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PURPOSE - Multiple choroidal melanomas arising in the same eye is a very rare entity, usually leading ophthalmologists to entertain other diagnoses. Historically, the only available treatment reported for this rare entity was enucleation. In this study we demonstrate in a series of patients with multiple simultaneous choroidal melanomas that eye salvage is possible using a variety of radiotherapy techniques.
OBSERVATIONS - Both patients presented with two simultaneous choroidal melanomas in one eye. The first patient was only 30 years old and presented with two largely amelanotic tumours with large exudative retinal detachment. Cytology from fine needle aspiration biopsies from both tumours with immunohistochemistry confirmed two separate melanomas. Sequential radioactive iodine plaque brachytherapy led to regression of both tumours. The second, older patient's two tumours both had the typical appearance of choroidal melanoma and he underwent proton beam irradiation to the entire field leading to tumour regression.
CONCLUSIONS - Multiple choroidal melanomas can rarely arise simultaneously in the same eye, and despite their variable appearance, a definitive diagnosis can be aided by cytology and immunohistochemistry in atypical-appearing cases. While all other previously reported cases have necessitated enucleation, we demonstrate that globe salvage is possible using either proton beam irradiation to the entire tumour field, or with sequential radioactive plaque brachytherapy.
© 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
UNLABELLED - In the US, there remains a need to develop a clinical method for imaging amyloid load in patients with systemic, visceral amyloidosis. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which exists as a transmembrane receptor and soluble variant, is found associated with a number of amyloid deposits in man. It is unclear whether amyloid-associated RAGE is the membrane or soluble form; however, given the affinity of RAGE for amyloid, we have examined the ability of soluble RAGE VC1 to specifically localize with systemic AA amyloid in mice. We further compared the reactivity of RAGE VC1 with that of the synthetic, amyloid-reactive peptide p5.
METHODS - Binding of radiolabeled RAGE VC1 and p5 to synthetic amyloid fibrils was evaluated using in vitro "pulldown" assays in the presence or absence of RAGE ligands. Radioiodinated RAGE VC1 and technetium-99 m-labeled p5 were studied in mice with systemic AA amyloidosis using dual-energy SPECT/CT imaging, biodistribution and microautoradiography.
RESULTS - Soluble RAGE VC1 competed with radioiodinated peptide p5 for binding to rVλ6Wil, Aβ (1-40) and IAPP fibrils but not with the higher affinity peptide, p5R. Pre-incubation with AGE-BSA abrogated binding of VC1 and p5 to rVλ6Wil fibrils. Dual-energy SPECT/CT images and quantitative tissue biodistribution data showed that soluble RAGE VC1 specifically bound AA amyloid-laden organs in mice as effectively as peptide p5. Furthermore, microautoradiography confirmed that RAGE VC1 bound specifically to areas of Congo red-positive amyloid in mouse tissues but not in comparable tissues from control WT mice.
CONCLUSION - Soluble RAGE VC1 and peptide p5 have similar ligand binding properties and specifically localize with visceral AA amyloid deposits in mice.
Most biomedical facilities that use rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) limit the amount of blood that may be collected for experimental purposes. These limits typically are expressed as a percentage of blood volume (BV), estimated by using a fixed ratio of blood (mL) per body weight (kg). BV estimation ratios vary widely among facilities and typically do not factor in variables known to influence BV in humans: sex, age, and body condition. We used indicator dilution methodology to determine the BV of 20 adult rhesus macaques (10 male, 10 female) that varied widely in body condition. We measured body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, weight, crown-to-rump length, and body condition score. Two indicators, FITC-labeled hydroxyethyl starch (FITC-HES) and radioiodinated rhesus serum albumin ((125)I-RhSA), were injected simultaneously, followed by serial blood collection. Plasma volume at time 0 was determined by linear regression. BV was calculated from the plasma volume and Hct. We found that BV calculated by using FITC-HES was consistently lower than BV calculated by using (125)I-RhSA. Sex and age did not significantly affect BV. Percentage body fat was significantly associated with BV. Subjects categorized as having 'optimal' body condition score had 18% body fat and 62.1 mL/kg BV (by FITC-HES; 74.5 mL/kg by (125)I-RhSA). Each 1% increase in body fat corresponded to approximately 1 mL/kg decrease in BV. Body condition score correlated with the body fat percentage (R(2) = 0.7469). We provide an equation for calculating BV from weight and body condition score.
OBJECTIVE - A novel PET radiotracer, (124)I-cG250, is currently under clinical investigation to distinguish clear cell renal cell carcinoma from other benign and malignant renal masses. In this article, we will make suggestions on the data needed to maximize the use of this radiotracer.
CONCLUSION - Although the published data are promising, further data are needed to assess the potential usefulness of this agent when dealing with indeterminate renal masses.
Insulin resistance is characterized by increased metabolic uptake of fatty acids. Accordingly, techniques to examine in vivo shifts in fatty acid metabolism are of value in both clinical and experimental settings. Partially metabolizable long chain fatty acid (LCFA) tracers have been recently developed and employed for this purpose: [9,10-3H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate ([3H]-BROMO) and [125I]-15-(rho-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid ([125I]-BMIPP). These analogues are taken up like native fatty acids, but once inside the cell do not directly enter beta-oxidation. Rather, they become trapped in the slower processes of omega and alpha-oxidation. Study aims were to (1) simultaneously assess and compare [3H]-BROMO and [125I]-BMIPP and (2) determine if tracer breakdown is affected by elevated metabolic demands. Catheters were implanted in a carotid artery and jugular vein of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following 5 days recovery, fasted animals (5 h) underwent a rest (n = 8) or exercise (n = 8) (0.6 mi/h) protocol. An instantaneous bolus containing both [3H]-BROMO and [125I]-BMIPP was administered to determine LCFA uptake. No significant difference between [125I]-BMIPP and [3H]-BROMO uptake was found in cardiac or skeletal muscle during rest or exercise. In liver, rates of uptake were more than doubled with [3H]-BROMO compared to [125I]-BMIPP. Analysis of tracer conversion by TLC demonstrated no difference at rest. Exercise resulted in greater metabolism and excretion of tracers with approximately 37% and approximately 53% of [125I]-BMIPP and [3H]-BROMO present in conversion products at 40 min. In conclusion, [3H]-BROMO and [125I]-BMIPP are indistinguishable for the determination of tissue kinetics at rest in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Exercise preferentially exacerbates the breakdown of [3H]-BROMO, making [125I]-BMIPP the analogue of choice for prolonged (>30 min) experimental protocols with elevated metabolic demands.
BACKGROUND - Gastrointesintal hemorrhage is often difficult to localize. A test that does not depend on active bleeding might prove clinically useful. We tested 2 novel fibrinogen (FBG)-based contrast agents for their ability to localize gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage after bleeding stopped. 125I-FBG permits gamma ray-based preoperative or intraoperative scanning, and near-infrared (NIR) flourescent FBG (FBG800) permits real-time intraoperative visualization of active clot.
METHODS - Bovine FBG was radiolabeled with 125I or conjugated to the NIR fluorophore CW800. Sites of bleeding were created by gastrotomy, mucosal resection of the stomach, or laceration of a mesenteric vessel; then 1.7 mg/kg FBG800 or 15 microCi/kg 125I-FBG was injected intravenously into mice, rabbits, or pigs 30 minutes before or after injury. Sites of active clot were quantified by using gamma counting and were also imaged by using invisible NIR light intraoperatively, for up to 3 hours postinjection.
RESULTS - After an injection of either 125I-FBG or FBG800, sites of prior bleeding could be identified in the absence of active bleeding. Blood clearance was such that a signal-to-background ratio of 2.0 or greater could be achieved within 20 minutes after injection. A similarly labeled human serum albumin did not accumulate at any site, with an SBR of 1.0 or less.
CONCLUSIONS - Both radiolabeled (preoperative gamma scanning) and NIR fluorescent (intraoperative real-time imaging) FBG can be used in experimental situations to identify the location of prior bleeding in the absence of active bleeding. Taken together, these contrast agents create a system for the identification and control of obscure GI bleeding.
PURPOSE - The purpose of the present report is to describe the relationship between two dosimetric quantifiers (V(100) and D(90)) and freedom from biochemical recurrence (FFBR) in a cohort of men treated with low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDRPB) alone.
METHODS AND MATERIALS - One hundred three men were treated with LDRPB alone between September 1997 and December 1999. All men had histologically confirmed clinically localized prostate cancer. Fifty-nine percent of the cohort had low-risk disease (defined as PSA<10, Gleason <7, and T stage
/=10, Gleason>/=7, or T stage T2b). The prescription dose was 144Gy according to the Task Group 43 formalism. LDRPB was performed jointly by a radiation oncologist and a urologist. Dosimetric quantifiers (D(90), V(100)) were calculated from a CT scan performed 1 month after LDRPB. Biochemical recurrence was defined according to the ASTRO Consensus Definition. FFBR was estimated using the product-limit method. Disease-specific and treatment variables were examined as putative covariates for FFBR using the proportional hazards regression method. Univariate and multivariate methods were used. All p values are two sided.
RESULTS - The median followup for the entire cohort is 61 months. The median followup of patients at risk for biochemical failure is 66 months. The median D(90) is 129Gy (range 47-221Gy), and the median V(100) is 86% (range 51-99%). Thirteen men have developed evidence of biochemical relapse at a median of 25 months (range 6-42 months). The 5-year estimate of FFBR for the entire cohort is 87% (95% CI 80-94%). On univariate analysis, disease-specific variables found to be significantly associated with FFBR included pretreatment PSA and percent positive biopsies. When considered as a continuous variable, each of the dosimetric quantifiers was associated with FFBR (V(100): p=0.007; D(90): p=0.05). D'Amico risk group classification is highly predictive of FFBR after LDRPB (HR 5.68, p=0.003). Multivariate analysis indicated that each dosimetric quantifier was independently associated with FFBR, but due to the high degree of correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.94, p<0.0001) between the dosimetric quantifiers both could not be included simultaneously in the model. In the two models explored, V(100) was at least as good as D(90) in predicting FFBR.
CONCLUSIONS - Dosimetric quantifiers (V(100) and D(90)) are independent predictors of FFBR after treatment with LDRPB alone. In our experience, V(100) seems to be at least equivalent (and perhaps superior) to D(90) for predicting FFBR.
In renal clinical trials, both slope-based and time-to-event renal outcomes have been used. These outcomes are typically based on estimates of GFR obtained using creatinine or iothalamate GFR (iGFR). The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) was a trial in 1094 African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis, which examined the effects of two levels of BP control and three antihypertensive regimens. This study compared the effects of the AASK interventions on outcomes based on serum creatinine with corresponding outcomes based on iGFR using 9742 matched pairs of iGFR and serum creatinine measurements. The iGFR-based outcomes included (1) a time-to-event composite outcome including a 50% GFR decline, ESRD, or death; (2) a composite outcome including a 50% GFR decline or ESRD; (3) mean decline in GFR in the first 3 mo after randomization (acute slope); (4) mean decline in GFR starting 3 mo after randomization (chronic slope); and (5) mean decline in GFR from baseline (total slope). The corresponding creatinine-based outcomes were (1) a composite of doubling of serum creatinine, ESRD, or death and (2) a composite of doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD and acute, chronic, and total slopes defined by the mean change in estimated GFR (eGFR), where eGFR was estimated from a regression equation for GFR depending primarily on serum creatinine and developed in AASK enrollees. Mean changes in iGFR and eGFR were also compared under extended models that allowed for the possibility that the rate of GFR decline may change over time during the chronic phase. an apparent acceleration in rate of decline of renal function over time was found. Subtle differences were observed between effects of the interventions on some of the creatinine and iGFR slope-based outcomes, but the main conclusions of the trial were similar for the serum creatinine and iothalamate-based measurements. This has important implications for the design of clinical trials with renal outcomes.
The objective of this study was to target drug delivery to radiation-induced neoantigens, which include activated receptors within the tumor vasculature. These responses include posttranslational changes in pre-existing proteins, which can be discovered by phage-displayed peptide libraries administered to mice bearing irradiated tumors. Phage-displayed peptides recovered from irradiated tumors included the amino acid sequence RGDGSSV. This peptide binds to integrins within the tumor microvasculature. Immunohistochemical staining of irradiated tumors showed accumulation of fibrinogen receptor alpha(2b)beta(3) integrin. We studied tumor targeting efficiency of ligands to radiation-induced alpha(2b)beta(3). Radiopharmaceuticals were localized to irradiated tumors by use of alpha(2b)beta(3) ligands conjugated to nanoparticles and liposomes. Fibrinogen-conjugated nanoparticles bind to the radiation-activated receptor, obliterate tumor blood flow, and significantly increase regression and growth delay in irradiated tumors. Radiation-guided drug delivery to tumor blood vessels is a novel paradigm for targeted drug delivery.