor-induced killing of p53 wild-type cells, and have important implications for their clinical applications.
Proteomic analyses of protein-electrophile adducts generally employ affinity capture of the adduct moiety, which enables global analyses, but is poorly suited to targeted studies of specific proteins. We describe a targeted molecular probe approach to study modifications of the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which regulates diverse client proteins. Noncovalent affinity capture with a biotinyl analog of the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin enables detection of the native protein isoforms Hsp90α and Hsp90β and their phosphorylated forms. We applied this probe to map and quantify adducts formed on Hsp90 by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in RKO cells. This approach was also applied to measure the kinetics of site-specific adduction of selected Hsp90 residues. A protein-selective affinity capture approach is broadly applicable for targeted analysis of electrophile adducts and their biological effects.
Inhibition of the HSP90 chaperone leads to degradation of the HER2 receptor. The HSP90 inhibitor tanespimycin in combination with trastuzumab is active in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. This combination is one of several HER2-targeted therapies that will significantly improve the outcome of patients with this subtype of breast cancer.
Aberrant interactions between heat shock protein (Hsp)90 and its client proteins could contribute to pulmonary hypertension. We tested the hypotheses that 1) the interaction between Hsp90 and its known client protein, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is impaired in pulmonary resistance arteries (PRAs) from piglets with pulmonary hypertension caused by exposure to 3 or 10 days of hypoxia and 2) Hsp90 interacts with the prostanoid pathway proteins prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) and/or thromboxane synthase (TXAS). We also determined whether Hsp90 antagonism with geldanamycin alters the agonist-induced synthesis of prostacyclin and thromboxane or alters PRA responses to these prostaglandin metabolites. Compared with normoxic piglets, less eNOS coimmunoprecipitated with Hsp90 in PRAs from hypoxic piglets. Despite reduced Hsp90-eNOS interactions, dilation to ACh was enhanced in geldanamycin-treated PRAs from hypoxic, but not normoxic, piglets. In PRAs from all groups of piglets, PGIS and TXAS coimmunoprecipitated with Hsp90. Geldanamycin reduced the ACh-induced synthesis of prostacyclin and thromboxane and altered responses to the thromboxane mimetic U-46619 in PRAs from all groups. Although geldanamycin enhanced responses to prostacyclin in PRAs from both groups of hypoxic piglets, geldanamycin had no effect on prostacyclin responses in PRAs from either group of normoxic piglets. Our findings indicate that Hsp90 influences both prostanoid and eNOS signaling in the pulmonary circulation of newborn piglets and that the impact of pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 on these signaling pathways is altered during exposure to chronic hypoxia.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces autophosphorylation and downstream progrowth and prosurvival signaling from the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkA. Overexpression or activating mutation of TrkA has been described in human acute myeloid leukemia cells. In the present study, we show the chaperone association of TrkA with heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and the inhibitory effect of the hsp90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, on TrkA levels and signaling in cultured and primary myeloid leukemia cells. Treatment with 17-DMAG disrupted the binding of TrkA with hsp90 and the cochaperone cdc37, resulting in polyubiquitylation, proteasomal degradation, and depletion of TrkA. Exposure to 17-DMAG inhibited NGF-induced p-TrkA, p-AKT, and p-ERK1/2 levels, as well as induced apoptosis of K562, 32D cells with ectopic expression of wild-type TrkA or the constitutively active mutant Delta TrkA, and of primary myeloid leukemia cells. Additionally, 17-DMAG treatment inhibited NGF-induced neurite formation in the rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells. Cotreatment with 17-DMAG and K-252a, an inhibitor of TrkA-mediated signaling, induced synergistic loss of viability of cultured and primary myeloid leukemia cells. These findings show that TrkA is an hsp90 client protein, and inhibition of hsp90 depletes TrkA and its progrowth and prosurvival signaling in myeloid leukemia cells. These findings also support further evaluation of the combined activity of an hsp90 inhibitor and TrkA antagonist against myeloid leukemia cells.
(c) 2010 AACR.
BACKGROUND - Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a C-type lectin involved in surfactant homeostasis as well as host defense in the lung. We have recently demonstrated that SP-A enhances the killing of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) by rat macrophages through a nitric oxide-dependent pathway. In the current study we have investigated the role of tyrosine kinases and the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, and the transcription factor NFkappaB in mediating the enhanced signaling in response to BCG in the presence of SP-A.
METHODS - Human SP-A was prepared from alveolar proteinosis fluid, and primary macrophages were obtained by maturation of cells from whole rat bone marrow. BCG-SP-A complexes were routinely prepared by incubation of a ratio of 20 microg of SP-A to 5 x 105 BCG for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Cells were incubated with PBS, SP-A, BCG, or SP-A-BCG complexes for the times indicated. BCG killing was assessed using a 3H-uracil incorporation assay. Phosphorylated protein levels, enzyme assays, and secreted mediator assays were conducted using standard immunoblot and biochemical methods as outlined.
RESULTS - Involvement of tyrosine kinases was demonstrated by herbimycin A-mediated inhibition of the SP-A-enhanced nitric oxide production and BCG killing. Following infection of macrophages with BCG, the MAPK family members ERK1 and ERK2 were activated as evidence by increased tyrosine phosphorylation and enzymatic activity, and this activation was enhanced when the BCG were opsonized with SP-A. An inhibitor of upstream kinases required for ERK activation inhibited BCG- and SP-A-BCG-enhanced production of nitric oxide by approximately 35%. Macrophages isolated from transgenic mice expressing a NFkappaB-responsive luciferase gene showed increased luciferase activity following infection with BCG, and this activity was enhanced two-fold in the presence of SP-A. Finally, lactacystin, an inhibitor of IkappaB degradation, reduced BCG- and SP-A-BCG-induced nitric oxide production by 60% and 80% respectively.
CONCLUSION - These results demonstrate that BCG and SP-A-BCG ingestion by macrophages is accompanied by activation of signaling pathways involving the MAP kinase pathway and NFkappaB.
PURPOSE - High-frequency microsatellite-instable (MSI-H) tumors account for approximately 15% of colorectal cancers. Therapeutic decisions for colorectal cancer are empirically based and currently do not emphasize molecular subclassification despite an increasing collection of gene expression information. Our objective was to identify low molecular weight compounds with preferential activity against MSI colorectal cancers using combined gene expression data sets.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - Three expression/query signatures (discovery data set) characterizing MSI-H colorectal cancer were matched with information derived from changes induced in cell lines by 164 compounds using the systems biology tool "Connectivity Map." A series of sequential filtering and ranking algorithms were used to select the candidate compounds. Compounds were validated using two additional expression/query signatures (validation data set). Cytotoxic, cell cycle, and apoptosis effects of validated compounds were evaluated in a panel of cell lines.
RESULTS - Fourteen of the 164 compounds were validated as targeting MSI-H cell lines using the bioinformatics approach; rapamycin, LY-294002, 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, and trichostatin A were the most robust candidate compounds. In vitro results showed that MSI-H cell lines due to hypermethylation of MLH1 are preferentially targeted by rapamycin (18.3 versus 4.4 mumol/L; P = 0.0824) and LY-294002 (15.02 versus 10.37 mumol/L; P = 0.0385) when compared with microsatellite-stable cells. Preferential activity was also observed in MSH2 and MSH6 mutant cells.
CONCLUSION - Our study shows that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is of special relevance in mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer. In addition, we show that amalgamation of gene expression information across studies provides a robust approach for selection of potential therapies corresponding to specific groups of patients.
The geldanamycin derivatives 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) are promising chemotherapeutic drugs that inhibit heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) function. Previous studies have shown that 17-AAG/DMAG treatment induces the degradation of mutant BRAF (V600E) and inhibits the activation of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2). We have found, however, that HSP90 inhibition alone is not sufficient for efficient BRAF(V600E) degradation in some cells. HSP90 inhibitors structurally unrelated to geldanamycin, radicicol and novobiocin, while inducing the degradation of the HSP90 client protein RAF-1 fail to induce BRAF(V600E) degradation or inhibit MEK1/2 activation in HT29 human colon cancer cells. Moreover, after treatment with 17-DMAG, the kinase activity of residual, undegraded BRAF(V600E) was also lost. Incubation of cells with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine, partially restored kinase activity and also partially prevented BRAF(V600E) degradation due to 17-DMAG treatment. Conversely, treatment with the ROS producing drug menadione clearly inhibited MEK1/2 and reduced BRAF(V600E). These results suggest that in addition to direct inhibition of HSP90, the antitumor effect of geldanamycin and its derivatives is also mediated though the production of ROS, which may directly inactivate tumorigenic mutant BRAF(V600E).
BACKGROUND - The EGFR T790M mutation confers acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors in human EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, is occasionally detected before treatment, and may confer genetic susceptibility to lung cancer.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS - To study further its role in lung tumorigenesis, we developed mice with inducible expression in type II pneumocytes of EGFR(T790M) alone or together with a drug-sensitive L858R mutation. Both transgenic lines develop lung adenocarcinomas that require mutant EGFR for tumor maintenance but are resistant to an EGFR kinase inhibitor. EGFR(L858R+T790M)-driven tumors are transiently targeted by hsp90 inhibition. Notably, EGFR(T790M)-expressing animals develop tumors with longer latency than EGFR(L858R+T790M)-bearing mice and in the absence of additional kinase domain mutations.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE - These new mouse models of mutant EGFR-dependent lung adenocarcinomas provide insight into clinical observations. The models should also be useful for developing improved therapies for patients with lung cancers harboring EGFR(T790M) alone or in conjunction with drug-sensitive EGFR kinase domain mutations.