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The clinical effect of radiographic contact of glioblastoma (GBM) with neurogenic zones (NZ)-the ventricular-subventricular (VSVZ) and subgranular (SGZ) zones-and the corpus callosum (CC) remains unclear and, in the case of the SGZ, unexplored. We investigated (1) if GBM contact with a NZ correlates with decreased survival; (2) if so, whether this effect is associated with a specific NZ; and (3) if radiographic contact with or invasion of the CC by GBM is associated with decreased survival. We retrospectively identified 207 adult patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery for GBM followed by chemotherapy and/or radiation. Age, preoperative Karnofsky performance status score (KPS), and extent of resection were recorded. Preoperative MRIs were blindly analyzed to calculate tumor volume and assess its contact with VSVZ, SGZ, CC, and cortex. Overall (OS) and progression free (PFS) survivals were calculated and analyzed with multivariate Cox analyses. Among the 207 patients, 111 had GBM contacting VSVZ (VSVZ+GBMs), 23 had SGZ+GBMs, 52 had CC+GBMs, and 164 had cortex+GBMs. VSVZ+, SGZ+, and CC+ GBMs were significantly larger in size relative to their respective non-contacting controls. Multivariate Cox survival analyses revealed GBM contact with the VSVZ, but not SGZ, CC, or cortex, as an independent predictor of lower OS, PFS, and early recurrence. We hypothesize that the VSVZ niche has unique properties that contribute to GBM pathobiology in adults.
PURPOSE - We performed a multi-institutional study to identify prognostic factors and determine outcomes for patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and brain metastasis.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - A total of 90 patients with brain metastases from ALK-rearranged NSCLC were identified from six institutions; 84 of 90 patients received radiotherapy to the brain (stereotactic radiosurgery [SRS] or whole-brain radiotherapy [WBRT]), and 86 of 90 received tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Estimates for overall (OS) and intracranial progression-free survival were determined and clinical prognostic factors were identified by Cox proportional hazards modeling.
RESULTS - Median OS after development of brain metastases was 49.5 months (95% CI, 29.0 months to not reached), and median intracranial progression-free survival was 11.9 months (95% CI, 10.1 to 18.2 months). Forty-five percent of patients with follow-up had progressive brain metastases at death, and repeated interventions for brain metastases were common. Absence of extracranial metastases, Karnofsky performance score ≥ 90, and no history of TKIs before development of brain metastases were associated with improved survival (P = .003, < .001, and < .001, respectively), whereas a single brain metastasis or initial treatment with SRS versus WBRT were not (P = .633 and .666, respectively). Prognostic factors significant by multivariable analysis were used to describe four patient groups with 2-year OS estimates of 33%, 59%, 76%, and 100%, respectively (P < .001).
CONCLUSION - Patients with brain metastases from ALK-rearranged NSCLC treated with radiotherapy (SRS and/or WBRT) and TKIs have prolonged survival, suggesting that interventions to control intracranial disease are critical. The refinement of prognosis for this molecular subtype of NSCLC identifies a population of patients likely to benefit from first-line SRS, close CNS observation, and treatment of emergent CNS disease.
© 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) leads to angiogenesis, tumor progression, and inhibition of immune function. We conducted the first phase II study to estimate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy in patients with metastatic RCC. Eligible patients had predominantly clear cell metastatic RCC, measurable disease, a Karnofsky Performance Status of ≥80%, and adequate end-organ function. IL-2 (600,000 IU/kg) was infused intravenously every 8 hours (maximum 28 doses) during two 5-day cycles on days 1 and 15 of each 84-day course. Bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) was infused intravenously every 2 weeks beginning 2 weeks before initiating IL-2. Fifty of 51 eligible patients from 8 centers were enrolled. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.2 months (90% confidence interval, 5.7-17.7), and 2-year PFS was 18% (90% confidence interval, 8%-27%). Responses included 4 complete (8%) and 11 partial (22%) responses. Toxicities did not exceed those expected from each agent alone. Combining IL-2 plus bevacizumab is feasible, with a response rate and PFS at least as high as reported previously for the single agents. The regimen did not appear to enhance the rate of durable major responses over that of IL-2 alone.
PURPOSE - N(1),N(11)-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM), a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring polyamine spermine, can induce polyamine depletion and inhibit tumor cell growth. The objectives of this phase I study were to assess the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor activity of DENSPM in advanced HCC.
METHODS - Patients with measurable advanced HCC, Child-Pugh A or B cirrhosis, CLIP score ≤3, and Karnofsky score ≥60 % were eligible. DENSPM was given as a short intravenous infusion on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12 of each 28-day cycle. The starting dose of 30 mg/m(2) was escalated at a fixed increment of 15 mg/m(2) until the MTD was identified. The plasma pharmacokinetics of DENSPM for the first and last doses given in cycle 1 was characterized.
RESULTS - Thirty-eight patients (male 79 %; median age 61 years; Child-Pugh A 84 %; ≥1 prior systemic therapy 45 %) were enrolled and treated. The most common adverse events (AEs) ≥grade 1 were fatigue (53 %), nausea (34 %), diarrhea (32 %), vomiting (32 %), anemia (29 %), and elevated AST (29 %). The most common grade 3-4 AEs were fatigue/asthenia (13 %), elevated AST (13 %), hyperbilirubinemia (11 %), renal failure (8 %), and hyperglycemia (8 %). The MTD was 75 mg/m(2). There were no objective responses, although 7/38 (18 %) patients achieved stable disease for ≥16 weeks. The overall mean (±SD) total body clearance for the initial dose, 66.3 ± 35.9 L/h/m(2) (n = 16), was comparable to the clearance in patients with normal to near normal hepatic function. Drug levels in plasma decayed rapidly immediately after the infusion but remained above 10 nM for several days after dosing at the MTD.
CONCLUSIONS - N(1),N(11)-diethylnorspermine treatment at the MTD of 75 mg/m(2), given intravenously every other weekday for two consecutive weeks of each 28-day cycle, was relatively well tolerated in patients with advanced HCC including those with mild-to-moderate liver dysfunction. This administration schedule provided prolonged systemic exposure to potentially effective concentrations of the drug. Stable disease was seen in 18 % of patients receiving DENSPM treatment. Further evaluation of DENSPM monotherapy for advanced HCC does not appear to be justified because of insufficient evidence of clinical benefit in the patients evaluated in this study.
BACKGROUND - The current study was undertaken to identify factors specific to kidney transplantation that are associated with posttransplant functional performance (FP) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).
METHODS - Karnofsky FP status was assessed longitudinally in 86 adult kidney transplant recipients. Patients reported HRQOL using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS).
RESULTS - FP improved (P <0.001) after kidney transplantation (from 75 +/- 1 to 77 +/- 1, 81 +/- 1, and 82 +/- 1 at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively). Patients receiving organs from living donors showed continued improvement through posttransplant year 1 while those receiving cadaveric organs stabilized at month 6 (simple interaction contrast, year 1 versus pretransplant; P <0.05). Patients receiving dialysis therapy for 6 months or more prior to transplantation demonstrated lower SF-36 posttransplant physical component scores in comparison with patients who were transplanted preemptively (38 +/- 1 versus 45 +/- 2, P <0.05). Path analysis demonstrated the positive direct effect of time on FP with kidney transplantation (beta = 0.23, P <0.05), and the negative direct effects on FP of diabetes (beta = -0.22) and cadaveric organs (beta = -0.22, both P <0.05). In turn, FP had a positive direct effect on HRQOL (beta = 0.40, P <0.001).
CONCLUSIONS - Overall improvement in FP is attenuated 1 year after kidney transplantation in recipients of organs from cadaveric donors. The positive effect of time after transplantation, and the negative effects of cadaveric organs and diabetes on posttransplant HRQOL, are indirect and are mediated by the direct effects of these variables on posttransplant FP.
BACKGROUND - Some previous studies suggested that transplantation performed in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients was associated with a higher rate of complications and poorer outcomes. We examined more than a decade of experience with solid organ transplantation at a single center and compared VA patients with nonveteran patients to assess long-term patient and graft survival and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).
METHODS - Demographic, clinical, and survival data were extracted from a database that included all transplants from January 1990 through December 2002 at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (non-VA) and the Nashville VA Medical Center (VA). The HRQOL was assessed in a subset of patients using the Karnofsky functional performance (FP) index and the Short-Form-36 self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival and analysis of variance methods.
RESULTS - One thousand eight hundred nine adult patients receiving solid organ transplants (1,896 grafts) between 1990 and 2002 were reviewed: 380 VA patients (141 liver, 54 heart, 183 kidney, 2 lung) and 1429 non-VA patients (280 liver, 246 heart, 749 kidney, 154 lung). Mean follow-up time was 46 +/- 1 months. Five-year graft survival for VA and non-VA patients, respectively, was liver 65% +/- 5% versus 69% +/- 3% (P = 0.97); heart 73% +/- 8% versus 73% +/- 3% (P = 0.67); and kidney 76% +/- 5% versus 77% +/- 2% (P = 0.84). Five-year patient survival was liver 75% +/- 5% versus 78% +/- 3% (P = 0.94); heart 73% +/- 8% versus 74% +/- 3% (P = 0.75); and kidney 84% +/- 4% versus 87% +/- 2% (P = 0.21) for VA and non-VA, respectively. In the first 3 years after transplant, the FP scores for VA versus non-VA patients were 85 +/- 2 versus 87 +/- 1 (P = 0.50). The SF-36 mental component scales were 47 +/- 3 versus 49 +/- 1 (P = 0.39); and the SF-36 physical component scales were 37 +/- 2 versus 38 +/- 1 (P = 0.59), respectively. Longer-term (through year 7) HRQOL scores for VA versus non-VA patients were FP 85 +/- 1 versus 88 +/- 1 (P = 0.17); mental component scales 47 +/- 2 versus 49 +/- 1 (P = 0.29); and physical component scales 35 +/- 2 versus 39 +/- 1 (P = 0.05), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS - The veteran patients have similar graft and patient survival as the nonveteran patients. Overall quality of life is similar between veterans and nonveterans during the first three years after transplantation. A trend toward a later decline in the veterans' perception of their physical functioning may stem from the increased prevalence of hepatitis C virus among VA liver transplant recipients, a known factor reducing late HRQOL.
BACKGROUND - Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the duration (y) of dialysis and nutritional status, providing evidence of wasting.
OBJECTIVE - The aim was to determine the extent, pace, determinants, and optimal methods of assessing wasting in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
DESIGN - Laboratory variables, body composition, and physical activity, function, and performance were tested 4 times over 1 y in 54 hemodialysis patients. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences by age, sex, race, diabetes status, and dialysis vintage (ie, time since initiation of dialysis).
RESULTS - No significant changes in body weight, fat mass, lean body mass, or laboratory variables were observed. Phase angle, a bioelectrical impedance analysis-derived variable related to body cell mass, decreased significantly (linear estimate: -0.043 degrees /mo, or approximately 0.5 degrees/y; P = 0.001). Physical activity measured by accelerometry declined 3.4%/mo (P = 0.01). The Maximum Activity Score of the Human Activity Profile (HAP) also declined significantly (linear estimate: -0.50/mo, or approximately 6 points/y; P = 0.025). Higher interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) concentrations were associated with a narrower phase angle (P = 0.004) and with a more rapid decline in phase angle with time (time x IL-1beta interaction, P = 0.01); similar effects of IL-1beta on physical activity were observed. Dietary protein and energy intakes were associated with changes in the HAP.
CONCLUSIONS - Evidence of adverse changes in body composition and physical activity, function, and performance and of a modest influence of inflammation and dietary intake on these changes was observed in this cohort. Tools such as bioelectrical impedance analysis, accelerometry, and the HAP may be required to identify subtle changes.
PURPOSE - Superior sulcus tumors (SST) of the lung are uncommon and constitute approximately 3% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These tumors cause specific symptoms and signs, and are associated with patterns of failure that differ from those seen for NSCLC tumors in other nonapical locations. Prognostic factors and most effective treatments are controversial. We conducted a retrospective study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center to identify outcome predictors for patients with SST treated by a multidisciplinary approach.
METHODS AND MATERIALS - This retrospective review of 143 patients without distant metastasis at presentation is a continuation of a previous M. D. Anderson study now updated to 1994. In this study, we examine the 5-year survival rate by pretreatment tumor and patient characteristics and by the treatments received. Strict criteria were used to define SST. Actuarial life-table analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare survival rates.
RESULTS - Overall predictors of 5-year survival were weight loss (p < 0.01), supraclavicular fossa (p = 0. 03), or vertebral body (p = 0.05) involvement, stage of the disease (p < 0.01), and surgical treatment (p < 0.01). Five-year survival for patients with Stage IIB disease was 47% compared to 14% for Stage IIIA, and 16% for Stage IIIB. For patients with Stage IIB disease, surgical treatment (p < 0.01) and weight loss (p = 0.01) were significant independent predictors of 5-year survival. Among patients with Stage IIIA disease, the only predictor of survival was Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (p = 0.02). For patients with Stage IIIB disease, the only independent predictor of survival was a right superior sulcus location, which was associated with a worse 5-year survival rate than that for patients with tumors in the left superior sulcus (p = 0.02). More patients with adenocarcinoma than with squamous cell tumors experienced cerebral metastases within 5 years (p < 0.01). Patients without gross residual disease after surgical resection who received postoperative radiation therapy with total doses of 55 to 64 Gy had a 5-year survival rate of 82% as compared with the 5-year survival rate of 56% in patients who received 50 to 54 Gy. Twenty-three patients survived for longer than 3 years. Of these, 4 patients (17%) received radiation therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy without surgical resection. The other 19 patients (83%) had resection combined with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS - The findings from this study confirm the importance of the new staging system, separating T3 N0 M0 (Stage IIB) from Stage IIIA, since there was a significant difference in the 5-year survival (p < 0.01). Interestingly, there was no significant 5-year survival difference between Stage IIIA (N2) and Stage IIIB (T4 or N3). This study also suggests that surgery is an important component of the multidisciplinary approach to patients with SST if their nodes were negative. Disease that is minimally invading surrounding normal structures can be resected followed by radiation therapy in doses of 55 to 64 Gy. Further investigation of treatment strategies combining high-dose radiation therapy (>/=66 Gy) with chemotherapy is indicated for patients with unresectable and/or node-positive (N2) SST.