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The serine/threonine protein kinase casein kinase 1α (CK1α) functions as a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, phosphorylating β-catenin at serine 45 (P-S45) to initiate its eventual ubiquitin-mediated degradation. We previously showed that the repurposed, FDA-approved anthelminthic drug pyrvinium potently inhibits Wnt signaling and Moreover, we proposed that pyrvinium's Wnt inhibitory activity was the result of its function as an activator of CK1α. An understanding of the mechanism by which pyrvinium activates CK1α is important because pyrvinium was given an orphan drug designation by the FDA to treat familial adenomatous polyposis, a precancerous condition driven by constitutive Wnt signaling. In the current study, we show that pyrvinium stimulates the phosphorylation of S45 β-catenin, a known CK1α substrate, in a cell-based assay, and does so in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Alternative splicing of CK1α results in four forms of the protein with distinct biological properties. We evaluated these splice products and identified the CK1α splice variant, CK1αS, as the form that exhibits the most robust response to pyrvinium in cells. Kinetic studies indicate that pyrvinium also stimulates the kinase activity of purified, recombinant CK1αS , increasing its catalytic efficiency (/) toward substrates. These studies provide strong and clear mechanistic evidence that pyrvinium enhances CK1α kinase activity.
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) has been useful in delineating cardiac myofilament biology, and innovations in fluorophore chemistry have expanded the array of microscopic assays used. However, one assumption in FRAP is the irreversible photobleaching of fluorescent proteins after laser excitation. Here we demonstrate reversible photobleaching regarding the photoconvertible fluorescent protein mEos3.2. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to knock-in mEos3.2 into the COOH terminus of titin to visualize sarcomeric titin incorporation and turnover. Upon cardiac induction, the titin-mEos3.2 fusion protein is expressed and integrated in the sarcomeres of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs). STORM imaging shows M-band clustered regions of bound titin-mEos3.2 with few soluble titin-mEos3.2 molecules. FRAP revealed a baseline titin-mEos3.2 fluorescence recovery of 68% and half-life of ~1.2 h, suggesting a rapid exchange of sarcomeric titin with soluble titin. However, paraformaldehyde-fixed and permeabilized titin-mEos3.2 hiPSC-CMs surprisingly revealed a 55% fluorescence recovery. Whole cell FRAP analysis in paraformaldehyde-fixed, cycloheximide-treated, and untreated titin-mEos3.2 hiPSC-CMs displayed no significant differences in fluorescence recovery. FRAP in fixed HEK 293T expressing cytosolic mEos3.2 demonstrates a 58% fluorescence recovery. These data suggest that titin-mEos3.2 is subject to reversible photobleaching following FRAP. Using a mouse titin-eGFP model, we demonstrate that no reversible photobleaching occurs. Our results reveal that reversible photobleaching accounts for the majority of titin recovery in the titin-mEos3.2 hiPSC-CM model and should warrant as a caution in the extrapolation of reliable FRAP data from specific fluorescent proteins in long-term cell imaging.
In the course of investigations of the kinetics of individual reactions of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, a number of points about the complexity of P450 enzyme kinetics have become apparent. Several of these are of particular relevance to work with P450 enzymes in the course of drug development and lead optimization, particularly with regard to estimating in vitro kinetic parameters and dealing with enzyme inhibitors. Modern simulation modeling has been applied to situations involving issues of preincubation time with moderate strength and strong inhibitors, inhibition by tightly bound ligands that have been identified in P450 enzymes, extensive substrate depletion, P450 reactions with a rate-limiting step after product formation, and the consumption of an inhibitor during a reaction by either a P450 enzyme being monitored or another one in a mixture. The results all follow from first principles, and simulations reveal the extent of their significance in various settings. The order of addition of substrate and inhibitors can change the apparent outcome (inhibition constant, ), and the effect of the order is more pronounced with a stronger inhibitor. Substrate depletion alters parameters (Michaelis constant, ) and can generate apparently sigmoidal plots. A rate-limiting step after product formation lowers the apparent and distorts Consumption of an inhibitor during a reaction affects and differs depending on which enzyme is involved. The results are relevant with P450 enzymes and other enzymes as well. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Kinetic simulations have been used to address several potential problems in enzyme kinetic analysis. Although the simulations done here are general for enzyme reactions, several problems addressed here are particularly relevant to cytochrome P450 reactions encountered in drug development work.
Copyright © 2019 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10) is essential for DNA unwinding by the replisome during S phase. It is emerging as a promising anti-cancer target as MCM10 expression correlates with tumour progression and poor clinical outcomes. Here we used a competition-based fluorescence polarization (FP) high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy to identify compounds that inhibit Mcm10 from binding to DNA. Of the five active compounds identified, only the anti-parasitic agent suramin exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in replication products in an in vitro replication assay. Structure-activity relationship evaluation identified several suramin analogues that inhibited ssDNA binding by the human Mcm10 internal domain and full-length Xenopus Mcm10, including analogues that are selective for Mcm10 over human RPA. Binding of suramin analogues to Mcm10 was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR and FP affinity determinations were highly correlated, with a similar rank between affinity and potency for killing colon cancer cells. Suramin analogue NF157 had the highest human Mcm10 binding affinity (FP K 170 nM, SPR K 460 nM) and cell activity (IC 38 µM). Suramin and its analogues are the first identified inhibitors of Mcm10 and probably block DNA binding by mimicking the DNA sugar phosphate backbone due to their extended, polysulfated anionic structures.
Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 11B2 catalyzes the formation of aldosterone, the major endogenous human mineralocorticoid. Aldosterone is important for the regulation of electrolyte homeostasis. Mutations and overexpression of P450 11B2 (also known as aldosterone synthase) can lead to hypertension, congestive heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy. The enzyme is therefore a target for drug development to manage these various disorders. P450 11B2 catalyzes aldosterone formation from 11-deoxycorticosterone through three distinct oxidation steps. It is currently unknown to which degree these reactions happen in sequence without the intermediate products dissociating from the enzyme ( processively) or whether these reactions happen solely distributively, in which the intermediate products must first dissociate and then rebind to the enzyme before subsequent oxidation. We present here a comprehensive investigation of processivity in P450 11B2-catalyzed reactions using steady-state, pre-steady-state, pulse-chase, equilibrium-binding titrations, and stopped-flow binding studies. We utilized the data obtained to develop a kinetic model for P450 11B2 and tested this model by enzyme kinetics simulations. We found that although aldosterone is produced processively, the enzyme preferentially utilizes a distributive mechanism that ends with the production of 18-OH corticosterone. This seemingly contradictory observation could be resolved by considering the ability of the intermediate product 18-OH corticosterone to exist as a lactol form, with the equilibrium favoring the ring-closed lactol configuration. In summary, our refined model for P450 11B2 catalysis indicates isomerization of the intermediate to a lactol can explain why P450 11B2 must produce aldosterone through a processive mechanism despite favoring a distributive mechanism.
© 2019 Reddish and Guengerich.
Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are major catalysts involved in the oxidations of most drugs, steroids, carcinogens, fat-soluble vitamins, and natural products. The binding of substrates to some of the 57 human P450s and other mammalian P450s is more complex than a two-state system and has been proposed to involve mechanisms such as multiple ligand occupancy, induced-fit, and conformational-selection. Here, we used kinetic analysis of binding with multiple concentrations of substrates and computational modeling of these data to discern possible binding modes of several human P450s. We observed that P450 2D6 binds its ligand rolapitant in a mechanism involving conformational-selection. P450 4A11 bound the substrate lauric acid via conformational-selection, as did P450 2C8 with palmitic acid. Binding of the steroid progesterone to P450 21A2 was also best described by a conformational-selection model. Hexyl isonicotinate binding to P450 2E1 could be described by either a conformational-selection or an induced-fit model. Simulation of the binding of the ligands midazolam, bromocriptine, testosterone, and ketoconazole to P450 3A4 was consistent with an induced-fit or a conformational-selection model, but the concentration dependence of binding rates for varying both P450 3A4 and midazolam concentrations revealed discordance in the parameters, indicative of conformational-selection. Binding of the P450s 2C8, 2D6, 3A4, 4A11, and 21A2 was best described by conformational-selection, and P450 2E1 appeared to fit either mode. These findings highlight the complexity of human P450-substrate interactions and that conformational-selection is a dominant feature of many of these interactions.
© 2019 Guengerich et al.
Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes are the major catalysts involved in the oxidation of steroids as well as many other compounds. Their versatility has been explained in part by flexibility of the proteins and complexity of the binding mechanisms. However, whether these proteins bind their substrates via induced fit or conformational selection is not understood. P450 17A1 has a major role in steroidogenesis, catalyzing the two-step oxidations of progesterone and pregnenolone to androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone, respectively, via 17α-hydroxy (OH) intermediates. We examined the interaction of P450 17A1 with its steroid substrates by analyzing progress curves (UV-visible spectroscopy), revealing that the rates of binding of any of these substrates decreased with increasing substrate concentration, a hallmark of conformational selection. Further, when the concentration of 17α-OH pregnenolone was held constant and the P450 concentration increased, the binding rate increased, and such opposite patterns are also diagnostic of conformational selection. Kinetic simulation modeling was also more consistent with conformational selection than with an induced-fit mechanism. Cytochrome partially enhances P450 17A1 lyase activity by altering the P450 17A1 conformation but did not measurably alter the binding of 17α-OH pregnenolone or 17α-OH progesterone, as judged by the apparent and binding kinetics. The P450 17A1 inhibitor abiraterone also bound to P450 17A1 in a multistep manner, and modeling indicated that the selective inhibition of the two P450 17A1 steps by the drug orteronel can be rationalized only by a multiple-conformation model. In conclusion, P450 17A1 binds its steroid substrates via conformational selection.
© 2019 Guengerich et al.
Advances over the past 25 years have revealed much about how the structural properties of membranes and associated proteins are linked to the thermodynamics and kinetics of membrane protein (MP) folding. At the same time biochemical progress has outlined how cellular proteostasis networks mediate MP folding and manage misfolding in the cell. When combined with results from genomic sequencing, these studies have established paradigms for how MP folding and misfolding are linked to the molecular etiologies of a variety of diseases. This emerging framework has paved the way for the development of a new class of small molecule "pharmacological chaperones" that bind to and stabilize misfolded MP variants, some of which are now in clinical use. In this review, we comprehensively outline current perspectives on the folding and misfolding of integral MPs as well as the mechanisms of cellular MP quality control. Based on these perspectives, we highlight new opportunities for innovations that bridge our molecular understanding of the energetics of MP folding with the nuanced complexity of biological systems. Given the many linkages between MP misfolding and human disease, we also examine some of the exciting opportunities to leverage these advances to address emerging challenges in the development of therapeutics and precision medicine.
Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a member of the IPK-superfamily of kinases, catalyzing phosphorylation of several soluble inositols and the signaling phospholipid PI(4,5)P (PIP). IPMK also has critical non-catalytic roles in p53, mTOR/Raptor, TRAF6 and AMPK signaling mediated partly by two disordered domains. Although IPMK non-catalytic functions are well established, it is less clear if the disordered domains are important for IPMK kinase activity or ATP binding. Here, kinetic and structural analyses of an engineered human IPMK lacking all disordered domains (ΔIPMK) are presented. Although the K for PIP is identical between ΔIPMK and wild type, ΔIPMK has a 1.8-fold increase in k for PIP, indicating the native IPMK disordered domains decrease IPMK activity in vitro. The 2.5 Å crystal structure of ΔIPMK is reported, confirming the conserved ATP-grasp fold. A comparison with other IPK-superfamily structures revealed a putative "ATP-clamp" in the disordered N-terminus, we predicted would stabilize ATP binding. Consistent with this observation, removal of the ATP clamp sequence increases the K for ATP 4.9-fold, indicating the N-terminus enhances ATP binding to IPMK. Together, these structural and kinetic studies suggest in addition to mediating protein-protein interactions, the disordered domains of IPMK impart modulatory capacity to IPMK kinase activity through multiple kinetic mechanisms.
KEY POINTS - The ClC-3 2Cl /1H exchanger modulates endosome pH and Cl concentration. We investigated the relationships between ClC-3-mediated ion transport (steady-state transport current, I ), gating charge (Q) and cytoplasmic alkalization. ClC-3 transport is functionally unidirectional. ClC-5 and ClC-3 display indistinguishable exchange ratios, but ClC-3 cycling is less "efficient", as reflected by a large Q/I . An M531A mutation predicted to increase water-wire stability and cytoplasmic proton supply improves efficiency. Protonation (pH 5.0) of the outer glutamate gate (Glu ; E224) reduces Q, inhibits transport, and weakens coupling. Removal of the central tyrosine anion gate (Y572S) greatly increases uncoupled anion current. Tyrosine -OH removal (Y572F) alters anion selectivity and impairs coupling. E224 and Y572 act as anion barriers, and contribute to gating. The Y572 side chain and -OH regulate Q movement kinetics and voltage dependence. E224 and Y572 interact to create a "closed" inner gate conformation that maintains coupling during cycling.
ABSTRACT - We utilized plasma membrane-localized ClC-3 to investigate relationships between steady-state transport current (I ), gating charge (Q) movement, and cytoplasmic alkalization rate. ClC-3 exhibited lower transport efficiency than ClC-5, as reflected by a larger Q/I ratio, but an indistinguishable Cl /H coupling ratio. External SCN reduced H transport rate and uncoupled anion/H exchange by 80-90%. Removal of the external gating glutamate ("Glu ") (E224A mutation) reduced Q and abolished H transport. We hypothesized that Methionine 531 (M531) impedes "water wire" H transfer from the cytoplasm to E224. Accordingly, an M531A mutation decreased the Q/I ratio by 50% and enhanced H transport. External protons (pH 5.0) inhibited I and markedly reduced Q while shifting the Q-voltage (V) relationship positively. The Cl /H coupling ratio at pH 5.0 was significantly increased, consistent with externally protonated Glu adopting an outward/open position. Internal "anion gate" removal (Y572S) dramatically increased I and impaired coupling, without slowing H transport rate. Loss of both gates (Y572S/E224A) resulted in a large "open pore" conductance. Y572F (removing only the phenolic hydroxide) and Y572S shortened Q duration similarly, resulting in faster Q kinetics at all voltages. These data reveal a complex relationship between Q and ion transport. Q/I must be assessed together with coupling ratio to properly interpret efficiency. Coupling and transport rate are influenced by the anion, internal proton supply and external protons. Y572 regulates H coupling as well as anion selectivity, and interacts directly with E224. Disruption of this "closed gate" conformation by internal protons may represent a critical step in the ClC-3 transport cycle.
© 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.