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BACKGROUND - There are conflicting data on the effects of antipsychotic medications on delirium in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).
METHODS - In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned patients with acute respiratory failure or shock and hypoactive or hyperactive delirium to receive intravenous boluses of haloperidol (maximum dose, 20 mg daily), ziprasidone (maximum dose, 40 mg daily), or placebo. The volume and dose of a trial drug or placebo was halved or doubled at 12-hour intervals on the basis of the presence or absence of delirium, as detected with the use of the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, and of side effects of the intervention. The primary end point was the number of days alive without delirium or coma during the 14-day intervention period. Secondary end points included 30-day and 90-day survival, time to freedom from mechanical ventilation, and time to ICU and hospital discharge. Safety end points included extrapyramidal symptoms and excessive sedation.
RESULTS - Written informed consent was obtained from 1183 patients or their authorized representatives. Delirium developed in 566 patients (48%), of whom 89% had hypoactive delirium and 11% had hyperactive delirium. Of the 566 patients, 184 were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 192 to receive haloperidol, and 190 to receive ziprasidone. The median duration of exposure to a trial drug or placebo was 4 days (interquartile range, 3 to 7). The median number of days alive without delirium or coma was 8.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6 to 9.9) in the placebo group, 7.9 (95% CI, 4.4 to 9.6) in the haloperidol group, and 8.7 (95% CI, 5.9 to 10.0) in the ziprasidone group (P=0.26 for overall effect across trial groups). The use of haloperidol or ziprasidone, as compared with placebo, had no significant effect on the primary end point (odds ratios, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.64 to 1.21] and 1.04 [95% CI, 0.73 to 1.48], respectively). There were no significant between-group differences with respect to the secondary end points or the frequency of extrapyramidal symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS - The use of haloperidol or ziprasidone, as compared with placebo, in patients with acute respiratory failure or shock and hypoactive or hyperactive delirium in the ICU did not significantly alter the duration of delirium. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the VA Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center; MIND-USA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01211522 .).
AIMS - Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) often has a mucinous component, with more than 50% mucin by volume defining the mucinous subtype of CRC. The prognostic impact of the mucinous phenotype remains unclear.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We evaluated 224 CRC with at least 5% mucinous component (herein 'mCRC') for patient sex, age, race and outcome; tumour size, location, stage and microsatellite instability (MSI) status; percentage of glands producing mucin; percentage of tumour volume composed of mucin; whether tumoral epithelium floated in mucin pools; tumour budding; signet ring cells (SRCs); and peritumoural inflammation (PI). We related these features to disease-specific survival and compared outcomes to 499 stage-matched, conventional colorectal adenocarcinomas. Factors predicting worse prognosis in mCRC on univariable analysis included non-MSI-high status (P = 0.0008), SRC (P = 0.0017) and lack of PI (P = 0.0034). No parameters were independently associated with outcome after adjusting for tumour stage in multivariate analysis. The percentage of glands producing mucin and percentage tumour volume composed of mucin did not affect prognosis, including at the recommended 50% cut-off for subtyping mCRC. Disease-specific survival for mCRC and adenocarcinomas were similar after accounting for stage.
CONCLUSIONS - Stage-matched mCRCs and adenocarcinomas have similar outcomes, with no prognostic significance to morphological subtyping. Histological characteristics of mCRC, including percentage of tumour volume comprised of mucin, were not predictive of outcome.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
We describe results from IMmotion150, a randomized phase 2 study of atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) alone or combined with bevacizumab (anti-VEGF) versus sunitinib in 305 patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) in intent-to-treat and PD-L1+ populations. Intent-to-treat PFS hazard ratios for atezolizumab + bevacizumab or atezolizumab monotherapy versus sunitinib were 1.0 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-1.45) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.82-1.71), respectively; PD-L1+ PFS hazard ratios were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.38-1.08) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.63-1.67), respectively. Exploratory biomarker analyses indicated that tumor mutation and neoantigen burden were not associated with PFS. Angiogenesis, T-effector/IFN-γ response, and myeloid inflammatory gene expression signatures were strongly and differentially associated with PFS within and across the treatments. These molecular profiles suggest that prediction of outcomes with anti-VEGF and immunotherapy may be possible and offer mechanistic insights into how blocking VEGF may overcome resistance to immune checkpoint blockade.
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE - Inflammation, cardiac remodeling, and fibrosis may explain in part the excess risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), galectin 3 (Gal-3), and soluble ST2 (sST2) are possible biomarkers of these pathways in patients with CKD.
STUDY DESIGN - Observational cohort study.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS - Individuals with CKD enrolled in either of 2 multicenter CKD cohort studies: the Seattle Kidney Study or C-PROBE (Clinical Phenotyping and Resource Biobank Study).
EXPOSURES - Circulating GDF-15, Gal-3, and sST2 measured at baseline.
OUTCOMES - Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospitalization for physician-adjudicated heart failure and the atherosclerotic CVD events of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident.
ANALYTIC APPROACH - Cox proportional hazards models used to test the association of each biomarker with each outcome, adjusting for demographics, CVD risk factors, and kidney function.
RESULTS - Among 883 participants, mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 49±19mL/min/1.73m. Higher GDF-15 (adjusted HR [aHR] per 1-SD higher, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.53-2.29), Gal-3 (aHR per 1-SD higher, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.36-1.78), and sST2 (aHR per 1-SD higher, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17-1.58) concentrations were significantly associated with mortality. Only GDF-15 level was also associated with heart failure events (HR per 1-SD higher, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.12-2.16). There were no detectable associations between GDF-15, Gal-3, or sST2 concentrations and atherosclerotic CVD events.
LIMITATIONS - Event rates for heart failure and atherosclerotic CVD were low.
CONCLUSIONS - Adults with CKD and higher circulating GDF-15, Gal-3, and sST2 concentrations experienced greater mortality. Elevated GDF-15 concentration was also associated with an increased rate of heart failure. Further work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking these circulating biomarkers with CVD in patients with CKD.
Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mesenteric tumor deposits are an adverse prognostic factor for small intestinal well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. Per the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual (eighth edition), any mesenteric tumor deposit larger than 2 cm signifies pN2 disease. This criterion has not been critically evaluated as a prognostic factor for small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, nor have multifocality or histologic features of mesenteric tumor deposits. We evaluated 70 small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors with mesenteric tumor deposits for lesional contour, sclerosis, inflammation, calcification, entrapped blood vessels, and perineural invasion. Ki67 proliferative indices of the largest mesenteric tumor deposit from each case were calculated, and number of tumor deposits and size of the largest deposit were recorded. Associations between these factors (along with patient age, primary tumor Ki67 index, and AJCC stage) and development of liver metastases and overall survival were assessed. Median mesenteric tumor deposit size was 1.5 cm (range: 0.2-7.0 cm); median deposit number was 1 (range: 1-13). Primary and tumor deposit Ki67 indices within a given patient were discordant in 40% of cases but showed similar hazard ratios for disease-specific survival. Size of tumor deposits had no significant effect on prognosis, whether analyzed on a continuous scale or dichotomized using the recommended 2 cm cutoff. In contrast, increasing number of deposits was associated with poor prognosis, with multiple deposits conferring an 8.19-fold risk of disease-specific death compared to a single deposit (P = 0.049). Morphologic features of deposits had no prognostic impact. Size of mesenteric tumor deposits does not affect prognosis in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor patients; instead, deposit multifocality is associated with shorter disease-specific survival and should be incorporated into future staging criteria.
Diastolic dysfunction (DD), an abnormality in cardiac left ventricular (LV) chamber compliance, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although DD has been extensively studied in older populations, co-morbidity patterns are less well characterized in middle-aged subjects. We screened 156,434 subjects with transthoracic echocardiogram reports available through Vanderbilt's electronic heath record and identified 6,612 subjects 40 to 55 years old with an LV ejection fraction ≥50% and diastolic function staging. We tested 452 incident and prevalent clinical diagnoses for associations with early-stage DD (n = 1,676) versus normal function. There were 44 co-morbid diagnoses associated with grade 1 DD including hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78 to 2.28, p <5.3 × 10-29), type 2 diabetes (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.68 to 2.29, p = 2.1 × 10-17), tachycardia (OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.19, p = 2.9 × 10-6), obesity (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.06, p = 1.7 × 10-12), and clinical end points, including end-stage renal disease (OR 3.29, 95% CI 2.19 to 4.96, p = 1.2 × 10-8) and stroke (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.02, p = 6.9 × 10-3). Among the 60 incident diagnoses associated with DD, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (OR 4.63, 95% CI 3.39 to 6.32, p = 6.3 × 10-22) had the most significant association. Among subjects with normal diastolic function and blood pressure at baseline, a blood pressure measurement in the hypertensive range at the time of the second echocardiogram was associated with progression to stage 1 DD (p = 0.04). In conclusion, DD was common among subjects 40 to 55 years old and was associated with a heavy burden of co-morbid disease.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
For a decade, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program collected clinicopathologic annotation data along with multi-platform molecular profiles of more than 11,000 human tumors across 33 different cancer types. TCGA clinical data contain key features representing the democratized nature of the data collection process. To ensure proper use of this large clinical dataset associated with genomic features, we developed a standardized dataset named the TCGA Pan-Cancer Clinical Data Resource (TCGA-CDR), which includes four major clinical outcome endpoints. In addition to detailing major challenges and statistical limitations encountered during the effort of integrating the acquired clinical data, we present a summary that includes endpoint usage recommendations for each cancer type. These TCGA-CDR findings appear to be consistent with cancer genomics studies independent of the TCGA effort and provide opportunities for investigating cancer biology using clinical correlates at an unprecedented scale.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - High cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in ovarian tumors has been associated with poor prognosis, but the role of COX-1 expression and its relation to survival is less clear. Here, we evaluated COX expression and associations with survival outcomes between type I (clear cell, mucinous, low grade endometrioid and low grade serous) and type II (high grade serous and high grade endometrioid) ovarian tumors.
METHODS - We developed and validated a new COX-1 antibody, and conducted immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for COX-1 and COX-2 on a tissue microarray (TMA) of 190 primary ovarian tumors. In addition to standard IHC scoring and H-scores to combine the percentage of positive cells and staining intensity, we also measured COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression by QPCR. High expression was defined as greater than or equal to median values. Clinical characteristics and disease outcomes were ascertained from medical records. Associations with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were quantified by hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) from proportional hazards regression.
RESULTS - Type I tumors had high COX-2 expression, while type II tumors had high COX-1 expression. In multivariable adjusted regression models, higher COX-1 mRNA expression was associated with shorter DFS (HR: 6.37, 95% CI: 1.84-22.01) and OS (HR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.04-4.91), while higher H-scores for COX-2 expression were associated with shorter DFS (HR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.06-3.49). Stratified analysis indicated that COX-2 was significantly associated with DFS among cases with Type II tumors (HR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.06-3.53).
CONCLUSIONS - These findings suggest that ovarian tumor type contributes to differences in COX expression levels and associations with survival.
The AJCC recently published the 8th edition of its cancer staging system. Significant changes were made to the staging algorithm for soft tissue sarcoma (STS) of the extremities or trunk, including the addition of 2 additional T (size) classifications in lieu of tumor depth and grouping lymph node metastasis (LNM) with distant metastasis as stage IV disease. Whether these changes improve staging system performance is questionable. This retrospective cohort analysis of 21,396 adult patients with STS of the extremity or trunk in the SEER database compares the AJCC 8th edition staging system with the 7th edition and a newly proposed staging algorithm using a variety of statistical techniques. The effect of tumor size on disease-specific survival was assessed by flexible, nonlinear Cox proportional hazard regression using restricted cubic splines and fractional polynomials. The slope of covariate-adjusted log hazards for sarcoma-specific survival decreases for tumors >8 cm in greatest dimension, limiting prognostic information contributed by the new T4 classification in the AJCC 8th edition. Anatomic depth independently provides significant prognostic information. LNM is not equivalent to distant, non-nodal metastasis. Based on these findings, an alternative staging system is proposed and demonstrated to outperform both AJCC staging schemes. The analyses presented also disclose no evidence of improved clinical performance of the 8th edition compared with the previous edition. The AJCC 8th edition staging system for STS is no better than the previous 7th edition. Instead, a proposed staging system based on histologic grade, tumor size, and anatomic depth shows significantly higher predictive accuracy, with higher model concordance than either AJCC staging system. Changes to existing staging systems should improve the performance of prognostic models. Until such improvements are documented, AJCC committees should refrain from modifying established staging schemes.
Copyright © 2018 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
BACKGROUND - The objective of this study was to determine the impact of caudate resection on margin status and outcomes during resection of extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
METHODS - A database of 1,092 patients treated for biliary malignancies at institutions of the Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium was queried for individuals undergoing curative-intent resection for extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Patients who did versus did not undergo concomitant caudate resection were compared with regard to demographic, baseline, and tumor characteristics as well as perioperative outcomes.
RESULTS - A total of 241 patients underwent resection for a hilar cholangiocarcinoma, of whom 85 underwent caudate resection. Patients undergoing caudate resection were less likely to have a final positive margin (P = .01). Kaplan-Meier curve of overall survival for patients undergoing caudate resection indicated no improvement over patients not undergoing caudate resection (P = .16). On multivariable analysis, caudate resection was not associated with improved overall survival or recurrence-free survival, although lymph node positivity was associated with worse overall survival and recurrence-free survival, and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was associated with improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival.
CONCLUSION - Caudate resection is associated with a greater likelihood of margin-negative resection in patients with extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Precise preoperative imaging is critical to assess the extent of biliary involvement, so that all degrees of hepatic resections are possible at the time of the initial operation.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.