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OBJECTIVE - Factor XI (FXI) promotes hemostasis and thrombosis through enhancement of thrombin generation and has been shown to play a critical role in the formation of occlusive thrombi in arterial injury models. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms governing interactions between FXI and platelets.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Platelet adhesion to immobilized FXI was abrogated in the presence of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor antagonist, receptor-associated protein (RAP), soluble recombinant apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2), or the LDL-binding domain 1 or 2 of ApoER2. FXI supported wild-type murine platelet binding; in contrast, ApoER2-deficient murine platelets did not adhere to FXI. In the presence of shear, platelet aggregates formed on FXI or activated FXI (FXIa) surfaces, whereas the presence of RAP, binding domain 1 of ApoER2, or an anti-GPIb alpha mAb blocked platelet adhesion to FXI or FXIa under shear. Soluble FXI bound to immobilized ApoER2' with an affinity of 61 nmol/L.
CONCLUSIONS - This study has identified apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2, LRP8), a member of the LDL receptor family, as a platelet receptor for FXI. The interaction of FXI with other cell types that express ApoER2 remains to be explored.
Factor XI (FXI) is a homodimeric plasma zymogen that is cleaved at two internal Arg(369)-Ile(370) bonds by thrombin, factor XIIa, or factor XIa. FXI circulates as a complex with the glycoprotein high molecular weight kininogen (HK). FXI binds to specific sites (K(d) = approximately 10 nM, B(max) = approximately 1,500/platelet) on the surface of stimulated platelets, where it is efficiently activated by thrombin. The FXI Apple 3 (A3) domain mediates binding to platelets in the presence of HK and zinc ions (Zn(2+)) or prothrombin and calcium ions. The platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex is the receptor for FXI. Using surface plasmon resonance, we determined that FXI binds specifically to glycocalicin, the extracellular domain of GPIbalpha, in a Zn(2+)-dependent fashion (K(d) = approximately 52 nM). We now show that recombinant FXI A3 domain inhibits FXI inbinding to glycocalicin in the presence of Zn(2+), whereas the recombinant FXI A1, A2, or A4 domains have no effect. Experiments with full-length recombinant FXI mutants show that, in the presence of Zn(2+), glycocalicin binds FXI at a heparin-binding site in A3 (Lys(252) and Lys(253)) and not by amino acids previously shown to be required for platelet binding (Ser(248), Arg(250), Lys(255), Phe(260), and Gln(263)). However, binding in the presence of HK and Zn(2+) requires Ser(248), Arg(250), Lys(255), Phe(260), and GLn(263) and not Lys(252) and Lys(253). Thus, binding of FXI to GPIbalpha is mediated by amino acids in the A3 domain in the presence or absence of HK. This interaction is important for the initiation of the consolidation phase of blood coagulation and the generation of thrombin at sites of platelet thrombus formation.
Plasma prekallikrein (PPK), the zymogen of the contact phase protease plasma kallikrein, forms a non-covalent complex with its substrate H-kininogen (HK). HK binds to cell surface proteoglycans, indirectly anchoring this bradykinin-generating protease to endothelial cells. The heavy chain of PPK consisting of four apple domains designated A1 to A4. Previous studies indicated that a major HK binding site on PPK is within the A2 domain, with additional contributions to binding provided by the N-terminal portion of Al and the central part of A4. To precisely map the relevant binding segments in A2, we employed a monoclonal anti-PPK antibody (PKH6) that binds to A2 and blocks HK-PPK complex formation with an apparent IC50 of 8 nM. Using recombinant A2 C-terminal deletion mutants, we mapped the target epitope of PKH6 to the N-terminal portion of A2, residues 92-153. C-terminal deletion of A2 to residue 145 resulted in a loss of PKH6 binding, as did proteolytic cleavage of A2 at Lys140-Arg141. A comparison of HK binding to various A2 deletion mutants revealed that the major HK binding site is localized to residues 145-153 in the central portion of A2, where it overlaps with the PKH6 epitope. This sequence is conserved in the A2 domain of the related protease factor XI, explaining the unusual strong cross-reactivity of PHK6 with factor XI, as well as the similar HK-binding characteristics of PPK and factor XI.
Factor XI (FXI), the zymogen of the blood coagulation protease FXIa, and the structurally homologous protein plasma prekallikrein circulate in plasma in noncovalent complexes with H-kininogen (HK). HK binds to the heavy chains of FXI and of prekallikrein. Each chain contains four apple domains (F1-F4 for FXI and P1-P4 for prekallikrein). Previous studies indicated that the HK-binding site on FXI is located in F1, whereas the major HK-binding site on prekallikrein is in P2. To determine the contribution of each FXI apple domain to HK-FXI complex formation, we examined binding of recombinant single apple domain-tissue plasminogen activator fusion proteins to HK. The order of affinity from highest to lowest is F2 F4 > F1 F3. Monoclonal antibodies against F2 are superior to F4 or F1 antibodies as inhibitors of HK binding to FXI. Antibody alphaP2, raised against prekallikrein, cross-reacts with FXI F2 and inhibits FXI-HK binding with an IC(50) of 8 nm. HK binding to a platelet-specific FXI variant lacking the N-terminal half of F2 is reduced > 5-fold compared with full-length FXI. A chimeric FXI molecule in which F2 is replaced by P2 is cleaved within P2 during activation by factor XIIa, resulting in greatly reduced HK binding capacity. In contrast, wild-type FXI is not cleaved within F2, and its binding capacity for HK is unaffected by factor XIIa. Our data show that HK binding to FXI involves multiple apple domains, with F2 being most important. The findings demonstrate a similarity in mechanism for FXI and prekallikrein binding to HK.