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Ischemic preconditioning is the phenomenon whereby brief periods of sublethal ischemia protect against a subsequent, more prolonged, ischemic insult. In remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), ischemia to one organ protects others organs at a distance. We created mouse models to ask if inhibition of the alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG)-dependent dioxygenase Egln1, which senses oxygen and regulates the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor, could suffice to mediate local and remote ischemic preconditioning. Using somatic gene deletion and a pharmacological inhibitor, we found that inhibiting Egln1 systemically or in skeletal muscles protects mice against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Parabiosis experiments confirmed that RIPC in this latter model was mediated by a secreted factor. Egln1 loss causes accumulation of circulating αKG, which drives hepatic production and secretion of kynurenic acid (KYNA) that is necessary and sufficient to mediate cardiac ischemic protection in this setting.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Global or local ischemia contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Currently there are no specific therapies to prevent AKI. Potentiation of glycolytic metabolism and attenuation of mitochondrial respiration may decrease cell injury and reduce reactive oxygen species generation from the mitochondria. Meclizine, an over-the-counter anti-nausea and -dizziness drug, was identified in a 'nutrient-sensitized' chemical screen. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg of meclizine, 17 h prior to ischemia protected mice from IRI. Serum creatinine levels at 24 h after IRI were 0.13 ± 0.06 mg/dl (sham, n = 3), 1.59 ± 0.10 mg/dl (vehicle, n = 8) and 0.89 ± 0.11 mg/dl (meclizine, n = 8). Kidney injury was significantly decreased in meclizine treated mice compared with vehicle group (p < 0.001). Protection was also seen when meclizine was administered 24 h prior to ischemia. Meclizine reduced inflammation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial fragmentation, and tubular injury. Meclizine preconditioned kidney tubular epithelial cells, exposed to blockade of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism with 2-deoxyglucose and NaCN, had reduced LDH and cytochrome c release. Meclizine upregulated glycolysis in glucose-containing media and reduced cellular ATP levels in galactose-containing media. Meclizine inhibited the Kennedy pathway and caused rapid accumulation of phosphoethanolamine. Phosphoethanolamine recapitulated meclizine-induced protection both in vitro and in vivo.
More effective therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) are needed to improve the high morbidity and mortality associated with this frequently encountered clinical condition. Ischemic and/or hypoxic preconditioning attenuates susceptibility to ischemic injury, which results from both oxygen and nutrient deprivation and accounts for most cases of AKI. While multiple signaling pathways have been implicated in renoprotection, this review will focus on oxygen-regulated cellular and molecular responses that enhance the kidney's tolerance to ischemia and promote renal repair. Central mediators of cellular adaptation to hypoxia are hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs play a crucial role in ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning through the reprogramming of cellular energy metabolism, and by coordinating adenosine and nitric oxide signaling with antiapoptotic, oxidative stress, and immune responses. The therapeutic potential of HIF activation for the treatment and prevention of ischemic injuries will be critically examined in this review.
OBJECTIVE - β(2)-adrenoreceptor activation has been shown to protect cardiac myocytes from cell death. We hypothesized that acute β(2)-adrenoreceptor stimulation, using arformoterol (ARF), would attenuate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (R) injury via NO synthase activation and cause a subsequent increase in NO bioavailability.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Male C57BL/6J and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) knockout mice were subjected to 45 minutes of myocardial ischemia and 24 hours of R. ARF or vehicle was administered 5 minutes before R. Serum troponin-I was measured, and infarct size per area-at-risk was evaluated at 24 hours of R. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and 2 weeks after R. Myocardial cAMP, protein kinase A, eNOS/Akt phosphorylation status, and NO metabolite levels were assayed. ARF (1 µg/kg) reduced infarct size per area-at-risk by 53.1% (P<0.001 versus vehicle) and significantly reduced troponin-I levels (P<0.001 versus vehicle). Ejection fraction was significantly preserved in ARF-treated hearts compared with vehicle hearts at 2 weeks of R. Serum cAMP and nuclear protein kinase A C-α increased 5 and 15 minutes after ARF injection, respectively (P<0.01). ARF increased Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308) (P<0.001) and Ser(473) (P<0.01), and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser(1177) (P<0.01). ARF treatment increased heart nitrosothiol levels (P<0.001) at 15 min after injection. ARF failed to reduce infarct size in eNOS(-/-) mice.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results indicate that β(2)-adrenoreceptor stimulation activates cAMP, protein kinase A, Akt, and eNOS and augments NO bioavailability. Activation of this prosurvival signaling pathway attenuates myocardial cell death and preserves cardiac function after ischemia/reperfusion.
Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in the U.S. and is now recognized as a global epidemic. There are currently no FDA-approved drugs to block the cell death that results from oxygen and glucose deprivation. This void in clinical medicine has sparked an intense interest in understanding endogenous cellular protective pathways that might be exploited for therapeutic development. The work highlighted here describes the critical role between redox tone and energetic stress signaling in mediating mitophagy and determining neuronal cell fate following acute oxygen glucose deprivation.
Ischemic preconditioning is a phenomenon in which low-level stressful stimuli upregulate endogenous defensive programs, resulting in subsequent resistance to otherwise lethal injuries. We previously observed that signal transduction systems typically associated with neurodegeneration such as caspase activation are requisite events for the expression of tolerance and induction of HSP70. In this work, we sought to determine the extent and duration of oxidative and energetic dysfunction as well as the role of effector kinases on metabolic function in preconditioned cells. Using an in vitro neuronal culture model, we observed a robust increase in Raf and p66(Shc) activation within 1 h of preconditioning. Total ATP content decreased by 25% 3 h after preconditioning but returned to baseline by 24 h. Use of a free radical spin trap or p66(shc) inhibitor increased ATP content whereas a Raf inhibitor had no effect. Phosphorylated p66(shc) rapidly relocalized to the mitochondria and in the absence of activated p66(shc), autophagic processing increased. The constitutively expressed chaperone HSC70 relocalized to autophagosomes. Preconditioned cells experience significant total oxidative stress measured by F(2)-isoprostanes and neuronal stress evaluated by F(4)-neuroprostane measurement. Neuroprostane levels were enhanced in the presence of Shc inhibitors. Finally, we found that inhibiting either p66(shc) or Raf blocked neuroprotection afforded by preconditioning as well as upregulation of HSP70, suggesting both kinases are critical for preconditioning but function in fundamentally different ways. This is the first work to demonstrate the essential role of p66(shc) in mediating requisite mitochondrial and energetic compensation after preconditioning and suggests a mechanism by which protein and organelle damage mediated by ROS can increase HSP70.
Advances in surgical techniques and perioperative management have led to dramatic improvements in outcomes for children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). As the number of survivors continues to grow, clinicians are becoming increasingly aware that adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after surgical repair of CHD represent a significant cause of morbidity, with widespread neuropsychologic deficits in as many as 50% of these children by the time they reach school age. Modifications of intraoperative management have yet to measurably impact long-term neurologic outcomes. However, exciting advances in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cellular injury and of the events that mediate endogenous cellular protection have provided a variety of new potential targets for the assessment, prevention, and treatment of neurologic injury in patients with CHD. In this review, we will discuss the unique challenges to developing neuroprotective strategies in children with CHD and consider how multisystem approaches to neuroprotection, such as ischemic preconditioning, will be the focus of ongoing efforts to develop new diagnostic tools and therapies. Although significant challenges remain, tremendous opportunity exists for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can serve to limit neurologic injury and ultimately improve outcomes for infants and children with CHD.
The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in many cellular processes through degradation of specific proteins. Low molecular mass polypeptide 2 (LMP-2 or beta(1i)) is one important subunit of the immunoproteasome. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) activates cell signaling pathways and generates cardioprotection but has not been linked to LMP-2 function previously. LMP-2 knockout mice (C57BL6 background) and wild-type C57BL6 mice were subjected to 30 min of ischemia (I-30) and 120 min of reperfusion (R-120) with or without preceding IPC (10 min of infusion and 5 min of reperfusion). IPC significantly increased left ventricular developed pressure and decreased infarct size in wild-type mice, but this protective effect of IPC was lost in LMP-2 knockout mice. IPC-mediated degradation of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and activation of the downstream protein kinase Akt were impaired in LMP-2 knockout hearts. The impairment of PTEN degradation was associated with defective immunoproteasomes and decreased proteolytic activities. When LMP-2 knockout mice were pretreated with the PTEN inhibitor bpV(HOpic), cardiac function was significantly improved, and myocardial infarct size was significantly reduced after I-30/R-120. In conclusion, LMP-2 is required for normal proteasomal function and IPC induction in the heart. Its action may be related to PTEN protein degradation.
PURPOSE - To determine whether the duration of ischemic tolerance in the retina could be extended by repetitive presentations of the preconditioning stimulus and to begin to elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of the resultant novel phenotype.
METHODS - Adult male Swiss-Webster ND4 mice were repeatedly preconditioned with systemic hypoxia (RHP) over 12 days; 4 weeks later, the mice were subjected to 30 minutes of unilateral retinal ischemia. Protection was quantified morphologically and functionally 1 week after ischemia by histologic analyses and scotopic electroretinography, respectively. Temporal expression patterns of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 were measured in response to RHP and after retinal ischemia by immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS - Morphologic and functional protection against ischemia-induced reductions in retinal layer thicknesses and layer cell counts, and a- and b-wave amplitudes, was documented for at least 4 weeks after RHP. There was no evidence of tissue injury or dysfunction by RHP alone. Temporally associated with this period of long-term tolerance (LTT) to retinal ischemia were sustained increases in retinal levels of HIF-1alpha and HO-1 protein lasting at least 1 and 4 weeks, respectively, after the last RHP stimulus.
CONCLUSIONS - A novel form of sustained retinal ischemic tolerance is described, wherein endogenous adaptive responses triggered by repeated hypoxia afford protection against injury many weeks after the preconditioning stimulus. HIF-1alpha-mediated, long-lasting increases in retinal HO-1 expression may contribute to the LTT phenotype. Further elucidation of the genetic and molecular basis of such adaptive plasticity could provide therapeutic targets for preventing and/or treating a variety of ischemic retinopathies.