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AIMS - Well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are often multifocal, and this has been suggested to impart worse disease-free survival. Practice guidelines have not been established for World Health Organisation (WHO) grading of multiple primary lesions.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We identified 68 patients with ileal/jejunal SI-NET for a combined total of 207 primary lesions. Each case was evaluated for patient age and sex; size of all tumours; presence of lymph node metastases, mesenteric tumour deposits or distant metastases; and disease-specific outcome. Ki67 staining was performed on all 207 primary lesions. The relationship between multifocality and clinicopathological factors was compared using Fisher's exact test. Outcome was tested using Cox proportional hazard regression. Forty-two patients had unifocal disease, and 26 had multifocal disease (median five lesions, range = 2-32). Most tumours were WHO grade 1 (201 of 207, 97%). Of the five patients with grades 2/3 tumours, three patients had unifocal disease, one patient had two subcentimetre grade 2 lesions (including the largest) and eight subcentimetre grade 1 lesions, and one patient had one 1.6-cm grade 3 lesion and one subcentimetre grade 1 lesion. There was a positive correlation between tumour size and Ki67 index (coefficient 0.28; 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.52, P = 0.017). There was no significant association between multifocality and nodal metastases, mesenteric tumour deposits, distant metastases or disease-specific survival.
CONCLUSIONS - In patients with multifocal SI-NET, unless a particular lesion has a high mitotic rate, only staining the largest lesion for Ki67 should serve to grade almost all cases accurately. Multifocality does not appear to significantly impact patient survival.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Because of inherent disease heterogeneity, targeted therapies have eluded triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and biomarkers predictive of treatment response have not yet been identified. This study was designed to determine whether the mTOR inhibitor everolimus with cisplatin and paclitaxel would provide synergistic antitumor effects in TNBC. Patients with stage II/III TNBC were enrolled in a randomized phase II trial of preoperative weekly cisplatin, paclitaxel and daily everolimus or placebo for 12 weeks, until definitive surgery. Tumor specimens were obtained at baseline, cycle 1, and surgery. Primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR); secondary endpoints included clinical responses, breast conservation rate, safety, and discovery of molecular features associated with outcome. Between 2009 and 2013, 145 patients were accrued; 36% of patients in the everolimus arm and 49% of patients in the placebo arm achieved pCR; in each arm, 50% of patients achieved complete responses by imaging. Higher rates of neutropenia, mucositis, and transaminase elevation were seen with everolimus. Clinical response to therapy and long-term outcome correlated with increased frequency of DNA damage response (DDR) gene mutations, Basal-like1 and Mesenchymal TNBC-subtypes, AR-negative status, and high Ki67, but not with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The paclitaxel/cisplatin combination was well tolerated and active, but addition of everolimus was associated with more adverse events without improvement in pCR or clinical response. However, discoveries made from correlative studies could lead to predictive TNBC biomarkers that may impact clinical decision-making and provide new avenues for mechanistic exploration that could lead to clinical utility. .
©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
The construction of tissue microarrays (TMAs) with cores from a large number of paraffin-embedded tissues (donors) into a single paraffin block (recipient) is an effective method of analyzing samples from many patient specimens simultaneously. For the TMA to be successful, the cores within it must capture the correct histologic areas from the donor blocks (technical accuracy) and maintain concordance with the tissue of origin (analytical accuracy). This can be particularly challenging for tissues with small histological features such as small islands of carcinoma in situ (CIS), thin layers of normal urothelial lining of the bladder, or cancers that exhibit intratumor heterogeneity. In an effort to create a comprehensive TMA of a bladder cancer patient cohort that accurately represents the tumor heterogeneity and captures the small features of normal and CIS, we determined how core size (0.6 vs 1.0 mm) impacted the technical and analytical accuracy of the TMA. The larger 1.0 mm core exhibited better technical accuracy for all tissue types at 80.9% (normal), 94.2% (tumor), and 71.4% (CIS) compared with 58.6%, 85.9%, and 63.8% for 0.6 mm cores. Although the 1.0 mm core provided better tissue capture, increasing the number of replicates from two to three allowed with the 0.6 mm core compensated for this reduced technical accuracy. However, quantitative image analysis of proliferation using both Ki67+ immunofluorescence counts and manual mitotic counts demonstrated that the 1.0 mm core size also exhibited significantly greater analytical accuracy (P=0.004 and 0.035, respectively, r=0.979 and 0.669, respectively). Ultimately, our findings demonstrate that capturing two or more 1.0 mm cores for TMA construction provides superior technical and analytical accuracy over the smaller 0.6 mm cores, especially for tissues harboring small histological features or substantial heterogeneity.
Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration.
Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
BACKGROUND - Glaucoma is a complex neurodegeneration and a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Current therapeutic strategies, which are all directed towards lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP), do not stop progression of the disease. We have demonstrated that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene delivery of a form of erythropoietin with attenuated erythropoietic activity (EpoR76E) can preserve retinal ganglion cells, their axons, and vision without decreasing IOP. The goal of this study was to determine if modulation of neuroinflammation or oxidative stress played a role in the neuroprotective activity of EPO.R76E.
METHODS - Five-month-old DBA/2J mice were treated with either rAAV.EpoR76E or a control vector and collected at 8 months of age. Neuroprotection was assessed by quantification of axon transport and visual evoked potentials. Microglia number and morphology and cytokine and chemokine levels were quantified. Message levels of oxidative stress-related proteins were assessed.
RESULTS - Axon transport and visual evoked potentials were preserved in rAAV.EpoR76E-treated mice. The number of microglia was decreased in retinas from 8-month-old rAAV.EpoR76E-treated mice, but proliferation was unaffected. The blood-retina barrier was also unaffected by treatment. Levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were decreased in retinas from rAAV.EpoR76E-treated mice including IL-1, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, CCL4, and CCL5. TNFα messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased in retinas from 8-month-old mice compared to 3-month-old controls regardless of treatment. Expression of several antioxidant proteins was increased in retinas of rAAV.EpoR76E-treated 8-month-old mice.
CONCLUSIONS - Treatment with rAAV.EpoR76E preserves vision in the DBA/2J model of glaucoma at least in part by decreasing infiltration of peripheral immune cells, modulating microglial reactivity, and decreasing oxidative stress.
PURPOSE - The objective of this study was to evaluate 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18) F]fluorothymidine ([(18) F]FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) as an early marker of trastuzumab response in HER2-overexpressing xenografts.
PROCEDURES - Tumor-to-muscle ratios were compared between both trastuzumab-sensitive and trastuzumab-resistant cohorts prior to and after one and two treatments.
RESULTS - A significant difference (P = 0.03) was observed between treated and control trastuzumab-sensitive xenografts after one treatment, which preceded between-group differences in tumor volume. Reduced Ki67 (P = 0.02) and thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) (P = 0.35) immunoreactivity was observed in the treated xenografts. No significant differences in volume, tumor-to-muscle ratio, or immunoreactivity were observed between treated and control trastuzumab-resistant cohorts. A significant difference (P = 0.02) in tumor-to-muscle ratio was observed between trastuzumab-sensitive and trastuzumab-resistant cohorts after two treatments; however, tumor volumes were also different (P = 0.04). Ki67 (P = 0.04) and TK1 (P = 0.24) immunoreactivity was ~50 % less in trastuzumab-sensitive xenografts.
CONCLUSIONS - [(18) F]FLT-PET provided early response assessment in trastuzumab-sensitive xenografts but only differentiated between trastuzumab-resistant and trastuzumab-sensitive xenografts concurrent with differences in tumor size.
UNLABELLED - Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) induces a pathologic complete response (pCR) in approximately 30% of patients with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). In patients lacking a pCR, NAC selects a subpopulation of chemotherapy-resistant tumor cells. To understand the molecular underpinnings driving treatment-resistant TNBCs, we performed comprehensive molecular analyses on the residual disease of 74 clinically defined TNBCs after NAC, including next-generation sequencing (NGS) on 20 matched pretreatment biopsies. Combined NGS and digital RNA expression analysis identified diverse molecular lesions and pathway activation in drug-resistant tumor cells. Ninety percent of the tumors contained a genetic alteration potentially treatable with a currently available targeted therapy. Thus, profiling residual TNBCs after NAC identifies targetable molecular lesions in the chemotherapy-resistant component of the tumor, which may mirror micrometastases destined to recur clinically. These data can guide biomarker-driven adjuvant studies targeting these micrometastases to improve the outcome of patients with TNBC who do not respond completely to NAC.
SIGNIFICANCE - This study demonstrates the spectrum of genomic alterations present in residual TNBC after NAC. Because TNBCs that do not achieve a CR after NAC are likely to recur as metastatic disease at variable times after surgery, these alterations may guide the selection of targeted therapies immediately after mastectomy before these metastases become evident.
Prostatic adenocarcinoma with aberrant diffuse expression of p63 (p63-PCa) is a recently described variant of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and pathologic features of p63-PCa at radical prostatectomy (RP). We reviewed 21 cases of p63-PCa diagnosed on needle biopsy at subsequent RP. Immunohistochemical analysis for PIN4 and Ki-67 was performed in all RP cases. p63-PCa showed a distinctive morphology consisting of atrophic, poorly formed glands, with multilayered and often spindled nuclei. Gleason grading was 3+3=6 in 28.5%, 3+5=8 in 38%, 3+4=7 in 14.3%, and 4+3=7, 5+3=8, and 5+4=9 in 9.5%. Usual-type acinar carcinoma coexisted in 85.7% with only p63-PCa present in the remaining cases. The usual-type carcinoma was Gleason grade 3+2=5 in 4.7%, 3+3=6 in 57%, 3+4=7 in 19%, and 4+3=7 in 4.3%. Overall, p63-PCa represented 65% of the total cancer volume (median 80%). The tumor was organ-confined in 16 cases (76.2%). In the remaining 5 cases, 2 had p63-PCa extending to the margin in areas of intraprostatic incisions, 2 had usual-type acinar adenocarcinoma extending to the margin and extraprostatic tissue, respectively, and 1 had p63-PCa with an unusual cribriform morphology involving the bladder neck. Ki-67 was low, <5% in all cases of p63-PCa, with similar expression in the coexisting acinar-type carcinoma. In summary, it is recommended that these tumors not be assigned a Gleason score and their favorable findings at RP be noted.
PURPOSE - All patients with EGF receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers eventually develop acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Smaller series have identified various mechanisms of resistance, but systematic evaluation of a large number of patients to definitively establish the frequency of various mechanisms has not been conducted.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - Patients with lung adenocarcinomas and acquired resistance to erlotinib or gefitinib enrolled onto a prospective biopsy protocol and underwent a rebiopsy after the development of acquired resistance. Histology was reviewed. Samples underwent genotyping for mutations in EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, ERBB2, KRAS, MEK1, NRAS and PIK3CA, and FISH for MET and HER2.
RESULTS - Adequate tumor samples for molecular analysis were obtained in 155 patients. Ninety-eight had second-site EGFR T790M mutations [63%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 55%-70%] and four had small cell transformation (3%, 95% CI, 0%-6%). MET amplification was seen in 4 of 75 (5%; 95% CI, 1%-13%). HER2 amplification was seen in 3 of 24 (13%; 95% CI, 3%-32%). We did not detect any acquired mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, BRAF, ERBB2, KRAS, MEK1, or NRAS (0 of 88, 0%; 95% CI, 0%-4%). Overlap among mechanisms of acquired resistance was seen in 4%.
CONCLUSIONS - This is the largest series reporting mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy. We identified EGFR T790M as the most common mechanism of acquired resistance, whereas MET amplification, HER2 amplification, and small cell histologic transformation occur less frequently. More comprehensive methods to characterize molecular alterations in this setting are needed to improve our understanding of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs.
OBJECTIVE - Anal cancer incidence is high in HIV-infected MSM. Screening for anal intraepithelial lesions and cancers is performed at specialized clinics and relies on high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) and anal cytology. Both approaches have limited reproducibility and sensitivity for detecting anal cancer precursors. We evaluated biomarkers for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease in a population of HIV-infected MSM.
METHODS - A cross-sectional screening study with passive follow-up included 363 MSM followed at a HIV/AIDS clinic. All men had anal cytology samples taken and were evaluated using HRA and anal biopsies. Using a composite endpoint of biopsy results and cytology, we compared the performance of HPV16/18 genotyping, HPVE6/E7 mRNA expression, and p16/Ki-67 cytology to detect high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AINs).
RESULTS - For all biomarkers analyzed, there was a significant trend of increasing percentage of men testing positive with increasing severity of disease (P < 0.001). HPV DNA testing had the highest sensitivity for anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (AIN3), followed by p16/Ki-67, HPVE6/E7 mRNA testing, and HPV16/18 genotyping. The highest Youden's index was observed for HPVE6/E7 mRNA testing, followed by HPV16/18 genotyping, p16/Ki-67 cytology, and HPV DNA testing. Increasing the threshold for positivity of p16/Ki-67 to five or more positive cells led to significantly higher specificity, but unchanged sensitivity for detecting AIN3.
CONCLUSION - Molecular features of anal disease categories are similar to those of corresponding cervical lesions. Biomarkers evaluated for cervical cancer screening may be used for primary anal cancer screening or to decide who should require immediate treatment vs. expectant management.