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Loss of CXCR4 in Myeloid Cells Enhances Antitumor Immunity and Reduces Melanoma Growth through NK Cell and FASL Mechanisms.
Yang J, Kumar A, Vilgelm AE, Chen SC, Ayers GD, Novitskiy SV, Joyce S, Richmond A
(2018) Cancer Immunol Res 6: 1186-1198
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bone Marrow Transplantation, Cell Line, Tumor, Cytotoxicity, Immunologic, Fas Ligand Protein, Interleukin-18, Killer Cells, Natural, Macrophages, Melanoma, Experimental, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Neutrophils, Receptors, CXCR4
Show Abstract · Added December 20, 2018
The chemokine receptor, CXCR4, is involved in cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. Several promising CXCR4 antagonists have been shown to halt tumor metastasis in preclinical studies, and clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of these agents in patients with cancer are ongoing. However, the impact of targeting CXCR4 specifically on immune cells is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that genetic deletion of CXCR4 in myeloid cells (CXCR4) enhances the antitumor immune response, resulting in significantly reduced melanoma tumor growth. Moreover, CXCR4 mice exhibited slowed tumor progression compared with CXCR4 mice in an inducible melanocyte mouse model. The percentage of Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing myeloid cells was reduced in CXCR4 mice as compared with myeloid cells from CXCR4 mice. In contrast, there was an increased percentage of natural killer (NK) cells expressing FasL in tumors growing in CXCR4 mice. NK cells from CXCR4 mice also exhibited increased tumor cell killing capacity , based on clearance of NK-sensitive Yac-1 cells. NK cell-mediated killing of Yac-1 cells occurred in a FasL-dependent manner, which was partially dependent upon the presence of CXCR4 neutrophils. Furthermore, enhanced NK cell activity in CXCR4 mice was also associated with increased production of IL18 by specific leukocyte subpopulations. These data suggest that CXCR4-mediated signals from myeloid cells suppress NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance and thereby enhance tumor growth. Systemic delivery of a peptide antagonist of CXCR4 to tumor-bearing CXCR4 mice resulted in enhanced NK-cell activation and reduced tumor growth, supporting potential clinical implications for CXCR4 antagonism in some cancers. .
©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.
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13 MeSH Terms
Host Expression of the CD8 Treg/NK Cell Restriction Element Qa-1 is Dispensable for Transplant Tolerance.
Stocks BT, Wilson CS, Marshall AF, Brewer LA, Moore DJ
(2017) Sci Rep 7: 11181
MeSH Terms: Animals, B-Lymphocytes, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Histocompatibility Antigens Class I, Immune Tolerance, Killer Cells, Natural, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, Transplantation
Show Abstract · Added September 13, 2017
Disruption of the non-classical Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Ib molecule Qa-1 impairs CD8 Treg and natural killer (NK) cell function and promotes a lupus-like autoimmune disease. This immune perturbation would be expected to enhance anti-transplant responses and impair tolerance induction, but the effect of Qa-1 deficiency on the transplant response has not been previously reported. Qa-1 deficiency enhanced CD4 TFH and germinal center (GC) B cell numbers in naïve mice and hastened islet allograft rejection. Despite enhanced immunity in B6.Qa-1 mice, these mice did not generate an excessive primary CD4 TFH cell response nor an enhanced alloantibody reaction. Both CD8 Tregs and NK cells, which often regulate other cells through host Qa-1 expression, were targets of anti-CD45RB therapy that had not been previously recognized. However, B6.Qa-1 mice remained susceptible to anti-CD45RB mediated suppression of the alloantibody response and transplant tolerance induction to mismatched islet allografts. Overall, despite enhanced immunity as demonstrated by augmented CD4 TFH/GC B cell numbers and hastened islet allograft rejection in naïve 12-week old Qa-1 deficient mice, the CD8 Treg/NK cell restriction element Qa-1 does not regulate the primary cellular or humoral alloresponse and is not required for long-term transplant tolerance.
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10 MeSH Terms
Proteomics show antigen presentation processes in human immune cells after AS03-H5N1 vaccination.
Galassie AC, Goll JB, Samir P, Jensen TL, Hoek KL, Howard LM, Allos TM, Niu X, Gordy LE, Creech CB, Hill H, Joyce S, Edwards KM, Link AJ
(2017) Proteomics 17:
MeSH Terms: Adjuvants, Immunologic, Antigen Presentation, B-Lymphocytes, Cells, Cultured, Humans, Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype, Influenza Vaccines, Influenza, Human, Killer Cells, Natural, Monocytes, Neutrophils, Protein Interaction Maps, Proteome, Proteomics, T-Lymphocytes
Show Abstract · Added August 15, 2017
Adjuvants enhance immunity elicited by vaccines through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Using a systems biology approach, we investigated temporal protein expression changes in five primary human immune cell populations: neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, T cells, and B cells after administration of either an Adjuvant System 03 adjuvanted or unadjuvanted split-virus H5N1 influenza vaccine. Monocytes demonstrated the strongest differential signal between vaccine groups. On day 3 post-vaccination, several antigen presentation-related pathways, including MHC class I-mediated antigen processing and presentation, were enriched in monocytes and neutrophils and expression of HLA class I proteins was increased in the Adjuvant System 03 group. We identified several protein families whose proteomic responses predicted seroprotective antibody responses (>1:40 hemagglutination inhibition titer), including inflammation and oxidative stress proteins at day 1 as well as immunoproteasome subunit (PSME1 and PSME2) and HLA class I proteins at day 3 in monocytes. While comparison between temporal proteomic and transcriptomic results showed little overlap overall, enrichment of the MHC class I antigen processing and presentation pathway in monocytes and neutrophils was confirmed by both approaches.
© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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15 MeSH Terms
Cell-Based Systems Biology Analysis of Human AS03-Adjuvanted H5N1 Avian Influenza Vaccine Responses: A Phase I Randomized Controlled Trial.
Howard LM, Hoek KL, Goll JB, Samir P, Galassie A, Allos TM, Niu X, Gordy LE, Creech CB, Prasad N, Jensen TL, Hill H, Levy SE, Joyce S, Link AJ, Edwards KM
(2017) PLoS One 12: e0167488
MeSH Terms: Adjuvants, Immunologic, Adolescent, Adult, Antibodies, Viral, Antibody Formation, Antigen Presentation, Chemokine CXCL10, Dendritic Cells, Double-Blind Method, Female, Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests, Humans, Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype, Influenza Vaccines, Influenza, Human, Interleukin-6, Killer Cells, Natural, Male, Middle Aged, Monocytes, Neutrophils, Systems Biology, Vaccination, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added May 3, 2017
BACKGROUND - Vaccine development for influenza A/H5N1 is an important public health priority, but H5N1 vaccines are less immunogenic than seasonal influenza vaccines. Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) markedly enhances immune responses to H5N1 vaccine antigens, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood.
OBJECTIVE AND METHODS - We compared the safety (primary endpoint), immunogenicity (secondary), gene expression (tertiary) and cytokine responses (exploratory) between AS03-adjuvanted and unadjuvanted inactivated split-virus H5N1 influenza vaccines. In a double-blinded clinical trial, we randomized twenty adults aged 18-49 to receive two doses of either AS03-adjuvanted (n = 10) or unadjuvanted (n = 10) H5N1 vaccine 28 days apart. We used a systems biology approach to characterize and correlate changes in serum cytokines, antibody titers, and gene expression levels in six immune cell types at 1, 3, 7, and 28 days after the first vaccination.
RESULTS - Both vaccines were well-tolerated. Nine of 10 subjects in the adjuvanted group and 0/10 in the unadjuvanted group exhibited seroprotection (hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer > 1:40) at day 56. Within 24 hours of AS03-adjuvanted vaccination, increased serum levels of IL-6 and IP-10 were noted. Interferon signaling and antigen processing and presentation-related gene responses were induced in dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils. Upregulation of MHC class II antigen presentation-related genes was seen in neutrophils. Three days after AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, upregulation of genes involved in cell cycle and division was detected in NK cells and correlated with serum levels of IP-10. Early upregulation of interferon signaling-related genes was also found to predict seroprotection 56 days after first vaccination.
CONCLUSIONS - Using this cell-based systems approach, novel mechanisms of action for AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccination were observed.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01573312.
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24 MeSH Terms
IL-15 Enables Septic Shock by Maintaining NK Cell Integrity and Function.
Guo Y, Luan L, Patil NK, Wang J, Bohannon JK, Rabacal W, Fensterheim BA, Hernandez A, Sherwood ER
(2017) J Immunol 198: 1320-1333
MeSH Terms: Animals, Female, Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-15, Killer Cells, Natural, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Shock, Septic
Show Abstract · Added May 10, 2017
Interleukin 15 is essential for the development and differentiation of NK and memory CD8 (mCD8) T cells. Our laboratory previously showed that NK and CD8 T lymphocytes facilitate the pathobiology of septic shock. However, factors that regulate NK and CD8 T lymphocyte functions during sepsis are not well characterized. We hypothesized that IL-15 promotes the pathogenesis of sepsis by maintaining NK and mCD8 T cell integrity. To test our hypothesis, the pathogenesis of sepsis was assessed in IL-15-deficient (IL-15 knockout, KO) mice. IL-15 KO mice showed improved survival, attenuated hypothermia, and less proinflammatory cytokine production during septic shock caused by cecal ligation and puncture or endotoxin-induced shock. Treatment with IL-15 superagonist (IL-15 SA, IL-15/IL-15Rα complex) regenerated NK and mCD8 T cells and re-established mortality of IL-15 KO mice during septic shock. Preventing NK cell regeneration attenuated the restoration of mortality caused by IL-15 SA. If given immediately prior to septic challenge, IL-15-neutralizing IgG M96 failed to protect against septic shock. However, M96 caused NK cell depletion if given 4 d prior to septic challenge and conferred protection. IL-15 SA treatment amplified endotoxin shock, which was prevented by NK cell or IFN-γ depletion. IL-15 SA treatment also exacerbated septic shock caused by cecal ligation and puncture when given after the onset of sepsis. In conclusion, endogenous IL-15 does not directly augment the pathogenesis of sepsis but enables the development of septic shock by maintaining NK cell numbers and integrity. Exogenous IL-15 exacerbates the severity of sepsis by activating NK cells and facilitating IFN-γ production.
Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
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10 MeSH Terms
Beyond Epstein-Barr virus: genetic predisposition of natural killer T-cell lymphoma.
Reddy NM, Sethi TK
(2016) Lancet Oncol 17: 1176-7
MeSH Terms: Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Herpesvirus 4, Human, Humans, Killer Cells, Natural, Lymphoma, Natural Killer T-Cells
Added August 3, 2016
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6 MeSH Terms
The Bone Microenvironment: a Fertile Soil for Tumor Growth.
Buenrostro D, Mulcrone PL, Owens P, Sterling JA
(2016) Curr Osteoporos Rep 14: 151-8
MeSH Terms: B-Lymphocytes, Bone Marrow, Bone Marrow Cells, Bone Neoplasms, Bone and Bones, Cellular Microenvironment, Fibroblasts, Humans, Killer Cells, Natural, Macrophages, Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells, Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, Osteocytes, T-Lymphocytes, Tumor Microenvironment
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
Bone metastatic disease remains a significant and frequent problem for cancer patients that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, despite decades of research, bone metastases remain incurable. Current studies have demonstrated that many properties and cell types within the bone and bone marrow microenvironment contribute to tumor-induced bone disease. Furthermore, they have pointed to the importance of understanding how tumor cells interact with their microenvironment in order to help improve both the development of new therapeutics and the prediction of response to therapy.
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16 MeSH Terms
Transcription factor KLF2 regulates homeostatic NK cell proliferation and survival.
Rabacal W, Pabbisetty SK, Hoek KL, Cendron D, Guo Y, Maseda D, Sebzda E
(2016) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113: 5370-5
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Proliferation, Cell Survival, Cells, Cultured, Gene Expression Regulation, Homeostasis, Interleukin-15, Killer Cells, Natural, Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL
Show Abstract · Added October 12, 2016
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that recognize and lyse virally infected or transformed cells. This latter property is being pursued in clinics to treat leukemia with the hope that further breakthroughs in NK cell biology can extend treatments to other cancers. At issue is the ability to expand transferred NK cells and prolong their functionality within the context of a tumor. In terms of NK cell expansion and survival, we now report that Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) is a key transcription factor that underpins both of these events. Excision of Klf2 using gene-targeted mouse models promotes spontaneous proliferation of immature NK cells in peripheral tissues, a phenotype that is replicated under ex vivo conditions. Moreover, KLF2 imprints a homeostatic migration pattern on mature NK cells that allows these cells to access IL-15-rich microenvironments. KLF2 accomplishes this feat within the mature NK cell lineage via regulation of a subset of homing receptors that respond to homeostatic ligands while leaving constitutively expressed receptors that recognize inflammatory cytokines unperturbed. Under steady-state conditions, KLF2-deficient NK cells alter their expression of homeostatic homing receptors and subsequently undergo apoptosis due to IL-15 starvation. This novel mechanism has implications regarding NK cell contraction following the termination of immune responses including the possibility that retention of an IL-15 transpresenting support system is key to extending NK cell activity in a tumor environment.
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11 MeSH Terms
IL-15 Superagonist Expands mCD8+ T, NK and NKT Cells after Burn Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome during Burn Wound Infection.
Patil NK, Luan L, Bohannon JK, Guo Y, Hernandez A, Fensterheim B, Sherwood ER
(2016) PLoS One 11: e0148452
MeSH Terms: Adaptive Immunity, Animals, Burns, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cytokines, Disease Models, Animal, Humans, Interleukin-15, Killer Cells, Natural, Liver, Lymphocyte Activation, Lymphocyte Count, Lymphocyte Subsets, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Natural Killer T-Cells, Pseudomonas Infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Receptors, Interleukin-15, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Spleen, Wound Infection
Show Abstract · Added February 18, 2016
BACKGROUND - Severely burned patients are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections and sepsis, owing to the loss of the protective skin barrier and immunological dysfunction. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) belongs to the IL-2 family of common gamma chain cytokines and stimulates the proliferation and activation of T (specifically memory CD8), NK and NKT cells. It has been shown to preserve T cell function and improve survival during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of IL-15 or IL-15 superagonist (SA) during infection after burn injury has not been evaluated. Moreover, very few, if any, studies have examined, in detail, the effect of burn injury and infection on the adaptive immune system. Thus, we examined the effect of burn and sepsis on adaptive immune cell populations and the effect of IL-15 SA treatment on the host response to infection.
METHODS - Mice were subjected to a 35% total body surface area burn, followed by wound infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In some experiments, IL-15 SA was administered after burn injury, but before infection. Leukocytes in spleen, liver and peritoneal cavity were characterized using flow cytometry. Bacterial clearance, organ injury and survival were also assessed.
RESULTS - Burn wound infection led to a significant decline in total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and induced organ injury and sepsis. Burn injury caused decline in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen, which was worsened by infection. IL-15 treatment inhibited this decline and significantly increased cell numbers and activation, as determined by CD69 expression, of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells in the spleen and liver after burn injury. However, IL-15 SA treatment failed to prevent burn wound sepsis-induced loss of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells and failed to improve bacterial clearance and survival.
CONCLUSION - Cutaneous burn injury and infection cause significant adaptive immune dysfunction. IL-15 SA does not augment host resistance to burn wound sepsis in mice despite inducing proliferation and activation of lymphocyte subsets.
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23 MeSH Terms
Neural stem cells sustain natural killer cells that dictate recovery from brain inflammation.
Liu Q, Sanai N, Jin WN, La Cava A, Van Kaer L, Shi FD
(2016) Nat Neurosci 19: 243-52
MeSH Terms: Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Animals, Brain, Brain Chemistry, Cell Proliferation, Cerebral Ventricles, Cytokines, Encephalitis, Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental, Female, Humans, Immune Tolerance, Interleukin-15, Killer Cells, Natural, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Multiple Sclerosis, Neural Stem Cells, Recovery of Function
Show Abstract · Added March 28, 2016
Recovery from organ-specific autoimmune diseases largely relies on the mobilization of endogenous repair mechanisms and local factors that control them. Natural killer (NK) cells are swiftly mobilized to organs targeted by autoimmunity and typically undergo numerical contraction when inflammation wanes. We report the unexpected finding that NK cells are retained in the brain subventricular zone (SVZ) during the chronic phase of multiple sclerosis in humans and its animal model in mice. These NK cells were found preferentially in close proximity to SVZ neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce interleukin-15 and sustain functionally competent NK cells. Moreover, NK cells limited the reparative capacity of NSCs following brain inflammation. These findings reveal that reciprocal interactions between NSCs and NK cells regulate neurorepair.
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22 MeSH Terms