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Obesity and obesity-related disorders are a global epidemic affecting over 10% of the world's population. Treatment of these diseases has become increasingly challenging and expensive. The most effective and durable treatment for Class III obesity (body mass index ≥35 kg/m) is bariatric surgery, namely, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy. These procedures are associated with increased circulating bile acids, molecules that not only facilitate intestinal fat absorption but are also potent hormones regulating numerous metabolic pathways. We recently reported on a novel surgical procedure in mice, termed distal gallbladder bile diversion to the ileum (GB-IL), that emulates the altered bile flow after RYGB without other manipulations of gastrointestinal anatomy. GB-IL improves oral glucose tolerance in mice made obese with high-fat diet. This is accompanied by fat malabsorption and weight loss, which complicates studying the role of elevated circulating bile acids in metabolic control. A less aggressive surgery in which the gallbladder bile is diverted to the proximal ileum, termed GB-IL, also improves glucose control but is not accompanied by fat malabsorption. To better understand the differential effects achieved by these bile diversion procedures, an untargeted ultraperformance liquid chromatography-ion mobility-mass spectrometry (UPLC-IM-MS) method was optimized for fecal samples derived from mice that have undergone bile diversion surgery. Utilizing the UPLC-IM-MS method, we were able to identify dysregulation of bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and cholesterol derivatives that contribute to the differential metabolism resulting from these surgeries.
Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates hunger and worsens glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin is decreased after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this change is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that jejunal nutrient exposure plays a significant role in ghrelin suppression after RYGB. Feeding tubes were placed in the stomach or jejunum in 13 obese subjects to simulate pre-RYGB or post-RYGB glucose exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, respectively, without the confounding effects of caloric restriction, weight loss, and surgical stress. On separate study days, the plasma glucose curves obtained with either gastric or jejunal administration of glucose were replicated with intravenous (iv) infusions of glucose. These "isoglycemic clamps" enabled us to determine the contribution of the GI tract and postabsorptive plasma glucose to acyl ghrelin suppression. Plasma acyl ghrelin levels were suppressed to a greater degree with jejunal glucose administration compared with gastric glucose administration (P < 0.05). Jejunal administration of glucose also resulted in a greater suppression of acyl ghrelin than the corresponding isoglycemic glucose infusion (P ≤ 0.01). However, gastric and isoglycemic iv glucose infusions resulted in similar degrees of acyl ghrelin suppression (P > 0.05). Direct exposure of the proximal jejunum to glucose increases acyl ghrelin suppression independent of circulating glucose levels. The enhanced suppression of acyl ghrelin after RYGB may be due to a nutrient-initiated signal in the jejunum that regulates ghrelin secretion.
Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a challenging clinical problem that is difficult to diagnose noninvasively. Diagnosis early in the disease process would enable life-saving early surgical intervention. Previous studies established that superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers detect the slow wave changes in the magnetoenterogram (MENG) noninvasively following induction of mesenteric ischemia in animal models. The purpose of this study was to assess functional physiological changes in the intestinal slow wave MENG of patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia. Pre- and postoperative studies were conducted on CMI patients using MENG and intraoperative recordings using invasive serosal electromyograms (EMG). Our preoperative MENG recordings showed that patients with CMI exhibited a significant decrease in intestinal slow wave frequency from 8.9 ± 0.3 cpm preprandial to 7.4 ± 0.1 cpm postprandial (P < 0.01) that was not observed in postoperative recordings (9.3 ± 0.2 cpm preprandial and 9.4 ± 0.4 cpm postprandial, P = 0.86). Intraoperative recording detected multiple frequencies from the ischemic portion of jejunum before revascularization, whereas normal serosal intestinal slow wave frequencies were observed after revascularization. The preoperative MENG data also showed signals with multiple frequencies suggestive of uncoupling and intestinal ischemia similar to intraoperative serosal EMG. Our results showed that multichannel MENG can identify intestinal slow wave dysrhythmias in CMI patients.
Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Gastrointestinal extracellular recordings have been a core technique in motility research for a century. However, the bioelectrical basis of extracellular data has recently been challenged by claims that these techniques preferentially assay movement artifacts, cannot reproduce the underlying slow wave kinetics, and misrepresent the true slow wave frequency. These claims motivated this joint experimental-theoretical study, which aimed to define the sources and validity of extracellular potentials. In vivo extracellular recordings and video capture were performed in the porcine jejunum, before and after intra-arterial nifedipine administration. Gastric extracellular recordings were recorded simultaneously using conventional serosal contact and suction electrodes, and biphasic and monophasic extracellular potentials were simulated in a biophysical model. Contractions were abolished by nifedipine, but extracellular slow waves persisted, with unchanged amplitude, downstroke rate, velocity, and downstroke width (P>0.10 for all), at reduced frequency (24% lower; P=0.03). Simultaneous suction and conventional serosal extracellular recordings were identical in phase (frequency and activation-recovery interval), but varied in morphology (monophasic vs. biphasic; downstroke rate and amplitude: P<0.0001). Simulations demonstrated the field contribution of current flow to extracellular potential and quantified the effects of localised depolarisation due to suction pressure on extracellular potential morphology. In sum, these results demonstrate that gastrointestinal extracellular slow wave recordings cannot be explained by motion artifacts, and are of a bioelectrical origin that is highly consistent with the underlying biophysics of slow wave propagation. Motion suppression is shown to be unnecessary as a routine control in in vivo extracellular studies, supporting the validity of the extant gastrointestinal extracellular literature.
To identify additional potential functions for the multi-PDZ domain containing protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 2 (NHERF2), which is present in the apical domain of intestinal epithelial cells, proteomic studies of mouse jejunal villus epithelial cell brush border membrane vesicles compared wild-type to homozygous NHERF2 knockout FVB mice by a two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-iTRAQ approach. Jejunal architecture appeared normal in NHERF2 null in terms of villus length and crypt depth, Paneth cell number, and microvillus structure by electron microscopy. There was also no change in proliferative activity based on BrdU labeling. Four brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) preparations from wild-type mouse jejunum were compared with four preparations from NHERF2 knockout mice. LC-MS/MS identified 450 proteins in both matched wild-type and NHERF2 null BBMV; 13 proteins were changed in two or more separate BBMV preparations (9 increased and 4 decreased in NHERF2 null mice), while an additional 92 proteins were changed in a single BBMV preparation (68 increased and 24 decreased in NHERF2 null mice). These proteins were categorized as 1) transport proteins (one increased and two decreased in NHERF2 null); 2) signaling molecules (2 increased in NHERF2 null); 3) cytoskeleton/junctional proteins (4 upregulated and 1 downregulated in NHERF2 null); and 4) metabolic proteins/intrinsic BB proteins) (2 upregulated and 1 downregulated in NHERF2 null). Immunoblotting of BBMV was used to validate or extend the findings, demonstrating increase in BBMV of NHERF2 null of MCT1, coronin 3, and ezrin. The proteome of the NHERF2 null mouse small intestinal BB demonstrates up- and downregulation of multiple transport proteins, signaling molecules, cytoskeletal proteins, tight junctional and adherens junction proteins, and proteins involved in metabolism, suggesting involvement of NHERF2 in multiple apical regulatory processes and interactions with luminal contents.
Bypass of the foregut following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery results in altered nutrient absorption, which is proposed to underlie the improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We conducted a prospective crossover study in which a mixed meal was delivered orally before RYGB (gastric) and both orally (jejunal) and by gastrostomy tube (gastric) postoperatively (1 and 6 wk) in nine subjects. Glucose, insulin, and incretin responses were measured, and whole-body insulin sensitivity was estimated with the insulin sensitivity index composite. RYGB resulted in an improved glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) area under the curve (AUC) in the first 6 wk postoperatively (all P ≤ 0.018); there was no effect of delivery route (all P ≥ 0.632) or route × time interaction (all P ≥ 0.084). The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) AUC was unchanged after RYGB (P = 0.819); however, GIP levels peaked earlier after RYGB with jejunal delivery. The ratio of insulin AUC to GLP-1 and GIP AUC decreased after surgery (P =.001 and 0.061, respectively) without an effect of delivery route over time (both P ≥ 0.646). Insulin sensitivity improved post-RYGB (P = 0.001) with no difference between the gastric and jejunal delivery of the mixed meal over time (P = 0.819). These data suggest that exclusion of nutrients from the foregut with RYGB does not improve glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. However, changes in the foregut response post-RYGB due to lack of nutrient exposure cannot be excluded. Our findings suggest that foregut bypass may alter the incretin response by enhanced nutrient delivery to the hindgut.
Na/H exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is a scaffold protein made up of two PDZ domains and an ERM binding domain. It is in the brush border of multiple epithelial cells where it modulates 1) Na absorption by regulating NHE3 complexes and cytoskeletal association, 2) Cl secretion through trafficking of CFTR, and 3) Na-coupled phosphate absorption through membrane retention of NaPi2a. To further understand the role of NHERF1 in regulation of small intestinal Na absorptive cell function, with emphasis on apical membrane transport regulation, quantitative proteomic analysis was performed on brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from wild-type (WT) and homozygous NHERF1 knockout mouse jejunal villus Na absorptive cells. Jejunal architecture appeared normal in NHERF1 null; however, there was increased proliferative activity, as indicated by increased crypt BrdU staining. LC-MS/MS analysis using iTRAQ to compare WT and NHERF1 null BBMV identified 463 proteins present in both WT and NHERF1 null BBMV of simultaneously prepared and studied samples. Seventeen proteins had an altered amount of expression between WT and NHERF1 null in two or more separate preparations, and 149 total proteins were altered in at least one BBMV preparation. The classes of the majority of proteins altered included transport proteins, signaling and trafficking proteins, and proteins involved in proliferation and cell division. Affected proteins also included tight junction and adherens junction proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, as well as metabolic and BB digestive enzymes. Changes in abundance of several proteins were confirmed by immunoblotting [increased CEACAM1, decreased ezrin (p-ezrin), NHERF3, PLCβ3, E-cadherin, p120, β-catenin]. The changes in the jejunal BBMV proteome of NHERF1 null mice are consistent with a more complex role of NHERF1 than just forming signaling complexes and anchoring proteins to the apical membrane and include at least alterations in proteins involved in transport, signaling, and proliferation.
Although minimally invasive hepatic resection surgery has shown decreased morbidity in select patients, conventional laparoscopic liver resection has inherent limitations with reduced freedom of movement within the abdominal cavity and 2-dimensional view of the operative field. Robotic liver surgery allows surgeons to perform advanced procedures with a potential for improved precision and ergonomics as well as a 3-dimensional view of the surgical site. However, use of the robot entails a steep learning curve and additional equipment. The purpose of this article is to summarize the emerging field of robotic liver surgery and include the authors' early experience with these operations.
Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hepaticojejunostomy is a standard biliary reconstruction method for infantile living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), but choledochocholedochostomy for infants is not generally accepted yet. Ten pediatric recipients weighing no more than 10 kg underwent duct-to-duct choledochocholedochostomy (DD) for biliary reconstruction for LDLT. Patients were followed up for a median period of 26.8 months (range: 4.0-79.0 months). The incidence of posttransplant biliary complications for DD was compared with that for Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RY). No DD patients and 1 RY patient (5%) developed biliary leakage (P > 0.05), and biliary stricture occurred in 1 DD patient (10%) and none of the RY patients (P > 0.05); none of the DD patients and 5 RY patients (25%) suffered from uncomplicated cholangitis after LDLT (P > 0.05), and 1 DD patient (10%) and 2 RY patients (10%) died of causes unrelated to biliary complications. In conclusion, both hepaticojejunostomy and choledochocholedochostomy resulted in satisfactory outcome in terms of biliary complications, including leakage and stricture, for recipients weighing no more than 10 kg.
OBJECTIVE - Many patients with cancer have limited esophageal reconstruction options when the stomach is unavailable as a replacement conduit or when long-segment discontinuity exists. Jejunum has been used as an alternative conduit, both as a pedicled or free flap interposition; however, reports of this are usually limited to short-segment repairs. Microvascular augmentation of a pedicled jejunal flap allows creation of a longer conduit, making it possible to replace the entire esophagus with jejunum. Few reports describe this technique in patients with cancer. We report our initial experience with "supercharged" pedicled jejunum as an alternative conduit for total esophageal reconstruction.
METHODS - Review of a prospectively collected departmental database was performed to identify those patients who underwent total esophageal reconstruction with supercharged pedicled jejunum. Data regarding their perioperative course and postoperative function were gathered from the prospectively collected clinical data, review of hospital records, and patient interviews.
RESULTS - Total esophageal reconstruction with supercharged pedicled jejunum was attempted in 26 patients (age range, 37-74 years) between March 2000 and April 2004. Twenty-four of 26 patients were ultimately discharged with an intact supercharged pedicled jejunum flap, for an overall success rate of 92.3%. One patient experienced intraoperative flap loss caused by technical difficulties harvesting the flap and never had the flap interposed. One other flap loss occurred in the early postoperative period in a patient who had multisystem organ failure after a prolonged reconstruction. Cervical anastomotic leaks occurred in 19.2% (5/26) of the patients. Two midconduit leaks occurred that were suspicious for iatrogenic perforation from nasogastric tube placement; one required reoperation. One additional early reoperation was performed for cecal ischemia. There were no mortalities. Functional results were available in 95.4% (21/22) of the patients receiving supercharged pedicled jejunum who survived at least 6 months after reconstruction. At the time of follow-up, 95% (20/21) of the patients were tolerating regular diet, and 76.2% (16/21) did not require any supplemental alimentation. Ninety-five percent (20/21) of the patients were free from reflux symptoms, and 80.9% (17/21) had no dumping symptoms. Only 1 patient required dilation of a midconduit stricture. One patient required late reoperation for conduit redundancy.
CONCLUSIONS - Supercharged pedicled jejunum is a suitable alternative conduit for total esophageal replacement in patients with cancer with otherwise limited reconstructive options. Functional outcomes are excellent, despite the severity of disease and technical challenges in this patient population.