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Lung epithelial lineages have been difficult to maintain in pure form in vitro, and lineage-specific reporters have proven invaluable for monitoring their emergence from cultured pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). However, reporter constructs for tracking proximal airway lineages generated from PSCs have not been previously available, limiting the characterization of these cells. Here, we engineer mouse and human PSC lines carrying airway secretory lineage reporters that facilitate the tracking, purification, and profiling of this lung subtype. Through bulk and single-cell-based global transcriptomic profiling, we find PSC-derived airway secretory cells are susceptible to phenotypic plasticity exemplified by the tendency to co-express both a proximal airway secretory program as well as an alveolar type 2 cell program, which can be minimized by inhibiting endogenous Wnt signaling. Our results provide global profiles of engineered lung cell fates, a guide for improving their directed differentiation, and a human model of the developing airway.
Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The function of the human cardiac sodium channel (Na1.5) is modulated by the Ca sensor calmodulin (CaM), but the underlying mechanism(s) are controversial and poorly defined. CaM has been reported to bind in a Ca-dependent manner to two sites in the intracellular loop that is critical for inactivation of Na1.5 (inactivation gate [IG]). The affinity of CaM for the complete IG was significantly stronger than that of fragments that lacked both complete binding sites. Structural analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance, crystallographic, and scattering approaches revealed that CaM simultaneously engages both IG sites using an extended configuration. Patch-clamp recordings for wild-type and mutant channels with an impaired CaM-IG interaction revealed CaM binding to the IG promotes recovery from inactivation while impeding the kinetics of inactivation. Models of full-length Na1.5 suggest that CaM binding to the IG directly modulates channel function by destabilizing the inactivated state, which would promote resetting of the IG after channels close.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. We previously reported that flavone and flavanone interact spectrally with cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 2A6 and 2A13 and other human P450s and inhibit catalytic activities of these P450 enzymes. In this study, we studied abilities of CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2A13, 2C9 and 3A4 to oxidize flavone and flavanone. 2. Human P450s oxidized flavone to 6- and 5-hydroxylated flavones, seven uncharacterized mono-hydroxylated flavones, and five di-hydroxylated flavones. CYP2A6 was most active in forming 6-hydroxy- and 5-hydroxyflavones and several mono- and di-hydroxylated products. 3. CYP2A6 was also very active in catalyzing flavanone to form 2'- and 6-hydroxyflavanones, the major products, at turnover rates of 4.8 min and 1.3 min, respectively. Other flavanone metabolites were 4'-, 3'- and 7-hydroxyflavanone, three uncharacterized mono-hydroxylated flavanones and five mono-hydroxylated flavones, including 6-hydroxyflavone. CYP2A6 catalyzed flavanone to produce flavone at a turnover rate of 0.72 min that was ∼3-fold higher than that catalyzed by CYP2A13 (0.29 min). 4. These results indicate that CYP2A6 and other human P450s have important roles in metabolizing flavone and flavanone, two unsubstituted flavonoids, present in dietary foods. Chemical mechanisms of P450-catalyzed desaturation of flavanone to form flavone are discussed.
Before insulin can stimulate myocytes to take up glucose, it must first move from the circulation to the interstitial space. The continuous endothelium of skeletal muscle (SkM) capillaries restricts insulin's access to myocytes. The mechanism by which insulin crosses this continuous endothelium is critical to understand insulin action and insulin resistance; however, methodological obstacles have limited understanding of endothelial insulin transport in vivo. Here, we present an intravital microscopy technique to measure the rate of insulin efflux across the endothelium of SkM capillaries. This method involves development of a fully bioactive, fluorescent insulin probe, a gastrocnemius preparation for intravital microscopy, an automated vascular segmentation algorithm, and the use of mathematical models to estimate endothelial transport parameters. We combined direct visualization of insulin efflux from SkM capillaries with modeling of insulin efflux kinetics to identify fluid-phase transport as the major mode of transendothelial insulin efflux in mice. Model-independent experiments demonstrating that insulin movement is neither saturable nor affected by insulin receptor antagonism supported this result. Our finding that insulin enters the SkM interstitium by fluid-phase transport may have implications in the pathophysiology of SkM insulin resistance as well as in the treatment of diabetes with various insulin analogs.
Excessive glucocorticoid exposure has been shown to be deleterious for pancreatic β-cell function and insulin release. However, glucocorticoids at physiological levels are essential for many homeostatic processes, including glycemic control. We show that corticosterone and cortisol and their less active precursors 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC) and cortisone suppress voltage-dependent Ca channel function and Ca fluxes in rodent as well as in human β-cells. However, insulin secretion, maximal ATP/ADP responses to glucose, and β-cell identity were all unaffected. Further examination revealed the upregulation of parallel amplifying cAMP signals and an increase in the number of membrane-docked insulin secretory granules. Effects of 11-DHC could be prevented by lipotoxicity and were associated with paracrine regulation of glucocorticoid activity because global deletion of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 normalized Ca and cAMP responses. Thus, we have identified an enzymatically amplified feedback loop whereby glucocorticoids boost cAMP to maintain insulin secretion in the face of perturbed ionic signals. Failure of this protective mechanism may contribute to diabetes in states of glucocorticoid excess, such as Cushing syndrome, which are associated with frank dyslipidemia.
© 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
BACKGROUND - Systemic inflammation and muscle wasting are highly prevalent and coexist in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We aimed to determine the effects of systemic inflammation on skeletal muscle protein metabolism in MHD patients.
METHODS - Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover were assessed by stable isotope kinetic studies. We incorporated expressions of E1, E214K, E3αI, E3αII, MuRF-1, and atrogin-1 in skeletal muscle tissue from integrin β1 gene KO CKD mice models.
RESULTS - Among 129 patients with mean (± SD) age 47 ± 12 years, 74% were African American, 73% were male, and 22% had diabetes mellitus. Median high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration was 13 (interquartile range 0.8, 33) mg/l. There were statistically significant associations between hs-CRP and forearm skeletal muscle protein synthesis, degradation, and net forearm skeletal muscle protein balance (P < 0.001 for all). The associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for clinical and demographic confounders, as well as in sensitivity analysis, excluding patients with diabetes mellitus. In attempting to identify potential mechanisms involved in this correlation, we show increased expressions of E1, E214K, E3αI, E3αII, MuRF-1, and atrogin-1 in skeletal muscle tissue obtained from an animal model of chronic kidney disease.
CONCLUSION - These data suggest that systemic inflammation is a strong and independent determinant of skeletal muscle protein homeostasis in MHD patients, providing rationale for further studies using anticytokine therapies in patients with underlying systemic inflammation.
FUNDING - This study was in part supported by NIH grants R01 DK45604 and 1K24 DK62849, the Clinical Translational Science Award UL1-TR000445 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, the Veterans Administration Merit Award I01 CX000414, the SatelliteHealth Normon Coplon Extramural Grant Program, and the FDA grant 000943.
The emergence of microscale thermophoresis (MST) as a technique for determining the dissociation constants for bimolecular interactions has enabled these quantities to be measured in systems that were previously difficult or impracticable. However, most models for analyses of these data featured the assumption of a simple 1:1 binding interaction. The only model widely used for multiple binding sites was the Hill equation. Here, we describe two new MST analytic models that assume a 1:2 binding scheme: the first features two microscopic binding constants (K(1) and K(2)), while the other assumes symmetry in the bivalent molecule, culminating in a model with a single macroscopic dissociation constant (K) and a single factor (α) that accounts for apparent cooperativity in the binding. We also discuss the general applicability of the Hill equation for MST data. The performances of the algorithms on both real and simulated data are assessed, and implementation of the algorithms in the MST analysis program PALMIST is discussed.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prediction of protein tertiary structures from amino acid sequence and understanding the mechanisms of how proteins fold, collectively known as "the protein folding problem," has been a grand challenge in molecular biology for over half a century. Theories have been developed that provide us with an unprecedented understanding of protein folding mechanisms. However, computational simulation of protein folding is still difficult, and prediction of protein tertiary structure from amino acid sequence is an unsolved problem. Progress toward a satisfying solution has been slow due to challenges in sampling the vast conformational space and deriving sufficiently accurate energy functions. Nevertheless, several techniques and algorithms have been adopted to overcome these challenges, and the last two decades have seen exciting advances in enhanced sampling algorithms, computational power and tertiary structure prediction methodologies. This review aims at summarizing these computational techniques, specifically conformational sampling algorithms and energy approximations that have been frequently used to study protein-folding mechanisms or to de novo predict protein tertiary structures. We hope that this review can serve as an overview on how the protein-folding problem can be studied computationally and, in cases where experimental approaches are prohibitive, help the researcher choose the most relevant computational approach for the problem at hand. We conclude with a summary of current challenges faced and an outlook on potential future directions.
Ribonucleotides are the natural analogs of deoxyribonucleotides, which can be misinserted by DNA polymerases, leading to the most abundant DNA lesions in genomes. During replication, DNA polymerases tolerate patches of ribonucleotides on the parental strands to different extents. The majority of human DNA polymerases have been reported to misinsert ribonucleotides into genomes. However, only PrimPol, DNA polymerase α, telomerase, and the mitochondrial human DNA polymerase (hpol) γ have been shown to tolerate an entire RNA strand. Y-family hpol η is known for translesion synthesis opposite the UV-induced DNA lesion cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and was recently found to incorporate ribonucleotides into DNA. Here, we report that hpol η is able to bind DNA/DNA, RNA/DNA, and DNA/RNA duplexes with similar affinities. In addition, hpol η, as well as another Y-family DNA polymerase, hpol κ, accommodates RNA as one of the two strands during primer extension, mainly by inserting dNMPs opposite unmodified templates or DNA lesions, such as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, even in the presence of an equal amount of the DNA/DNA substrate. The discovery of this RNA-accommodating ability of hpol η redefines the traditional concept of human DNA polymerases and indicates potential new functions of hpol η .
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) research provides many opportunities for the application of kinetic isotope effect (KIE) strategies. P450s collectively catalyze oxidations of more substrates than any other group of enzymes, and CH bond cleavage is a major feature in a large fraction of these reactions. The presence of a significant primary deuterium KIE is evidence that hydrogen abstraction is at least partially rate-limiting in the reactions, and this appears to be the case in many P450 reactions. The first report of a KIE in (P450-linked) drug metabolism appeared in 1961 (for morphine N-demethylation), and in a number of cases, it has been possible to modulate the in vivo metabolism or toxicity of chemicals by deuterium substitution. A number of efforts are in progress to utilize deuterium substitution to alter the metabolism of drugs in an advantageous manner.
© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.